Skip to main content

Full text of "The Annual Biography and Obituary"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



THE 



ANNUAL 



BIOGRAPHY AND OBITUARY, 



FOR THE YEAR 



1818. 



VOL. II. 



m.B 



i ONDON: 

^i.«w^^ R£ES, ORM£, AND lAOWN, 

«818. 



THE 



ANNUAL 






BIOGRAPHY AND OBITUARY, 



FOR THE YEAR 



1818. 



VOL. 11. 



» * • " - 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, OfVME, AND BROWN, 

PATERNOSTER'BOW. 

1818. 



* . 



Printed by A. Strahan, 
Mtw-Street-Squaief LoDdotii 






PREFACE. 



1 HE Second Volume of the Annual Biography and 
Obituaby is now presented to the Public. It con- 
tains an account of many of the celebrated men who 
died in the course of the year 181 7 ; and also includes 
three memoirs of distinguished characters, who were 
cut off but a few months antecedent to that period. 

On this, as on a former occasion, recourse has been 
had to assistance of various kinds ; and it will pro- 
bably be allowed, by such as are disposed to liberality 
and candour, that much curious and interesting in« 
formation has been procured. It may be easily dis- 
covered on inspection, indeed, that many important 
papers have been obtained ; and it ought to be known, 
also, that while some families have vouchsafed to 
contribute original documents, others have kindly 
corrected such as were sent for their perusal. 

a S 



IV PREFACE. 

On the life of Sir Herbert Croft, much research has 
been bestowed ; and a variety of facts relative to the 
late Dukes of Northumberland and Marlborough are 
here detailed, not hitherto known to the Public. 

The memoir of the founder of the Literary 
Fund, comprehends an analysis of his works ; while 
that of the late Dr. William Thomson was in part 
compiled from materials which he himself had fur- 
nished, and in part from repeated communications 
with his early contemporaries. The latter will be 
found to contain anecdotes of several of his friends ; 
and, indeed, it is connected with the literary history of 
England during the last thirty-five years. The article 
respecting the Right Hon. John P. Curran, is from the 
pen of a gentleman to whom he was well known ; 
while tliat of the Hon. Henry Erskine exhibits a spe- 
cimen of his early poetry, which is now printed, for 
the first time, from a copy transcribed by his own 
hand. 

Nor ought it to be omitted, that on most occasions 
an analysis will be found of the chief works of many 
of the literary men here noticed ; together with oc- 
casional quotations of the most splendid passages in 
their respective productions. 

The " Neglected Biography,*' exhibits two or 
three specimens that may not prove wholly uninter- 
esting. One of the memoirs contains all the Latin 
poetry, as well as the few anecdotes that could be 
still obtained, relative to a singular youth,- who, like 
the Roman MarcelluSr aop^^ar^H qbr-^p *hf ^on^on 



PREFACE. 



only for a moment ; and then suddenly disappearing, 
like his own countryman Crichton, left scarcely a 
trace behind. 

Neither in this, nor the preceding volume, is it 
meant to urge any pretensions beyond the humble 
claims of industry and impartiality. It is earnestly 
hoped, therefore, that but few errors will occur ; and 
no particular bias be discovered, either in respect to 
politics or religion. 



A 3 



CONTENTS. 



PABT I. - 

MEMOIRS OF CELEBRATED MEN WHO HAVE DIED IN 

1816 — I8I7. 



Page 

1. Rev. Sir Herbert Croft, Bart. B.C.L. - - 1 

2. David WiUiams, Esq. - - - - - 16 

3. Rev. Dr. John Disney, KR. S. - - - . - 49 

4. Dr. William Thomson ----- 74 

5. Duke (f Northumberland - - - - - 118 

6. Duke of Marlborough ----- 128 
7- Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth - - 136 
8* Right Hon. John Philpot Curran - - - 151 
9. James Glenie, Esq. F.R.S. - - - - 184 

10. Right Hon, George Ponsonby - - - . 204 

11. Eyles Irwin, Esq. --•-.- 221' 

12. Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales 237 

13. Francis Horner^ ^sq. Barrister, Advocate, andM. P. 252 

14. Hon. Henry Erskine - - - - . 275 
\ 5. Earl of Rothes *- 294 

16. Dr. Charles Combe, F. R. S. - - - - 298 

17. Sir Alex. Thompson, Ex-Chief Baron of the Exchequer 306 

18. Dr. William Saunders, F.R.S. -. - - - 308 

19. Count Zenobio - - - - - - 309 

▲ 4 



Vii! CONTENTS. 

Page 

20. Jlight Hon. Sir John M'Mahon, Bart. - - *12 
2\. Benjamin Trovers, Esq. - - - - -318 

22. John Paddey, Esq. ------ 320 

23. Earl of Guilford 321 

24. 7)tov/^',t Maic/iiom-ss ofSli^ _ _ _ - 325 

25. Earl of nosnmmon 327 

26. Samuel Budge, Esg. 328 

27. Arthur Charles Murphg, Esq. - - - - 330 

28. Joseph George Hblntan, Esq. - - - - 332 

29. James Grant Baymond, Esq. _ - - - 335 

80. Sir John Ftdmer, Bart. 341 

81. Lord Arundel of Wardour - - " - - 343 
32. Lieut. Col. MeUisk - - - - .- 346 
83. Christopher Potirr, Esq. 352 

34. Sir Joseph Maicbei/, Bart. . _ . - 355 

35. Bev. IVilUam Beloc 356 

36. Countess qf Athn maric ----- 357 

87. Thomas Coram, Esq. 359 

38. Sir William fVolsel^, Bart. . - - - - 361 

89. Beo. WiUidm HarAury - - - - - 363 

40. Thotnas Sheridan, Esq. - - - - - 365 

41. Bev. Sir Adam Gordon, Bart. . . - - 368 

42. St. Artdrcv} Lord St. John, ofBletsoe - - - 372 

43. Alderman Jouah Bm/dell ----- 37S 

44. Sir WiUiam Innes, of Balvenie, Bart. - - - 376 

45. Bichard Lovell Edgeworth, Esq, - - - - 377 

46. Bev. Bobert Tyraihitt 378 

47. Bev. Thomas Cobb 380 

48. Thomas March PhiUips, Esq. - ~ - - 382 

49. JwU^i'-A<h-«n>lr Beta :..--- 384 

50. Henrietta Shades, spinster ----- 385 

51. Viscountess Nevxamcn ----- 386 

52. Mr. Simon Solomon ------ 387 

83. Sir mUiam Pierce AsAe jf Court, Barf. - - 390 

64. CounUss Dowageri^ Uxbridge - - - - 392 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

55. Dy. Monro, of Edinburgh ----- 393 

56. William Rtissel, Esq. 395 

57. Rev. John Lyon, of Dover . - - _ 397 

5S. Earl of EglirUoun 40O 

5!». Chief Justice Hogan 402 

60. Viscount Gort ------- 403 



NEGLECTED BIOGRAPHY. 

1. Sir James Macdonald, Bart. - - - - ■]05 

2. The Very Rev. William Vincent, D.D. - - - 41 1 

3. T. B. Howell, Esq. 413 

4. Dr. Charles Bumey ------ 416 



ANALYSIS OF RECENT BIOGRAPHICAL WORKS. 

, Memoirs of the private andpvbUe Life <f William Perm. 

By Thomas Clarkstm, M. A. - - - - 417 

, Of the Life and Writings of BeTtj. Franklin, 

LL.D. F.R.S. and Minister Plenipotentiary Jrom 
the United Slates of America, at the Court of France, 
•written by himself to a late period, and continued- to 
the time of his death, by W. Temple Franklin - 421 
- o/" Mawhee, a young New ZeaUtnder, who 



died atPaddington ; hf the Rev. Basil Woodd, M. A. 
of RichArd Watson, Bishop of Ltmdaffi 

•mitten by himself ------ 

of the Right Hon. Jc^n PhUpot Cur. bn, by 



W. Of Regan Esq. 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. Memoirs of The RigM Hon. JR. B. Sheridan ; by John 

fVatkimj LL, D. 2 vols. - - - - - 445 

7. ■ Right Hifn^ J. P. Cunran - . - 448 

PART IV. 

A general Biographical List of Persons who have died 

inlSie 449 



•K 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



igb,| 



if. Herbert Croft, Bart. B.C.L 
Williamt, Esq. ... 
ohn Diiney, D.D. F.S.A. 

ThomKin, LL-t) 
Dake and Earl of Northumberlan. 
t Spencer, Duke of Marlbi 

:.L. F.R.S. 

il Sir Joha Thomas Duckworth. 

•B. S 

Honourable John Philpot Curran 
Glenie, Eiq. M.A. F.R.S. of LonO 
and Edinburgh - . .J 

Honourable George Ponoonby 
^rwin, Esq. . . . . 

oyal Highoeis The Princew Char.l 
ofWalet . - . . f 

I Homer, Esq. M. P. - . . 
rable Henry Erskine . . . 



[OGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Evelyn L.ealie, Earl of Rothes 
1 Combe, M.D. F.R.S. and A.S. - 
Baron Sir Alexander Thoraaon 
n SaundorB, M.D. F.R.S. and F.SJi. 
Akist P Zenobio 

Honourable Sir John M'Mahon, Bart, 
lin Travers, Esq. - . . 

addey, Eeq. - . . - 

1 North, Earl of Guilford 

Catharine, Dowager MarcMooeu) 

ligo J 

t, Earl of RoKommon 

1 Rutle«, Esq. 

r Charles Murphy, E(q> 

George Holinan, Eiq. 
Grant Raymond, Efq. 
Palmer. Bart. 



p^. 


Born. 


iy,ti. 


I 


'75' 


i8t(> 


]6 


'73' 


1816 


49 


,,46 


181S 


74 


1,46 


18,7 


ii8 


'742 


1817 


' laS 


■73« 


1817 


■36 


'74J 


.817 


•$• 


1750 


.8,7 


.8+ 


'750 


1817 


J04 


:?J| 


1817 




i8„ 


>37 


1796 


.817 


'S> 


1778 


1817 


'IS 


174« 


.817 


"94 


'768 


'8.7 


.98 


'743 


'817 


306 


'745 


18,7 


308 


'743 


18.7 


309 


'757 


■ 817 


3'; 


'754 


18,7 


3'8 


1751 


.8'7 


320 


■738 


18.7 


3*1 


'76f 


.8,^ 


3"S 


1,67 


.8.7 


III 


'76, 


1817 


1727 


1817 


330 


'755 


i8'7 


31' 


.764 


,8,7 


SIS 


1769 


■ 817 


34" 


'73! 


181, 



CMKONOLOGtCAL TABLE. 



Jameo Edward, Lord Arundel of Wardour 

LieutcnBut-ColonelMellisb, Equerry (ohisl 
R.H. the Prince Regent - • i 

Chriatopher Putter, Esq., Ex-M.P. for \ 

: Colchester J 

Sir Joseph Mawbt-y, Bart. 

Rev. William Btloe, B.D. S.A. Preben- \ 
dary of St. Paiicrai, &c. - - / 

(A Memoir i>i this GentlennaD in our Dext 
Volume) . - - - - 

Elizabeth Counleesof Albermarlc 

— omasCcrara.Esq. . , - - 

Wilham Wjl5eley, Bart. - 

r.cv. WilUam Hanbury, B.A. 

Thomaa Sheridan, Esq. - - - - 

Rev. Sir Adam Gordon, M.A. Prebend- 
ary of Briftol - - - - 

Andrew Lord St, John, of Blet8oe,D.C.L. 

Josiah Boydell, Esq. Ex- Alderman of Lon- 
don, ice. ------ 

Sir William InneB, of Balvcnie, Bart. - - 

Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Esq. - - 
N B A Memoir of this geatleman m 
our next volume. 

Rev. Robert Tytwhitt, Late FeUow of! 
Jeaus-CoUeg.?, Cambridge - "J 

Rev. Thomas Cobb, M. A. Prebendary 1 
of Chichefter - - - " 3 

Thomas March Phillips, Esq. 

Ellis Bttrt, Eaq. Judge. Advocate 
Sokilh Wales - 
liss Henrietta Rhodes, a Poetess, 
writer, &c. . - - 

Charlotte Viscounlesf Newcomen 

Mr, Simon Solomon, a humane and worthy! 

Sir William Pierce-Ashe A'Court, Bart. 1 
UteM.P. - -■.","■> 

Jane, Countess Dowager at Uxb^ge 

Alewnder Monro, H.D. and F.R.S. 

WiUiim Russel, Esq. • - - " ■ 

Rev. John Lyon, B.A. F-L.S. and SJV. - 

Hueh, Earlof Eglintoun, K.T. 

R. 5. Hogan, Esq., D-C.L. Ch'^f '-='■':« 1 
of Sierra-Leone - - t 

John Ptendergast, Vise " *" -.' 



e of New 1 
ss. Novel- X 



F^,^ 


Bnm. 


Dial. 


343 


.7«3 


.8.7 


346 


1777 


18.7 


'35= 


1748 


.817 


35S 


1763 


.8,7 


351s 


1756 


.817 


1S7 
359 

3«3 
3«S 


1776 
1740 
174a 

1780 


.8.7 

'!" 
.8.7 
18,7 
.8.7 


368 


■745 


18.7 


37! 


■759 


1817 


375 


— 


.817 


3,6 

377 


17.8 
■743 


1817 
.iij 


378 


_ 


1817 


380 


•773 


1817 


38. 


■ 746 


.8,7 


384 


1784 


.8., 


385 


,756 


1817 


S86 


1755 


.8., 


387 


■748 


.8,, 


390 


■747 


■ 8ij 


39' 
393 
395 
397 
400 


■74a 
1753 
'734 
1734 
.748 


1 

1817 


40! 


■774 


.8,7 


jr.. 


■74^ 


■ 8.7 



CHRONOLOGICAJL TABLE. 



XIU 



NEGLECTED BIOGRAPHY, 
IVtth Original Letters t Papers y tfc. 

Sir James Macdon^dd, Bart, of Slate in 7 
the Isle of Sky - - - - J 

The Very Rev. William Vincent, D.D. ) 
late Dean of Westminster - - 3 

( His Epitaph, with an Original Letter. ) 

T. B. H©well, Esq., Editor of the State \ 
Trials, iffc- (with an Original Letter, to I 
Francis Hargrave, K.C and Recorder t 
of Liverpool) - - - - - J 

Charles Burney, LL.D. 

Biographical Index of deaths, for 181 7 



Page. 



405 
411 



413 



595 



Bunt. Died. 



1 741 
1739 



1766 



1766 
1815 



1817 



ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 



Page 

A*COURT, Sir WiUiam Pierce Ashe, Bart. - - 390 

Albemarle, Countess of ----- 357 

Beloe, Rev. WiUiam, B. D. - ^ - - * - 8.56 

Bent, Ellis, Esq., Judge Advocate - - . S84 

Bletsoe, Andrew, Lord St. John, of - - - 872 

Boydell, Josiah, Esq. - - - - - - 375 

Burney, Rev. Charles, LL.D. - - - . 416 

Cobb, Rev, Thomas, M. A. - - - - - 380 

Combe, Dr. Charles, F. R. S. - - - - 298 

Coram, Thomas, Esq. - . - - - 359 ' 

Croft, Rev. Sir Herbert, Bart - . - . I 

Curran, Rt. Hon. John Philpot - - - - 151 

Disney, Rev. Dr. John - - ^ - - 4.9 

Duckworth, Admiral Sir John Tliomas - - - 136 

Eglintoun, Hugh, Earl of - - - - - 400 

Edgeworth, Richard Lovcll, Esq. - - - - 377 

Erskine, Hon. Henry ------ 275 

Glenie, James, Esq. F. R.S. - - - - 184? 

Gordon, Rev. Sir Adam, Bart., Prebendary of Bristol 368 

Gort, Viscount ------- 4.03 

Guilford, Francis North, Earl of - - - • 321 

Hanbury, Rev. Wm. - - - - - - 363 

Hogan, R. G., Esq. - - - - - - 402 

Holman, Joseph George, Esq. - - - - 352 

Homer, Francis, Esq., MP. - - - - 252. 

Howell, T.B., Esq. 413 

Innes, Sir William, of Balvemie, Bart. - - - 374 

Irwin, Eyles, Esq. -•-.-•- 221 
Lyon, Rev. John - . - - - - 



XVI ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 

Page 

Macdonald, Sir James, of Slate, Bart. - - - 405 

M^ahon, Rt. Hon. Sir John - - - - 312 

Marlborough, Duke of - - - « . 128 

Mawbey, Sir Joseph, Bart. - - . - - 355 

Mellish, Colonel -----«- 34-6 

Monro, Alexander, M. D., and F. R. S. - - - 393 

Murphy, Arthur Charles, Esq. - - - - 330 

Newcomen, Viscountess ----- SSS 

Northumberland, Duke of - - - - - lis 

Paddey, John, Esq. ----.- 320 

Palmer, Sir John, Bart. - - - - - 341 

Phillips, Thomas March, Esq. - - - - 382 

Ponsonby, Rt. Hon. George ----- 204 

Potter, Christopher, Esq. - - - » . 352 

Raymond, James Grant, Esq. - - . . 335 

Rhodes, Miss Henrietta ----- 335 

Roscommon, Patrick, Earl of - • . , 327 

Rothes, William Evelyn Leslie, Earl of - - 294 

Rudge, Samuel, Esq. - - - - - «. 328 

Russel, William, Esq. ------ 395 

Saunders, Dr. William - - - - . 303 

Sheridan, Rt. Hon. R. B. - - - - - 415 

Sheridan, Thomas, Esq. - - - - - 355 

Sligo, Dowager Marchioness of - - - - 325 

Solomon, Mr. Simon - - - - - - 337 

Thomson, Dr. William ----- 74 

Thomson, Chief Baron, Sir Alexander - - - 306 

Travers, Benjamin, Esq. - - - - - 318 

l^rwhitt. Rev. Robert - - - - - 378 

Uxbridge, Jane Countess Dowager of - - - 392 

Wales, Her Royal Highness Princess Charlotte of 237 

Wardour, James Lord Arundel of - - . 343 

Williams, David, Esq., Founder of the Literary Fund ] 6 

Wolseley, Sir William, Bart. - - - - 361 

Vincent, the Very Rev. William, late Dean of Westminster 411 

Zenobio, Count Alvise P. - - - - - 309 



THE 



ANNUAL 



BIOGRAPHY AND OBITUARY, 



OF 

1817. 



PART L 



MEMOIRS OF CELEBRATED MEN, WHO HAVE 
DIED WITHIN THE YEARS 1816^1817. 



No. I. 
The Rev. Sir HERBERT CROFT, Babt. B.aL. 

OF DUNST£& PARK> IN THB COUNTV OP BERKS. 

[^Witk an Account of his Works.'} 

X O record the events that occur in the life of a man of letters, 
is, in general, but todetailhis embarrassments, his mortifications, 
and his misfortunes. This is truly lamentable, more especially, 
when, as on the present occasion, the biography of one highly 
. gifted with powers of a superior order, excites our attention • 
when a poet^ a philologist, and an antiquary demands a^ once 
our respect, and our commiseraticm. Nor is it calculated to 
diminish general c^gitrd, when we recollect, that the gentle- 
man now under consideration, to rqputRble birth and unlm* 
peachable character, superadded the claims of aii aooc»npli3hed 
adiolar, and an orthodox divine. 

VOL. ir. . B 



S SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 

Sir Herbert Croft was the head and representative of a very 
ancient and respectable fiunily, which, in all probability, de^ 
rived its name from Crcft'-Casile, in the county of Hereford ; 
where it appears to have been seated anterior to the Norman 
Conquest. That his progenitors were great Saxon Chiefs long 
before, and powerful Barons for some ages after that memora- 
ble period, there can be but little doubt, without recurring to 
more remote periods. We have it on record, indeed, that Sir 
Richard Croft, of Croft-Castle, was a man of eminence in the 
reign of Edward IV. He took Prince Edward, eldest son of 
Edward VI. prisoner, at the battle of Tewkesbury ; and being 
justly apprehensive of his fate, such was his scrupulous honour 
and delicacy, that he would not deliver him up, until after pro- 
clamation, and promise of safety for his person had been pub- 
licly made and granted. 

We find a Sir Herbert Croft sitting in that parliament of 
James I. which was assembled in 1604. An act of brutal vio- 
lence committed against his person, produced a new and spirited 
decision on a question of privilege, as will appear from the 
following quotation from Macaula/s History of England, voL i. 
p. 18. 

<* The Commons had nobly asserted their privileges in 
several instances. The delivery of Sir Thomas Shirley, one 
of their members, who had been committed to the Fleet, was 
demanded and obtained, and the Warden punished for con- 
tempt of the House, in refusing to release his prisoner. 

** Sir Herbert Crofts, (Croft,) another of their members, 
oomiHg up with others to hear the Ring's speech, was insulted 
by a Yeoman of the Guards, who shut the door agunst him, 
^ying, ^ good man, burgess, you come not here ^' Hie Com- 
mons resented the insult as an affront upon the whole House; 
and their anger was with much difficulty ap{)eased by the Yeo- 
man asking pardon for liis fault, and receiving on his knees a 
reprimand from the Speaker." 

In still more modern times, we learn that a Herbert Croft, 
bom at Oxford in 160S, was nominated soon after the R^ 
storation, to the see of Hereford. His father, a zealous Ca- 

9 



SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 3 

tholicy had sent him for education to the English G>licge of 
Jesuits at St Omer's, in Flanders ; but on his return he be- 
came acquainted with Dr, Morton, Bishop of Duriiam, who 
converted him to the Protestant faith. Soon after this he was 
admitted a student of Christ Church, Oxford, and enterii^ 
into holy orders in ] 689, was prefenred to a prebendal stall 
in the cathedral of Salisbury. In 1644 he was advanced to 
the deanery of Hereford ; and taking part with the King 
(Charles I.) against the Parliament, experienced many hard- 
ships on account of his loyalty. On the return of the son 
(Charles II.) he was fortunate enough to be rewarded for his 
attachment to the fiither with the see of Hereford; -but not- 
^withstanding his zeal and sufferings in the royal cause^ hit 
Lordship, instead of becoming a persecutor in his turn, ap- 
pears to have imbibed noble and liberal sentiments in the 
school of affliction ; he being the author of a tract printed 
in 1675, entitied << Naked Truth ;" the otject of which was to 
obtain toleration for the Dissenters. He died at Heieford, 
in tfel, and was buried in the cathedral. 

His only son Herbert appears to have been created a Ba^ 
^net during his fiither's life-time, having obtained a putent 
in 1671. He represented his native county in several par* 
liam^its, as Knight of the Shire, and married the daughter of 
Thomas Archer, Esq., by whom he had several children. 

He was succeeded on his death by Sir Archer, his only sur- 
viving son, who sat during several pariiaments for the boroughs 
of Leominster and Beeralston ; and who was nominated a com- 
missioner of trade and plantations. He married Frances, 
daughtar of Brigadier-General Waring. 

On his demise, in 1758, he was sucp^ed by his grandson 
Sir Archer, who, in 1759, married a daughter of William 
Cowper, Esq. one of the Clerks of the House of Lords, and 
most likely a descendant of Lord Chancellor Cowper, by whom 
he had an only daughter. 

Without entering into further details, it is only necessary to 
observe, that Mr. Herbert Croft, the father of the sulgect of this 
memoir, does not appeiur to have been much indebted to the gifts 

B 2 



4> SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 

of fortune. The third Baronet, indeed, had cut off the entail of 
the finnily estate, and sold Croft Castle to the fiither of the 
late Thomas Johnes ^, Esq. of Llanvinr in Cardiganshire ; and 
bong but a younger branch, he was, of course, very slenderly 
provided for. He, however, obtained the office of Treasurer 
of the Charter House, which enabled him to maintain and 
educate his family with a considerable degree of respectability. 

His son, Herbert, of whom we are now prepared to treat, 
and grandson of Sir Archer Croft, of Dunster Park, in the 
county of Berks (the second Baronet of this &mily}, was bom 
Nov. 1, 1751. Being inteQded for a liberal profession, he re- 
ceived a regular education, first at school, and next at Univer- 
sity College, Oxford ; and as his studies pointed to the Bar, he 
obtained the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, on April 6, 1 785, 
by which he considerably abridged the term of his attendance 
on the Courts. 

Mr. Croft, previously to this last event, had ehtered himself 
a student of Lincoln's-Inn, and for some time resided in cham- 
bers there. That his mind was nt this time seriously beilt on 
the legal profession, will appear firom a pamphlet publiehed 
in 1 782, containing an account of a plan laid down by him for 
a new edition of the Statutes at large. 

At length, however, from what motive it is difficult to 
pronounce, Mr. Herbert Croft bent his views towards the 
Church. On this occasion, he was fortunate enough to ob- 
tain the office of chaplain to the Garrison of Quebec. In 
this new profession, however, he does not appear to have 
succeeded. Some of his progenitors had aajoyed deaneries, 
prebendal stalls, and a rich bishoprick; but the estates in 
Herefordshire and Berkshire were gone; and- no political 
or parliamentary interest was attached to his family. He 
«eenis also so unfortunate a^ to have been destitute even of 
a patron, although he publicly professed a lasting and mi- 
bounded attachment to an accomplished Dignitary of the An^ 
gUcan Church, who might have easily rendered him comfortable 
for life. 

* See vol. i. of Aim. Blog. p. 504> 



SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 5 

It is well known that Mr. Croft entertained a high respect 
for that celebrated Prelate, the late Dr. Hurd, who after duly 
discharging his ep&scopal functions for almost twenty-seven 
years, and refusing the primacy, expired in his sle^ May 28, 
1 808, in the 89th year of his age. The following epitaph, com* 
posed long before that period lias been unifosrmly attributed ta 
the pen of the subject of these memoirs : 

<^ PASSENGER ! 
THE URN YOU HAVE VISITED CONTAINS THE HEART 

OF Richard Hurd, Bishop of Worcester : 

A PRELATE distinguished BY EVERY VIRTUE, 

• AND ■ 
IMMORTALIZED BY EVERY QUALIFICATION, 

THAT 

COULD ADORN THE CHRISTIAN, 

THE GENTLEMAN, AND THE SCHOLAR. 

THE ROYAL PUPILS*, WHOSE CONFIDENCE 

HE 

GAINSD BY THE ELEGANCE OF HIS MANNERS, 

AND THE SINCERITY OF HIS COUNSELS, 

KNEW, AND ADMIRED THE WORTH, AND 

INTEGRITY OF THEIR PRECEPTOR. 

THEY CHERISHED THE MAN WHO HAD TAUGHT THEM 

THE IMPORTANT LESSON HOW TO BE BELOVED, 

WHILE THE ARROW OF DEATH FORBORE TO 

VINDICATE ITS ERRAND, AND DIRECTED 

THIS 
TRIBUTE TO HIS MEMORY, WHEN ROBBED 
OF THE FELICITY OF CONTEMPLATING 
HIS LIVING PERFECTIONS." 

Mr. Croft being disappointed in his expectations of clerical 
preferment, now addicted himself wholly to literature. His 
pursuits naturally led him to form an acquaintance with those 
who pursued the same track with himself; and he was lucky 
enough to reckon many celebrated and respectable characters 
among die number of his friends. 

• The Prinot:R«gent atid Poke of York. ' 
B S 



6 SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 

At a period when the name of Dn Samnd Johnson had 
attained high and universal mme^ he deemed it his peculiar 
good fortune to be one of those who lived in familiar and 
unreserved intimacy with the great lexicographer. While 
the former was employed on the lives of the poets, he expe- 
rienced great difficulties in respect to materials, particularly in 
r^ard to Young, a name of considerable note both at home 
and abroad. To conciliate the Editor, his friend, on this.oo- 
casion, appears to have exerted himself with considerable efiect ; 
and firom Mrs. Montague and others, learned a number of par- 
ticulars, which, but for his labours and communications, might 
have been for ever forgotten. He also appears to have been 
personally acquainted with the son of the author of the '^ Night 
Thoughts ;" a circumstance which doubtless enabled him to 
refute a variety of errors, prejudices, and misconceptions con* 
ceming that much-injured gentleman. To acquire a more in- 
timate acquaintance with the private life of the author, he 
actually took a journey into H^tfordshire, to interrogate the 
Poet's housekeeper in person, but he arrived too late, for she 
had been buried two or three days ! 

It is the general fault of biographei-s to bring forward all 
the virtues and talents of those whose lives they write, and at 
the same time keep all their foibles and vices in the back 
ground ; but Mr. Croft did not, on this occasion, feel any ne- 
cessity to follow the beaten track. His friend, Dr. Johnson, 
not only allows that his information was of a superior kind, 
but adds, ^^ the PubUc will perhaps wish that I had solicited 
and obtained more such favours from him." The vehicle, 
nowever, is not perhaps of the best kind ; for this biographical 
sketch is conveyed under the form of an epistolary correspond 
dence, that disfigures the uniformity of the work of which it 
is destined to constitute a part. This letter, dated September 
1780, commences thus : 

« Dear Sir, 
** In consequence of our different conversations about au- 
thentic materials for the life of Young, I send you the follow* 



SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 7 

r 

ing detaiL Of great men something must always be said to 
gratify curiosity. Of the illustrious author of the * Ni/g^ 
Thoughts,' much has been told of which there never could 
have be^i proofs; and little care appears to have been taken. 
to tell that, of which proofs with little trouble might have been 
procured. 

" Edward Young was born at Upham, near Winchester, 
in June 1681. He was the son of Edward Young, at that 
time fellow of Winchester Collie, and rect6r of Upham, &c. 
The father became dean of Sarum, and we are told that 
Bishop Burnet conunemorated his death, in a sermou preach- 
ed in the cadiedral of Salisbury, os^ th«e Sunday alter his 
demise. 

*^ The son was placed upon the foundation at Winchester 
College, and afterwards repaired to Oxford, ^ without the re- 
ward provided for merit by William of Wykeham.' There 
are who relate," adds Mr. Croft, ^^ that when first Young 
found himself independent, and his own master at All Souls^ 
he was not the am^ment to religion and morality which he 
afterwards became ! The authority of his fiither, ind^, had 
ceased sometime before by his death ; and Young was certain- 
ly not ashamed to be patronized by the infamous Wharton. 
But Wharton befiiended in Young, perhaps the poet, and 
particularly the tragedian. If virtuous authors must be pa- 
tronized only by virtuous peers, who shall point them out ? 
Yet Pope is said by RuiFhead to have told Warburtcm, that . 
' Young had much of a sublime genius, though without c6m- 
mon sense ;' so that his genius, having no guide, was perper 
tually liable to degenerate into bombast. This made hint past 
tL foolish youths the sport of peers and poets ; but his havpig a 
very good heart, enabled him to support the clerical character, 
first with decency, and afterwards with honour. 

^^ They who think ill of Young's morality, in the early part 
of his life, may perhaps, be wrong; but Tindall could not err 
in his opinion of Young's warmth and ability in the cause of 
religion. Tindall used to spend much of his time at All Souls : 
^ The other boys,' said the atheist^ ^ I can always answe^,^ 

B 4 



8 SIB HERBJBBT CROFT, BART« 

because I tlwayn know wh^ice they have their alpments^ 
whidi I have read a hundred times ; but that fellow Young is 
continuaUy pestering me v^ith something of his own.' 

^^ After all, Tindall and the censurers of Young may be re- 
Condleable. Young might, for two or three years, have tried 
that kind of life in w^ich his natural principles would not su£> 
(er him to wallow long. If this were so^ he has left behind 
him, not only his evidence in &vour of virtue, but the potent 
testimony (^experience against vice.'' 

Our biographer allows that some of Dr. Young's works, 
particularly his dedicati<His, abound with flattery; but he 
shows how the author was ashamed of, and suppressed many 
of them; after which, he asks, ^^ Shall the gates of repentance 
be shut only against literary sinners?" Mr. C, little dream- 
ing at the time that he himself should ever be in exactly the 
same predicament, seems to cast many doubts on the assertion 
conveyed by Swift in his ^^ Rhapsody,^' that his author had a 
pension from the court ! 

We are told that while Young was in Ireland, most proba^ 
bly in the suite of the Duke of Wharton, the Dean one afl;er- 
noon pointed out a noUe elm, which in its uppermost branch- 
es was much withered and decayed, to which pointing, he 
said to him, ^^ I shall be like that tree, I shall die at top ! " 

^< It will surprise you," adds he^ addressing himself to Dr. 
Jc^mscm, *^ to see me cite second of Atkins, case 1 36, Ailes 
versus the Attorney-General, March 1 4, 1 740, as authority 
for the life of a poet. But biographers do not always find 
such certain guides as the oaths of the persons whom they re- 
cord. Chancellor Hardwicke was to determine, whether two 
amiuities granted by the Duke of Wharton to Young, were 
for legal considerations. One was dated the 24th of March, 
1719, and accounted for his Grace's bounty in a style princely 
and commendable, if not legal ; -— * considering that the pub- 
lic good is advanced by the encouragament of learning and 
tiie polite arts, and being pleased therein with the attempts of 
Dr. Young, in consideration thereof, and of the love I bear 
him, &c.' The other was dated the 10th of July, 1722." 



SIB HERBERt CROFT^ BA&T. 9 

Mr. Herbert Croft records, that Voltaire having ricGculed 
Milton's allegory of Sin and Death, in the company of his au- 
thor, (most probably at the celebrated Bub Doddington's,} the 
following extempore epigram was the punishment to which 
this celebrated Frenchman exposed himself an this occasion : 

'* You are so witty, profligate, and thin. 

At once we think thee, Milton, Death, and Sin i " 

He also seems to prove that the following celebrated lines 
abound with thepoetica Ucentia^ as Lady Elizabeth Young, her 
daughter and husband, are th^ persons stopposed.to be alluded 

to in the Night Thoughts; all of whom died at far more dis- 
tant periods : 

'' Insatiate Archer ! could not one suffice ? 

Thy shaft flew thrice, and thrice my peace was slain ; 

And thrice, ere thrice yon moon had filled her horn." 

We are told soon after this» that ** when Young was writh- 
ing a tragedy, Grafton is said by Spence^ to have sent him a 
human skull, with a candle in it, as a lamp ; and die poet is 
reported to have used it." 

After stating, that it is unfair to bring the gloominess of 
^^ Night Thoughts" to prove the gloominess of Young, and 
to show that his genius, like the genius of Swift, was, in some 
measure, the suUen inspiration of discontent, he remarks, that 
his parish was indebted to his good humour for an assembly 
and a bowling-green. 

^^ Whether you think with me, I know not," adds he i but 
^ the fttvourite maxim, de morims nil nisi bonum, always appeared 
to me to savour more of female weakness than of manly rtsh 
mon* He that has too much feeling to speak iU of the dei^jd^ 
who, if they cannot defend themsdves, are at least ignortftt 
of his abuse^ will not hesitate, by the most wanton calumny, 
to destroy the quiet, the fortune, the rq)utation cf the living. 
Yet censure is not heard beneath the tomb any more than 
praise. 



10 SIR HEBBUT dtLOFTf BARTw 

*^ DetfUfriuis nil nisi verum *-^ De vivis nil nisi bonum, would 
approadi mudi nearer good sense. After all, the few hand- 
fiib of remaining dust, which once composed the body of the 
author of the ^ Night Thoughts,' feel not much concern, whe- 
ther Young pass now for a man of sorroyr, or for a ^ fellow of 
infinite jest.' To this savour must come the whole family of 
Yorick. His immortal part, wherever that now dwdls, is still 
less solicitous on that head." 

Our author next enters on the task of proving, that the 
character of Lorenzo wa^ not pourtrayed for Dr. Young's own 
son; and, by repeated .references to the text, he establishes 
this beyond a possibility of doubt. Dates, too, are called in 
by way ci evidoice, with a force and efiect that put doubt and 
suspicion to silence. ^' The marriage, in consequence of which 
the supposed Lorenzo wajs bom, happened in May 1731. 
Young's child was not bom till June 1733. In 1741 (when 
the poem was commenced), this Lorenzo, this finished infidel, 
this youth, to whose education vice had for some time put the 
last hand, was only eight years old. An anecdote of this cruel 
sort, so open to contradiction, so impossible to be true, who 
c6uld propagate? Thus, easily, are blasted the reputations 
of the living and of the dead.^ 

Mr. Croft, while on this subject, hazards the following 
strange assertion : — ^^ Young was a poet; poets, with reve- 
rence be it spoken, do pot make the best parents ; fancy and 
imagination," adds he, ^^ seldom deign to stoop from their 
heights ; always stoop unwillingly to the low level of common 
duties. Aloof from vulgar life, they pursue their rapid flight 
beyond the ken of mortals, and descend not to earth but when 
compelled by necessity. The prose of ordinary occurrences 
is beneath the dignity of poets." 

Notwithstanding all this, we now disjtinctly leam, that 
Young, who died at the age of eighty-four, was actually a bad 
fiither, or had a bad son for his ofispring I 
. It ought not to be here forgotten, that Dr. Johnson never 
parted with Mr. Croft, during the time he was collecting mate- 
rials for this life, without recurring to the adventure already 



SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 11 

hinted at, wliich occurred at All SoqIs, and exclaiming^ *>— 
^< Don't forget that rascal Tindall, Sir ! Be sore to hang up 
the atheist !" 

Soon after this period, Mr. .Croft, as has been already men^ 
tioned, entertained serious thoughts of quitting the law, and 
entering into holy orders. Had he perscTered, and been fer- 
toinate, the highest honours of the bar were now open to his 
ambition; and the road to the Woolsack and the CSiancefy 
bench was both straighter and shorter, perhaps, than that to 
Canterbury and Lambeth. However, there is no arguing agaiinst 
prepossessions ; more espedally, when an individual thinks he 
has a voeatioD for aiiy particalar calliiig; and the mtgect of 
this memoir, after having thrown away the labours of nmny 
years, and spent a considerable sum of money, at length dis- 
covered, that his taste had always been for the church, rather 
than the bar. 

He accordingly disposed of his chambers in Lincoln's-Inn, 
and repaired onde more to Oxford. While there^ in the An* 
tumn of 1782, he wrote a postscript to the life of Youiig, in 
which he tells DK Johnson, ^< Uow much he is honoured and 
bettered by his friendship ; and if I do credit to thti church,'* 
adds he, *^ after which I always longed, and for which I am 
now going to give in exchange the bar, though not at as late 
a period as Young took orders, it will be owing, in no small 
measure, to my having had the happiness of calling the author 
of ^ The RamUer' my friend. 

« H. C." 

To have been the coadjutor of Dr. Johnson, was creditable of 
itself; and, to have obtained the esteem of that great man, who 
could not be persuaded to alter any thing but a single sentence 
bestowed in his own praise^ will be deemed by most, a nure 
instance of felicity on the part of a person then wholly un« 
known. And yet, after all, this life abounds with doubl^ am* 
iMguity^ and indecision. A great d^ee of hesitation is used, 
bolh in respect to the author of the * Nig^t Thoughts andhib 
son ; and the bic^rapher seems to think, like hk friend, in re« 



12 aiafiEBBERT CBOFT, BASIV 

spcct.to AddisoQ, ^* that it is proper rather to say nothing that 
iu biatt than all that is true.'' 

So early as 1775, Mr. Croft had commenced his literary 
career by means of a small yolmne, entitled ^^ A Brother's Ad- 
vice to his JSfisters." His *^ Love and Madness," published about 
1.780» containing the story of the unfortunate Miss Ray, who 
was shot by her lover, the Reverend Mr. Hackman, in a series 
of letters*, produced considerable sensation in the public 
mind; and occasioned great enquiry after the anonymous author. 

As he was a man of indefatigable industry, after the demise 
of our great Lexicographer, Mr. Croft conceived the idea of 
publishing an improved edition of Johnson's Dictionary.^ 
Proposals were actually published in 1792, but the list of sub» 
scribers was not sufficiently encouraging to hazard so ponde- 
rous and expensive an undertaking. This must have ope- 
rated as a great discouragement to Mr. Croft's literary pur- 
suits : for he had purchased a number of boolLs, &c. and 
actually studied the northern languages, with an express view 
to this undertaking. 

Mean^rfiile, his cousin, Sir John, the fourth Baronet, having 
died in 1797, the title devolved on the subject of this memoir ; 
but as it was unaccompanied with the ancient patrimony, it 

proved no great subject of gratulation. At this time too he 

* These letters are given as a correspondence supposed to have passed between 
Mits Ray, mistresft to the Earl of Sandwich, and the unfortunate Mr. Hackman, who was 
deeply smitten with her charms ; and by whonn she was assassinated. They are very well 
written, and conuin a very pathttic and interesting account of the story of Chattenon ; 
indeed, we are of opinion, that this author is the only one who has done real justice to 
Chattel ton's memory. 

** Mr. Hadcman figures as the historian of Chattertoo, and the whtde, though * bor- 
rowed personages' (as the late Lord Orford expresses it), is a most ingenious fiction." 

•f- " A new edition of Johnson's Dictionar}', corrected, without the smallest omission ; 
considerably improved, and enlarged with more than twenty thousand words ; illasiimted 
bf txamplesirom the books quoted by Dr. Johnson, and from others of the best autho- 
rity in our own, and former umes "'^Advert, 

It appears from the proposals circulated on this occasion, that the subscription was to 
be Id goinets : lialf to be paid at the time of subscribing, and half on the delivery of tlia 
third volume. Tliis splendid design was rendered abortive for want of management, as 
li« couM not eeeure t sufficient number of subscribers, after long and ineffectual atteunts 
tven to secure an indemnification, for the expences of paper and printing ; without any 
renuneratloB for hu own labeuit ! 



MR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 13 

was married, and had children; tso that the baronetcy instead 
of an honour, most probably must have been deemed an iiH- 
cumbrance. 

In the course of the same year, we find Sir Herbert on the 
Continent *; for about that time, he published a letter to the 
Princess Royal of England, now Queen-Dowager of Wirtem- 
berg, ^^ on the English and German languages ;" accompanied 
by a table of the ^< Northern languages." This was always a 
favourite subject with him. When the late Mr« Mamdngf , 
in consequence of his acknowleged skill in Saxon literature, 
most happily translated and illustrated the will of King Alfred, 
from the original in Mr. AsHWm Ubrliry, our author was selected 
to superintend the printing, and conduct the whole through 
the Oicford press. Hiis was accomplished in a way to do credit 
to the Editor. 

Having been disappointed twice in his life, first as a lawyer, 
when he Conceived the plan of a new edition of the statutes; and 
next as a man of letters, when he issued proposals for a Dic- 
tionary of the English tongue ; and being also destitute of pre- 
ferment in the Church, it is butUttle Wionder, that Sir Herbert 
Croft should be considered as a disappointed mai^. Indeed, some 
years since, he disposed of his extensive library; and in 1801, 
retired to France with a very scanty income. It would appear 
from public documents, that a pension of 200/. per annum had 
however, been enjoyed by him for a considerable' time; and it 

* He was tt Hamburgh, in 1796 ; autl, in a letter from that citj, he obaenret at 
follows : — ** After etUting King AI(red*a will, in the Angio>Saxoa language, I deter* 
mined on what I had through to many years wished for an opportunity of doing* I re- 
solved with Skinner, Junius, Uickes, and Jolinson m my hand, to ascend the an- 
cient stream of the Elbe, for the furpose jof visiting the foantEin*4>aad cf the £ngUsh 
tongue."— He received about this period a superb gold medal £rom the King of 
Sweden. 

f The Reverend Owen Manning, Ft R. S. and F. R.- A. was educated at Quean's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he obuined the degree of M. A. in 1744 ; and that of B«D.4b 
1733. Having been nominated Ctiaplain to Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Lincoln, he|>ro- 
ctired through the patronage of that Prelate the Prebend of MUton Ecclcsia. Mr.Nieholls, 
in vol* ix. p. 446. of << Literary Aneedotes of the Kigliteeiuh Century ,**. obieives,.'' that 
to the literary part of his own country, Mr. M. performed a most acceptable task, in Caking 
up, and by unwearied application completing the Saxon Dictionary began by his friend 
the Reverend Edward Lye.*' This work was publislied in 3 vols, fotto^ 1 77'i* 



H Mtfi HEUSSBT CROf T, BART. 

iii44U Imvt' bmsfi wislied oertups. that tiiif rranT iuc oeci 
viu,iM«MJii Hi liivuttr of lo mmtorioDs an indrndua.. vrno?- zeii 
uitd ioyaJiv were bo frequentn- diEpLivei 11 v£rIOU^ nutii— 
MACKiii&. U« ueve* TeanrieL agsir. u Lorionc. naniu; qich 
iti i^iMib Hi April. i8i6. si the arr* or srcn-nvt . 

^ U«iiien Crait va.^ ;: znaL. wnc tr- .frreat rruainau. anc i 
fiMMl 4sxt«ueiv<' loicmic:!!^ o: tnt ancicn: SaxoL. a^wei a in(«- 
Ueni Ciemiaii anc FrcnrJi lan^rua^cv. unitcy: i. nuri rcnntaunr 
iur iKKia: taiente. Fi; naii rwY^i murt-xnarrzci: : ere: it Soimifa 
daugiue? 01 T«.. Cinevi. Lm.. t)yunnn' itt nai. tnret' OKusmieri 
and aeconfil^ t«- F.ii7jit.riru«. mmf: n: Henn vvre<>wou: Lpui^. 
cifMalvrn Il-i*. -Jiir.' V. ..'•«*. .,x i.*... ui^k .^arai. 

Ni ani mnn Mncorrh romicei. a: ih; rastomrjcv. o ut: 
Bt^urhoiu. Chi the omirrrnr* o: th« /*\'«ii. h( andrcM^u 
•• L oufrmiaiiaton Vi»rspv' to Ih* Hiioh^fts o' AT^?oi)irmt arn 
aisr- •* IWUvtions,' arkfmMen f«»th< i>»n^rp«'- «• Vu'nn»i liuti 
01 iiica%i vrn- writr<»iK prmteti, uni; fMiW?*h«: ii. I'uns 

C. A RrothrtV Atlvir* tr hi'- Srst«^rs. :^r*>ri. '"- 

* I*ani»t«*.i!tnfi »ni^ lV^»f»«o?i. r*. n rmf»f>«»aiAn?»rt hi^ii^r nth- 

Jan. IS. irsfi 

on a linn- plan. 1 '^S9.. 8va 

7, Sunday ^' -^'^^^ l>i««v>nT'^««i. *« "s*. Svo 

\«tt»ir ^ — * -unanv fo <W TVip«n*bv Romr o T o^iani. 
ling .> ' T m an 1 ^npiafrt^ : "w'»rV »^ 1 rtJ>'i o* th- 



SIR HERHKRT X^JLOFT, SUUTT. 



15 



y. Hints for Hklory, re^oectiiig tke attempt oii the Ch^s 
Xiie, May U, 1800. 

10. Propoaftis &r pablwfaing by subtcufAian^ bsw eflfan 

^f InbiMiim^g Tkirtinnmrry - cOReC^ed ^vkhimt tke SIDilUeSt flOIK- 

fiion; ooBudecdtriy impnyved, and enlarged iiitli mcn^ than 
twent}r-fhofiMfiri weeds ; iUHBTntfed by gganqdes irom the boAs 
MfaoiedhyJh. Johwanp, and byodieEft, of thebeetjmtharityin 
<mr own and £n3ner tOBSs. 

N. B. The ml i|iiiiiT1iypiiii 179^^. 

IX. fiiiifiiiliiiiiliiij Y i — i i iii Mw iig iiBi l i im iiTllii Tl 

iKn^ addF—ari to the SafllHMitfJki^gonkrae, -Mo. Paiift, 

12. RflfiectkiBs ibr the aMBBriaEmtkni of the CongKK ju 
YieBna, ^^vo. JPacK, IftM. 



The Uev. SrHi ihM lIMll, 
setcy b}' his younger 



'•if I ■ <i: ' 



BncTf«lcd in the baro- 
t Sir Rinharri Cra&, 



No. II. 




DAVID WILLIAMS, Esq. 



[W»A an Analysis of his principal Works.'} 

1 HE life of this extraordinary man is replete with incident. 
It is diflicult, however, to designate his Btalion with exact pro- 
priety: for if the character of a Priest be indeliUe, us was 
niaiittained in Parliament, while discussing the case of a 
celebrated Philologist, he never could divest himself of that 
utle and office. Certain it is, however, that like the Author 
of EIIEA nrEPOENTA, he considered this as one of the 
many politic maxims of the Romish Church, which had be- 
come obsolete and of no avail, posterior to the reformation. 
IJke him, therefore, he deemed himself, of late years, & lay- 
man, and always was styled, and wished to be considered, as 
well as addressed, in the character of a private gentleman. 



MR. WILLIAMS. 17 

In respect to his memoirs, ample materials exist relative to 
all the principal epochs. He was known to a wide circle of 
men of letters; and by founding, as well as presiding for many 
years, over a great, flourishing, pc^ular, and benevolent insti- 
tution, his name, character, and actions, have become familiar 
to the public at large. A gentleman * indeed, while he was yet 
alive, actually wrote and published his life, a task for which he 
had become eminently qualified by a long and intimate ac- 
quaintance; while the author of the present article has seen, 
perused, and had in his possession, a manuscript Biogri^hy, 
compiled under his immediate inspection, and corrected by 
his own hand. .,•... 

David Williams was a native of Wales, having been bom 
at an obscure village near Cardigan, in 1738. His father, 
once possessed considerable property, but in consequence of 
some unsuccessful speculations in that species of underground 
lottery connected with mines, his circumstances became em- 
barrassed, and he removed from his former place of abode to 
the above county, with a fiunily consisting of several children. 
While these were sent to a neighbouring school for education, 
the elder Mr. Williams endeavoured to seek for refuge from 
the reflections incident to his misfortunes, by associating with 
the Methodists, who then, as now, were extremely numerous 
in the principality. But not content with the consolations 
derived from religion, he determined to extend them to his 
children ; and actually proposed to dedicate one of these to the 
ministry ; indeed it appears to have been the very pinnacle of 
his ambition to have beheld his dearly beloved David a teacher, 
or as he was pleased to express it, a Saint among this class of 
Sectaries. He was accordingly educated, at Carmarthen, 
expressly for diis purpose. 



* The Ute Capuin Thomas Morris, who lived for many years, in the most unreserved 
finendship, and familiarity with Mr. Williams. They met and eonrersed daily; bnt at 
lengthy m coolness unhappily intervened, and not only their intimacyj but ««*b tbc|r 
ac%aalntance ceased. 

The Captain was one of the early promoters of the litcfaiy fund, and actually apt 
peared inilit chmcttr of fiichard III. for the beM6t of thut Insiicoiioii. 

C 



18 lipt. WILLIAMS. 

The loiif howetar^ according to his own candid confession, 
vfju^ utterly unqualified for the self-denial and austerities of an 
ei^Dgelical life. Gay, sprightly, and ardent, his bosom lan- 
guished for pleasure ; he wished to mingle with the world at 
large; and soon began to hold in abhorrence all those ^< fer* 
malities and grimaces" which were scrupulously required of 
one, who aspired to something approximating to inspiration. 
Two circunistanced chiefly concurred, however, in fixing his 
wavering resolutions: the one was the extreme poverty <^ his 
^mily; the other, the dying injunctions of a fond parent: 
these powertiilly co-operating in the present instance^ and no 
other provision indeed, offering, to administer to his necessities 
he finally consented to submit to the usual preparatory forms, 
which it may be easily supposed, were neither tedious nor ex- 
pensive. 

- We now behold him, while still a youth, officiating in the 
character of a minister, at Fromc, in Somersetshire. Although 
he had then scarcely attained the age of manhood, yet he ap- 
pears to have actually become a popular preacher. As a coA^ 
vincing proof of this, it is only necessary to state^ that at 
twenty-two, such was his reputation for piety and zeal, that he 
received an invitation to tlie city of Exeter, On this occaaion 
he underwent the requisite formalities of a new ordination ; 
and as he was now called upon to preside over an A rian con- 
gregation, it is evident that he had changed his Metliodistical 
principles, for those of a class of dissenters, then, as now, 
not very numerous. 

Being both young and volatile, he appears, however, to have 
been still unsettled as to religious tenets; for soon after 
this we find him engaged in a plan to introduce a Socinian 
liturgy among his new flock. A society for this purpose, had 
actually been formed at the Octagon Chapel, in Liverpool, 
and Mr. Williams appears to have had such a firm hold of 
the Consciences of his congregation as to induce them to adopt 
it. Yet, he did not long remain with t^ose who had thus in^ 
plicitly submitted to his controul. Two different reasons have 
been assigned for his quitting the West of England : he <m his 
part, urged the hypocrisy of his associates ] while his enemies, 



MR. WILLIAMS. X9 

on the other hand, insinuated that notwithstanding the ap- 
parent, and perhaps real fervQur of his devotions, the preacher 
who had proved unable to subdue his own passions, was not 
exactly fitted either for his charge or his functions. 

Be this as it may, certain it is that Mr. Williams repaired 
to London for the express purpose of improving his condition; 
and it is a most convincing proof that his conduct could not 
have been very obnoxious, either at Frome or Exeter, when 
it is recollected, that he was now cordially received l^ a new 
flock, and for some time actually did duty at a Dissenting, 
Meeting-house, at Highgate. Here he preached a course of 
sermons ^ On Religious Hypocrisy,'* which diacourses were 
afterwards published. He also appears at this time to have 
mingled freely with the world at large, and to have often 
frequented the play-houses; for he now began to write 
theatrical criticisms, and to enter into discussions on various 
important subjects. Accordingly, about this ^time, appeared 
a *< Letter to Mr. Garridi, on his conduct and talaits a& a 
manager and performer;" and also ^< The Philosopher," con- 
sisting of three political conversations, dedicated to Lord Mans* 
field, and the Bishop of Gloucester. 

Nearly at the same period, a respectable, if not a numerous 
portion of the clergy of the Church of England, appears to have 
wished to be relieved from ceitain conscientious scruples. They 
accordingly assembled at the Feathers' Tavern, in Leicester^ 
fieids» and being joined by a great many Dissenting Ministers, 
a petition for reUef in respect to subscription to the thirty-nine 
articles, was immediately agreed upon. On this occasion, the 
assistance of Mr. Williams is said to have been invoked. 
Certain it is, that he penned " Essays on Public Worship, 
Patriotism, and Projects of Reformation," but on this, as on 
former occasions, he was thought to have leaned too much 
towards Deism, for an Orthodox Dissenter; and in an ap- 
pendix, soon after subjoined, he openly attacked the creed of 
his former associates, of whom he now took leave, for ever. 

During some years, a new and gi*eat scheme had been 
brooding in his mind, which he now determined to carry into 

c 2 • 



12 SUt BEBBBRT CBOFT, BAAT. 

gpcct.ta AddisoQ, f* that it is proper rather to say nothing that 
is &lse^ than all that is true^" 

So early as 1 775, Mr. Croft had ccnnmenced his literary 
oareer by means of a small volume, entitled ^^ A Brother^s Ad- 
vice to his Sisters." His *< Love and Madness," published about 
1780, containing the story of the unfortunate Miss Ray, who 
was shot by her lover, the Reverend Mr. Hackman, in a series 
of letters*, produced considerable sensation in the public 
mind; and occasioned great enquiry after the anonymous author. 

As he was a man of indefatigable industry, after the demise 
of our great Lexicographer, Mr. Croft conceived the idea of 
publishing an improved edition of Johnson's Dictionary.^ 
Proposals were actually published in 1792, but the list of sub» 
scribers was not sufficiently encouraging to hazard so ponde- 
rous and expensive an undertaking. This must have ope- 
rated as a great discouragement to Mr. Croft's literary pur^ 
suits: for he had purchased a number of books, &c and 
actually studied the northern languages, with an express view 
to this undertaking. 

Meanwhile, his cousin. Sir John, the fourth Baronet, having 
died in 1797, the title devolved on the sulgect of this memoir ; 
but as it was unaccompanied with the ancient patrimony, it 
proved no great subject of gratulation. At this time too he 

* These letters are given as a correspondence supposed to have passed between 
Mist Ray, mistress to the Earl of Sandwich, and the unfortunate Mr. Hackman, wbowms 
deeply smitten with her charms ; and by whom she was assassinated. They are very well 
writteni and contain a very pathetic and interesting account of the story of Chatterton ; 
indee'd, we are of opinion, that this author is the only one who has done real justice to 
Chattel ton's memory. 

** Mr. Hackman figures as the historian of Chattenoo, and the whole, though < bor- 
foved personages' (as the late L«>rd Orford expresses it), is a most ingenious fiction," 

f " A new edition of Johnson's Dictionar}', corrected, without (he smallest omission ; 
considerably improved, and enlarged with more than twenty thousand words ; Ulosiimted 
by txamplesfirom the books quoted by Dr. Johnson, and from others of the best aotho- 
rity in our onn, and former times." — Advert, 

It appears from the proposals circulated on this occasion, that the subscription was to 
be IS guineas : lialf to be paid at the time of subscribing, and half on the delivery of tli* 
third volume. This splendid design was rendered abortive for want of management, «» 
he could not eeeure a suflficient number of subscribers, after long and inefiectual attempt 
tTen to secure an indemnification for the expences of paper and printing ; without my 
renunerat&oB for his own labeuit ! 



»IR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 13 

WHS married, and had children ; so that the baronetcy instead 
of an honour, most probably must have been deemed an in- 
cimibrance. 

In the course of the same year, we find Sir Herbert on the 
Continent*; for about that time, he published a letter to the 
Princess Royal of Ekigland, now Queen-Dowager of Wirtem- 
berg, ^< on the English and Grerman languages ;" accompanied 
by a table of the ^^ Northern languages." This was always a 
&yourite subject with him. When the late Mr* Manningf, 
in consequence of his acknowleged skill in Saxon literature, 
most happily translated and illustrated the will of King Alfred, 
from the original in Mr. Afltle^« Ubrtoy, our author was selected 
to superintend the printing, and conduct the whole through 
the Oxford press. Hiis was accomplished in a way to do credit 
to the Editor. 

Having been disappointed twice in his life, first as a lawyer, 
when he Conceived the plan of a new edition of the statutes; and 
next as a man of letters, when he issued proposals for a Dic- 
tionary of the English tongue ; and being also destitute of pre- 
ferment in the Church, it is but little VSonder, that Sir Herbert 
Croft should be considered as a disappointed mati. Indeed, some 
years since, he disposed of his extensive library; and in 1801, 
retired to France with a very scanty income. It Would appear 
from public documents, that a pension of 200/. per annum had 
however, been enjoyed by him for a considerable' time; and it 

* He <ras at Hamburgh, in 1796 ; and. In a letter from that ckj, he oba^nret at 
fallows : — « After editing King AIfred*a will, in the Anglo-Saxon language, I deter- 
mined on what I had through so many years wished for an opportunity of doing. I re- 
solved with Skinner, Judios, Uickes, and Jolinsoh in my hand, to ascend the an- 
cient stream of the Elbe, for the furposejof visiting the foontain-haad of the £ngUsh 
tongue."— He received about this period a superb gold medal £rom the King of 
Sweden. 

f The Reverend Owen Manning, F< R. S. and F. R.- A. was educated at Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he obuined the degree of M. A. in 1 744 ; and that of B«D.-iB 
1733. Having been nominated Ctiaplain to Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Lincolo> he pro- 
cured through the patronage of that Prelate the Prebend of MUton Ecclcsia. Mr.Niehollsy 
in vol. ix. p. 446. of « Uteiary Anecdotes of the Kighteenth Century,** obieives,.*' that 
to the literary part of his own country, Mr. M. performed a most acceptable task, in Caking 
vp» and by unwearied application completing the Saxon Dictionary began by his friend 
the B«verend Edwaid Lye.*' This work was publislted in 3 vob. tbTiOy 1 77a. 



14 Sn HERBERT CROFT, BARTT 

Dnigbt bmve been wbhed perhaps, that this grant had been 
•ncieased in fiivourW so meritorious an individual, whose zeal 
and loyalty were so frequently displayed in various publi- 
cations. He never returned again to En^ond, having died 
at Paris in April, 1816, at the age of sixty^five. 

Sir Herbert Croft was a man, who to great erudition, and a 
most extensive knowledge of the ancient Saxon, as well as mo- 
dem German and French languages, united a high reputation 
for social talents. He had been twice married ; 6rst to Sophia; 
daughter of R. Cleeve, £^. by whom he had three daughters ; 
and secondly to Elizabeth, sister of Hairy Greswold Lewis, 
of Malvern Hall, in the county of Warwick, Esq. and Sarah^ 
Countess of Dysert, by whom there is no issue. 

No one more sincerely rejoiced at the restoration of the 
Bourbons. On the occurrence of that event, he addressed 
«< Congratulatory Verses" to the Duchess of Angouleme ; and 
also '^ Reflections," addressed to the Congress at Vienna. Both 
of these were written, printedy and published in Paris. 

List of the Works 
Of the Reo. Sir Herbert Crojij Bart, and B.C.L. 

1. Life of Dr. Young, inserted in Johnson's Lives of the 

Poets. 

2. A Brother's Advice to his Sisters, 12mo. 1775. 

3. Love and Madness, a story, too true ; in a series of let- 
ters, 12mo. 1780. 

4. Fanaticism and Treason, or a dispassicmate history of the 
Rebellious Insurrection in June, 1780. 8vo. 

5. The Literary Fly, 1 780. The first number appeared 
Jan. 18, 1789. 

6. Some Account of an intended Publication of the Statutes 
on a now plan, 1762. Svo. 

7. Sunday Evening Discourses, 1784. 8vo. 

H. Letter from Germany to the Princess Royal of England^ 
on the English and German Languages ; with a Table of the 
Northern Languages. Hamburgh, 1797. 4to. 



SIR HERBERT CROFT, BART. 



15 



9. Hints for History, respecting the attempt on the King's 
Life, May 15, 1800. 

1 0. Proposals for publishing by subscription a new e^fion 
of Johnson's Dictionary ; corrected without the smallest omis- 
sion; considerably improved, and enlarged, with more than 
twenty-thousand words ; illustrated by examples from the books 
quoted by Dr. Johnson, and by others, of the best authority in 
our own and former times. 

N. B. The subscription IS guineas. 1792. 

11. Congratulatory Venes chq the Restoration of the Bour- 
bons, addressed to the Dacheas oC Angouleme, 4to. Paris, 
1814; and-^ v -^i-'^iJ^- 

12. Reflections for the eonsideration of the Congress at 
Vienna, 8vo. Paris, 1814« 



The Rev. Sir Herbert. Croft, was succeeded in the baro- 
netcy by his younger brother, the present Sir Richard Crofl, 
a distinguished accoucheur. 



16 



■ifr-- 




DAVID WILLIAMS, Esq. 



[ With an Atiedt/sis of kis principal Works."} 

1 HE life of tliis extraordinary man ia replete with incident. 

It is diflicult, however, to designate his staUon with exact pro- 
priety: for if the character of a Priest be inddibk, as was 
maintained in Parliament, while discussing the case of a 
celebrated Philologist, he neyer could divest himself of that 
title and office. Certdn it is, however, that like the Author 
of EITEA IITEPOENTA, he considered this as one of the 
many politic maxims of the Romish Church, which had be- 
come obsolete and of no avail, posterior to the reformation. 
Like bim, therefore, he deemed himself, of late years, a lay- 
man, and always was styled, and wiehed to be considered, afi 
well as addressed, in the character of a private gentleman. 



MR. WILLIAMS. 17 

In respect to his memoirs, ample materials exist relative to 
all the principal epochs. He was known to a wide circle of 
men of letters; and by founding, as well as presiding for many 
years,' over a great, flourishing, popular, and benevolent insti- 
tution, his name, character, and actions, have become familiar 
to the public at large. A gentleman * indeed, while he was yet 
alive, actually wrote and published his life, a task for which he 
had become eminently qualified by a long and intimate ac- 
quaintance; while the author of the present article has seen, 
perused, and had in his possession, a manuscript Biography, 
compiled under his immediate inspection, and corrected by 
his own hand. 

David Williams was a native of Wales, having been bom 
at an obscure village near Cardigan, in 1738. His father, 
once possessed considerable property, but in consequence of 
some unsuccessful speculations in that species of underground 
lottery connected with mines, his circumstances became em- 
barrassed, and he removed from his former place of abode to 
die above county, with a &mily consisting of several children. 
While these were sent to a neighbouring school for education, 
the elder Mr. Williams endeavouretl to seek for refuge from 
the reflections incident to his misfortunes, by associating with 
the Methodists, who then, as now, were extremely numerous 
in the principality. But not content with the consolations 
derived from religion, he determined to extend them to his 
children ; and actually proposed to dedicate one of these to the 
ministry ; indeed it appears to have been the very pinnacle of 
his ambition to have beheld his dearly beloved David a teacher, 
or as he was pleased to express it, a Saint among this class of 
Sectaries. He was accordingly educated, at Carmarthen, 
expressly for tiiis purpose. 



* The Ute Captain Thomas Morris, who lived for many jean, id the most unreserved 
iviendihip, and familiarity with Mr.W'illiarot. They met and convened daily; bm at 
lengthy m coolness unhappily intervenedy and not only their intimacy^ but even tb^ir 
acquaintance ceased. 

The Captain was one of the early promoters of the litcfMy fund, and actually ap^ 
|icared IhiIm chnacier of Richard III. for the beae6t of that InMitoikMi. 



18 M»* wiiJiiAitfe* 

The 101I9 haweter» according to his own candid confession, 
ym^ utterly unqualified for the self-denial and austerities of an 
ewotgelical life. Gay, sprightly, and ardent, his bosom lan« 
gnished for pleasure ; he wished to mingle with the world at 
iarge; and soon began to hold in abhorrence all those <^ for- 
malities and grimaces'' which were scrupulously required of 
onci who aspired to something approximating to inspiration. 
Two circumstances chiefly concurred, however, in fixing his 
wavering resolutions: the one was the extreme poverty o( his 
^uiiily; the other, the dying injunctions of a fond parent: 
these powerfully co-operating in the present instance, and no 
other provision indeed, offering, to administer to his necessititt 
he finally consented to submit to the usual preparatory forms^ 
which it may be easily supposed, were neither tedious nor ex- 
pensive. 

- We now behold him, while still a youth, officiating in the 
character of a minister, at Fromc, in Somersetshire. Altliough 
he had then scarcely attained the age of manhood, yet he ap^ 
pears to have actually become a popular preacher. As a co|ir 
vincing proof of this, it is only necessary to state, that at 
twenty-two, such was his reputation for piety and zeal, that he 
received an invitation to the city of Exeter. On this occaaion 
he underwent the requisite formalities of a new ordination ; 
and as he was now called upon to preside over an Arian con- 
gregation, it is evident that he had changed his Methodistical 
principles, for those of a class of dissenters, then, as now, 
not very numerous. 

Being both young and volatile, he appears, however, to have 
been still unsettled as to religious tenets ; for soon sAei 
this we find him engaged in a plan to introduce a Socinian 
liturgy among his new flock. A society for this purpose, had 
actually been formed at the Octagon Chapel, in Liverpool, 
and Mr. Williams appears to have had such a firm hold of 
the Consciences of his congregation as to induce them to 
it. Yet, he did not long remain with t;hose who had thus i 
pUdtly submitted to his controul. Two different reasons I ^ 
been assigned for his quitting the West of England : he ^ i 
part^ urged the hypocrisy of his associates ; while his 1 



MB. WILLIAMS. 19 

on the other hand, insinuated that notwithstanding the ap- 
parent) and perhaps real fervour of his devotions, the preacher 
who had proved unable to subdue his own passions, was not 
exactly fitted either for his charge or his functions. 

Be this as it may, certain it is that Mr. Williams rq^aired 
to London for the express purpose of improving his condition; 
and it is a most convincing proof that his conduct could not 
have been very obnoxious, either at Frome or Exeter, when 
it is recollected, that he was now cordially received by a new 
flock, and for some time actually did duty at a Dissenting. 
Meeting-house, at Highgate. Here he preached a course of 
sermons ^* On Religious Hypocrisy/' which discourses were 
afterwards published. He also appears at this time to have 
mingled freely with the world at large, and to have often 
frequented the play-houses; for he now began to write 
theatrical criticisms, and to enter into discussions on various 
important subjects. Accordingly, about this time, appeared 
a '* Lietter to Mr. Garrick, on his conduct and talents as. a 
manager and performer;" and also ** The Philosopher," con- 
sisting of three political conversations, dedicated to Lord Mans^ 
field, and the Bishop of Gloucester. 

Nearly at the same period, a respectable, if not a numerous 
portion of the clergy of the Church of England, appears to have 
wished to be relieved from certain conscientious scruples. They 
accordingly assembled at the Feathers' Tavern, in Leicester-* 
fields, and bdng joined by a great many Dissenthig Ministers, 
a petition for relief in respect to subscription to the thirty-nine 
articles, was immediately agreed upon. On this occasion, the 
assistance of Mr. Williams is said to have been invoked. 
Certain it is, that he penned ^^ Essays on Public Worship, 
Patriotism, and Projects of Reformation," but on this, as on 
former occasions, he was thought to have leaned too much 
towards Deism, for an Orthodox Dissenter; and in an ap- 
pendix, soon afler subjoined, he openly attacked the creed of 
his former associates, of whom he now took leave, for ever. 

During some years, a new and great scheme had been 
brooding in his. mind, which he now determined to carri' into 

c 2 ' 



«0 }rfR. WILLIAMS. 

immediate exeGution. It appeared to him that the system of 
education, then destined for youth, was not adapted to the 
age in which he lived ; many essential branches of instruction, 
he thought, wet*e omitted in our great schools; while the 
QoUeges, founded in times of Monkish superstition, were 
liable to serious and insuperable objections. Actuated by these 
considerations, in 1772, Mr. Williams determined to establish 
an Bcad^ny, in the immediate vicinity of the metropolis, 
and adopting the plan of John Amos Comenius, the celebrated 
grammarian and divine, who had been invited to this country 
about the time of the civil wars, to reform the English schools, 
as a model ; he accordingly settled at Chelsea. As it was ab- 
solutely necessary that a female should preside over his house- 
hold, about this time also, he married a young lady, for whom 
he had long entertained a great regard. 

He oncie informed the author of this article, that his success 
on the present, occasion was astonishing. Notwithstanding he 
had left the Methodists, and quarrelled with the Dissenters, 
yet, no sooner had he published his prospectus^ in which he 
suggested his intended improvements, than his house filled 
apace. To encrease his success, he, at the same time, published 
a treatise on education, in a small volume, for the purpose of a 
more easy and rapid circulation. 

While at Chelsea, Mr. Williams resided near to the river, 
in Laurence-street, and if we are not greatly misinformed, in 
the very house, at one time occupied by the late Mrs. Macauley, 
the historian. About this period, the important subject of 
education, began in an eminent degree, to engage the public 
attention; and while the writings of Milton and Locke, on 
this subject, were read with eagerness, the new notions incul- 
cated with an extraordinary degree of eloquence, and for a 
time, with an extraordinary degree of effect also, by Rousseau, 
occupied the minds and speculations of every one. 

The subject of this narrative appears to have not only coiv^ 
sidered a school cts a microcosm^ or little organised world <rf 
itself, but also (o have wished to introduce every thing there^ 
either useful or ornamental in actual life. On this occasion it 



MB. WILLIAMS. 21 

was uniformly observed by him, that he experienced far less 
obstruction from indocility on the part of children, than 
from the obstinacy and prejudices of their parents; With a 
commendable zeal, he insisted as a first principle, that a strict 
adherence to truth should be ever held a sacred as well as im- 
mutable rule of conduct; and to attain this practice, setting 
aside all ideas of duty, in a moral sense, he proved it to be 
the interest of his pupils, to avoid and abhor every thing con- 
nected with a lie. To procure their confidence, and avoid 
even the appearance of superiority, he himsell^ would enter 
into the class with them, and submit himself, like the youngest 
boy in the adbooly to the inipfiction^Mid oontroul of the. usher. 
All personal punishments were prohibited; nothing was efiected 
by authority alone ; thus, arbitrary proceedings of every kind 
were most scrupulously avoided. But he produced the wished 
for effect, and that too in a higher and better degree, by in- 
troducing among his pupils, a lively emblem of the]noble institu- 
tions of thdr native country; and punishing, not according to 
the caprice^ ill humour, or interested partiality of a pedagogue; 
but by written rules adapted to the state of the society. Ac- 
cordingly, a body of laws was formed, in a g^eral assemUy^ 
and these were enforced by means of a trial by jury, every one 
readily submitting to the verdict of his peers. 

It was his wish, to ccmnect and combine familiar objects 
with every branch of science^ Thus, he is represented as 
teaching geograf^y by gradual surveys of,^a house, a neigh- 
bourhood, or a district, while the previous view of a black- 
smith's shop or a kitchen garden, led to the study, of mineralogy 
and botany. The principles of drawing and mensuration 
were taught at the desk; but the practice of both was after- 
wards elucidated and endeared by Uttle excursions, for the pur- 
pose of effecting the execution, in a practical point of view. 

Somewhat like the Bellian and Lancasterian pL of a 
p<Mnting -monitors, appears also to have been t ; 

while finance, and other branches of statistical we 

introduced into the higher classes. It was the opi i of t 
sub|eGt of this artide^ that globes and maps i 

c 3 



2S MR. -WILLIAMS. 

not bought; and to effect this purpoie^ ivith ability, that the 
asflifitanoe of artists should be invoked, in the first instance. 
He also connected the elements of history with geography in 
all its branches, and appears, about this period, to have had a 
** Secretary to an embassy,'' as one of his private pupils, who 
was very conversant, indeed, in respect to languages, but 
utterly incompetent to resolve any of the common problems so 
familiar to all those acquainted with the first principles of 
geogn^hy and astronomy. 

With his ordinary scholars, he constantly referred to the 
** Collection Academique" and the French " Encyclopedic,** 
when information was wanted for the accomplishment of some 
purpose, or the formation of some machine ; and he found the 
impressions, thus conveyed, to be lasting. He deemed the age 
of thirteen or fourteen fitted to comprdiend the doctrine of 
air, the construction of pumps, the science of hydrostatics, 
and the pursuits of chemistry. Mr. Williams considered the 
essays of the late Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, as among 
the most useful and entertaining books for children. 

In short, ^^ he pursued, in practice, the plan which Rousseau 
had sketched from imagination;" and he thought ** that the 
fruitless efforts of the mind, in infancy, to understand the 
subtleties of grammar, the ambiguities of poetry, or the mys- 
teries of metaphysics, were generally succeeded by an indolent 
acquiescence fatal to all great or manly exertions." 

But another great and leading object, during this period of 
his life, was a new system of faith ; for the subject of this 
memoir wished to amend the religion of the nation, in the 
same manner, and at the same time, as its education; and 
thus, like a young man, by attempting too much, at one time, ■ 
actually effected little or nothing ! About this period, the 
mihappy and unfortunate contest witli our American colonies 
took place, and a native of the Trans- Atlantic Continent, who 
had distinguished himself both as the greatest electrician of his 
age, and tlie most strenuous asserter of the rights of his insurgent 
countrymen, became apprehensive of his personal safety. At 
the new institution, at Chelsea, he, for some time, found both 



MR. WlLLiAMS» 26 

a secure and hospitable asylum. * In coi^unction with, ot 
rather at the instigation, perhaps, of this celebrated man^ 
who undoubtedly assisted m the formation of his code of ethics^ 
Mr. Williams drew up the system of a new religious &ith, the 
creed of which was confined to a single article. Here follows 
an exact transcript of it : 



y*^ 



" / believe in Gad I — Amen, 



And it may not be improperly observed, in this place, that 
when the independence of America was declared, and ascer- 
taiaoif Ak bMune the lolie siibtcriptiim recniired from any of 
the citizens of the new republic. A Common nayeir Bddk was 
also compiled, on a similar plan, in respect to brevity ; but 
whether it resembled that now adopted in another hemisphere,' 
in which all repetitions are avoided, is di£BcuIt to resolv^ 
without an absolute reference to )30th. Some doubts, perhaps, 
may exist in the minds of many, as to the actual participadon 
of the philosopher, just alluded to, in the plan under con- 
dderation. But these are now obviated in the fullest and most 
satis&ctory manner; for the writer of this article has been 
lately assured by the grandson of the late Dr. Franklin, thiit 
Mr. Williams obtained his assistance in the simplification and 
arrangements of a new liturgy. Afler it had been printed, in 
1776J he transmitted copies, not only to several distiiiguished 
persons^ in England, but also on the Continent. The follow- 
ing is the reply to the letter accompanying it, firom Frederick 
the Great, who, as it is evident firom the address, was deceived 
both as to his characta: and profession, Jhaving taken him for 

* In leclurexxxvi. vol. iii. p. 24. Mr. Williams refers to this intideat, which the 
writer «f this aftkle hasj indeed, heard him mention^ in conversation, with becfloiingr 
pride. " At the time to which [ refer, m philosopher of considerable fame, (Dr. F.) 
whom fortiine had forced into politics, took refwge from a political stoim, in our tuo^ i 
and entered with ease, the characteristic of genius, into several of its employments. 1 
obMrred he was particniarlj pleased with the earlj application of arithmetical dczftBrity,' 
to questions of obvions or imptrtant use. All those, calculations on the pawer uf 
compound interest, in anoihilatiDg debts or accumulating propenj, wen made aa 
mnmsementa, which hate since raised political writers into high de^iees of rrpu- 
tattoiu" . i 

C 4 



^ 9UL WILLIAMS. 

a man of rank and title* Were it permitted, at thk ^liatance 
of time^ to guess at the occasion of the mistake, it might be 
fairly attributed to the resemblance of his ijame to that of the 
late Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, K. B. well known at home 
on account of his poetry; and abroad by his diplomatic station, 
having been minister first at the court of Berlin, and after- 
wards at that of St Petersburgh : 

" M. le Chevalier Williams, 

*^ Je viens de recevoir a la suite de votre lettre du 20 du 
mois de Mai dernier, I'ouvrage, que des sentiments de liberty 
et de conviction vous ont fait donner au public sous le litre 
d'Essai sur la Liturgie. Votre attention dans cet envoy me 
fait plaisir, et c'est pour vous en t^oigner mes remerciments 
que je vous fais la pr^sente, priant Dieu en meme terns sur ce, 
qu'il ait M. le Chevalier Williams en sa sainte et digne garde. 

" Frederic. 

" A Potsdam, 
" le 10 d'Aaut 1776." 

This letter, the language of which in a grammatical point 
of view, is very questionable, was accompanied by another 
from M. de Catt, private Secretary to his Prussian Majesty, in 
which he pays many compliments to our author, assures him 
how much the king is interested in the success of so accom- 
plished a man, and begs he would transmit all his literary pro- 
ductions for his perusal. 

The " Philosopher of Femey," nearly at the same time^ 
acknowleged the receipt of his liturgy, in a very elegant 
epistle: 

^^ I have perused it," observes he, *^ with all the pleasure 
that a Rosicrucian would enjoy in reading the work of an 
adept. It is a great comfort to me, at the age of eighty-two 
years, to see toleration openly taught and asserted in your 
country, and the God of all mankind no longer pent up 
in a nartow tract of land. That noble truth was worthy 



MR. WILLIAMS. 20 

of your pen and your tongue. I am, with all my heart,- one of 
your followers, and of your admirers ; and with much respect, 

Your most humble 

Obedient servant, 

Voltaire/' 

Mr. Raspe, a learned German, then residing in London, seems 
also to hare approved of his labours, and Mr. Bode, of Ham* 
bur^ to have been enthusiastic in the praise of the ^^ good 
Samaritan, Williams." In addition to these testimonies, may 
be added that of M. Teller, an eminent divine of Berlin, who 
congntuhited him^ in Engliah, abcNit the Mune period, ^ on 
his intention to estabhsh a worship for universal believers in 
the Deity ; and I am very glad," adds he, " to* see this now 
performed, and the external forms of devotion, according to 
your intention, very well executed; for it cannot be denied 
that the belief of the one Supreme Being, and the study of 
universal benevolence, are the most important articles of the 
Christian Religion itself. 

^^ But I am now very desirous to know what approbation 
your worship has found in (with) the public ? 

*' I send you by this occasion (opportunity) a specimen of 
(a) like form of worship, proposed by Mr. Basedon, at Dessau, 
in the principality of Anhalt. I wish it may have your appro* 
bation, and that all your endeavours for promoting a rea- 
sonable religion may succeed. 

** lam, with great esteem, 
" Your humble and obedient servant, 
" Berlin, « Teller. 

•<J«^20, 1776." 

Meanwhile, the academy at Chelsea continued to prosper; 
for although the terms were so high as to circumscribe the 
pupils to the children of opulent parents alone, yet sudi was 
the reputation of this institution, that the number of students 
iwere seen, not gradually, but rapidly to increase. However, 



p»^ - *. 



S6 MR. WILUAMB. 

all at once a stop was put to the projects and the prosperity of 
Mr. WiOiams, by the sudden death of a dearly beloved wife. 

This domestic calamity quite unmaimed him. So much, 
indeed) was he afiected by the melancholy incident, which 
appears to have been equally sudden and unexpected, that he 
actually eloped from the scene of his afflictions, and leaving 
his scholars to shift for thenwelves, abandoned Iqs residence 
without coi-ultiiig any one. Overwhelmed with grief, and 
Utterly incapable of attending to business, he now «eduded 
himsdf in ft distant county, during a p^iod of many months, 
and seemed not only desirous but resolved, to avoid all inter- 
course with mankind. 

Having thus voluntarily relinquished the emolaments and 
advantages resulting &om his new establishment, and rejected 
all the &vours of fortune, at the precise moment when, £[>r 
the first time in his life, she appeared ready to befidend him, 
Mr. Williams, on recovering from his sorrows, like his &ther 
on a different occasion, seemed to sedc both for help and con- 
solation, in religion. 

Soon after this he determined to extend his plans, in order ^ 
to communicate with, and include others, who either thought 
in the same manner with himself, or might be disposed to 
adopt hfs ideas. He accordiiigly opened a chapel in Margaret^ 
street, Cavendish-square, and it is not here meant to be con- 
oealed) that the mode of worship was after a .new and un- 
authorised system. But as this did not prove popular, even 
in a small degree, being entirely confined to about a score of 
auditors, success was of course wanting. Indeed, little wonder 
will ensue, when it is recollected that the spirit and forms 
of this institution, were equally hostile both to churchmen and 
regular dissenters. Notwithstanding his total failure on this 
occasion, which was readily anticipated by several of his 
friends, he published his inauguration sermon. This was soon 
after followed by two volumes of lectures on the universal prin- 
<Afim of religion and morality. 

As it was now evident, that the subscriptions had become 
utterly inadequate to defi'ay even the expences incident to 



MB. WILLIAMS. 87 

the plan selected for public worship; and the nuditors' bad 
proved scarcely soffictent to fill a common sized room, lie was, 
at length, persuaded to assemble them in one. At the sugges- 
tion of the late General Melville, * a man of amiable charac- 

* Tha geallnuD tbm'itii poUiilMd hia sum crad, •hicb 1> bers (alyaiiiBl, 
together wiib the nolc which accomptnied ii, Iwth being uUresKd lo ■ Icuncd 
EKrine uid D.D. who hu faKmnd At EiiitDr with them. 

" locloMd b * a>pj ol ■ PhilsMphical Cntd, which, while icDaii^ w be in [Wrlf ef 
■he itrirtat trulA, jet ii lo coa^ehenmit in iu priociplei, » to idcoit lu; tpplica- 
lioni of ihem, mnx (onduciTe lo iu grtu obJMt, (*t expreiwd in the 7ih Article,) . 
by ■]] pmODi, howenr much iliSning in their ptnictilar penoMioni or pTofnekma, an 
■he hatit of rneeU nligioiu, or polilioil contlintiioiu i enn fiaai the direct oppotitM, 
nuM^, t)u BOB imtkaaliit, ud the uMt ilenmt idigioniit f the freut EtAnocrofe, 
and' the mott tbtaluK Mmoeratt, who ell iii^ree In the tfrftti, tnt di&( in tfie lot 

Bawti-utttI, 3lil -itugiul, 1793. 

MiJtum in Parvo. 

A CREED. 

NATURAL) iNVARIABLBi AND TUNDAHENTAL ; 

BnJSMg where molt Crteii begin, yet in M far tatr^ductory to tieti at their 

eoatentt matf ie fiamd to be comformMe to it 

111. T1»i hy mj nitnre, Inow im, ind tnt han been, wUle awikc, nd in ■ aiu* 

of««niil»lil]',paiJiufJj«iiiing, underen incpssunl sucetaion of COHtclou* ttsutTom 

plica nj (dnuity. 

3l. Thatalu by nij coniriuui lenfaiiom and reieD»tiunt, prmluccd by cauiet ei- 
lemal, ii a nninlly and uecnuiily implied, iheninenee of ihne nternala of natnife 
aitnadBW; aititbne two aoru of aenauion, iniemally and ciieraallf caiued, are the 
mla and inniiaUe aoiucei of ny ImoMledgL- of my owa euiMncc, and that of eiielml 

3i). That (here eter tiu been, ia, andmiutbe, an ixiiTtMCE. 

4th. That tlie EitSTENC£ eiernal or iolinite in duration or time, niuii be alao infinite 

ith. That the eternal and infioiie tiimNCt mnit be eiilier siTUBt uNicaaiXL, or 
an •lemaltnd Infinite CAOae of nainre, which did create, doei lutlain, ud might annihi- 
talc naTVRi. 

Slh. That which em of the two, be the eternal and infinite eililence, whathtr' 
mtma 01 nMore'a nuae, ia ii unneceiiary u hnroaaibta (or nan by Ui natun amty, (0 
kmw. 

791. That the belt ilali of nature, with the beat uh of it by mm. In aa &r »* 
■Mtniillj pmdtMtiTe ol hii greatcit >um of hapjiinai in all itagea of hii ^atcne*, 
■haheiin iHOiTiDuaurv or iociitt, ia ever the tnntl eaaeniiat ol^iect of his Batue. 

Sik. IVt thii moil euenlisl ohjeci Ii naiurall^ lelf-eTidenl to, and » enjofrd bf 
n^(*ridU an ittditidnal in tolitode, or it competently attainable by him in that atate, 
froB'lk«b«fli»eoC BBton and aperieace. 



28 MB. WILLIAMS* 

ter, and oAimpeachable morals, anBpartment in the British 
Cofiee-House, Charing-Cross, was accordingly selected for 
this purpose ; * and the congregation, which bad now dwindled 
to twelve or fourteen, accordingly assembled there, for a con- 
siderable period. The wits of that day were accustomed to 
remark that the dinner, accompanied by excellent Madeira^ 
and no small share both of good humour and hospitality 
usually given by the above-named patron of the institu- 
tion, in Brewer-street, after the lecture, operated as no small 
inducement to attendance. 

When this establishment had closed, Mr. Williams engaged 
in a variety of literary works, and being fiilly sensible of the 
numerous calamities to which authors in general are not unfre- 
quently liable in a peculiar degree, particularly in this coun- 
try, he conceived the happy idea, if not of annilulating, at least 
of alleviating the misfortunes of this class of men. Accord- 
ingly, he associated with a few friends, whose numbera at 
first did not exceed six ; and of these the narrator is un- 
luckily enabled to name only two, besides himself, viz. Captain 
Morris, the elder brother of a gentleman whose Lyric Muse 
has often prolonged the midn|igfat festivities of the metropolis, 
and gladdened the hearts of idl those asssembled around the 
convivial board; together with the Rev. John Gardiner, since 
dieceased, but then Vicar of Battersea.^ The sudden death of 



9th. That this fundamental and important tnithi although bj nature in man, St was 
not only prior to, and independent of, any human laws or revealed religion, but 
must itUI be equally so in a supposed state of totally uneducated and perfectly solitary 
individuality ; yet in that of society it will admit or require the concurring aids of both 
Uw tnd religion, in as far u they may be useful or necessary for the stid most assential 
object. 

10th. That, lutly, the expediency or necessity in society for these aids from law and 
nligion, will be precisely in proportion to the deficiency or inefficacy of the best use of' 
right reason or natural religion ; and the degree of perfection in both laws and religions 
for mankind, must necessarily and eiactly be in the ratio of their conformity and con- 
duciveneis to the most essential object of human nature, as suted in the 7th article of 
this Creed. 

London, 1793." 

* Perhapa, the name of Mr. John Nichols, F. S. A. author of the History of Leicester- 
ahir«i literary Anecdotes, &c. &c. ought to be added to the founders already named. 



MR. WILLIAMS. 9Q 

the learned and accomplished Floyer Sydenham, M. A. of 
Wadham College, Oxford, in extreme poverty, and literally 
of a broken heart, originally attracted their attention, and 
proved not a little favourable to their infant institution, in con- 
sequence of the sensations produced by that melancholy event. 
It was at first intended, under the idea of supporting and en- 
couraging obscure, but meritorious writers, to publish their 
works for their own exclusive benefit ; but it soon became ap« 
parent, that this would be converting the founders into book- 
sellers ; and that the trouble, risk, and uncertainty of such 
an undertaking would swallow up their scanty funds, and 
anmhilflte all their heafAamA projects, it was accoidiiigly 
determined, after some ineffectual experiments, to confine them- 
selves to occasional relief. Even this contracted plan, for a long 
time assumed an inauspicious aspect ; but, at length, recourse 
was wisely had to publicity. Annual dinners were arranged 
and advertised ; popular noblemen were selected as Presidents 
and Vice Presidents ; while respectable Gentlemen became 
Stewards and Regis^rart^. In addition to this, a regular com-* 
mittee was formed, and at length a house for the institution 
was selected and rented in a central . situati<m. Subscript 
tions and benefactions now flowed in apace ; and a posthumodid 
donation from a namesake and descendant of Sir Isaac Newton, 
at length contributed to give stability to the system. It might 
appear both invidious and indelicate, to mention the names of 
men who are still alive ; but, it may be allowed to observe, 
that the author of this narrative has himself recommended and 
procured occasional assistance for one of the greatest tnathie- 
maticians now existing in Great Britain, with whose feelingly 
on this occasion, he had a long and almost hopeless contest. 

Although the funds, as already observed, were at first 
scanty, and their powers of beneficence necessarily circum- 
scribed, yet, Mr. Williams, and his worthy associates proceed- 
ed with undiminished ardour in their career, and, in the course 
of twelve years, they appear from the registers to have dis- 
tributed the sum of 1680/. 85. among one hundred and five 
peritlns. Since that period, from causes alreadjfai^igned, thdir 



so HR. WILLIAMS. 

sphere of action has^acreMed, and numyaninent penoiiB whl> 
havo powerfoUy contributed to the amuiement and the in- 
itrvctifm of their countrymen, have had their necessaries sup- 
piiad, in a limited, it is true^ but, assuredly, in a deUcate and 

satifiMrtory maimer. The learned Dr. H. (now no more), 

was rdieved hem his temix>rary embarrassments through this 
chatmdL The institution has lately contributed to the educa- 
tion of the orphan son of a celebrated poet; while the last mo- 

vaaM cff the Celebrated Mr. Ar. M were cheered by its 

judicious boaeficence. 

• Aftesr this short, but it is hoped, interesting digression, we 
^hall return to the subject of these memoirs. 

In the year 1 7S9> appeared ^* Lectures on Education : read 
tp a Society for promoting reasonable and humane Improve- 
ments in the Discipline and Instruction of Youth ; by the Rev. 
David Williams ;" in 3 vols. 8vo. The first of these was de- 
dicated to thd Duchess of Devonshire ; the second, to the 
Duchess of Northumberland; and the third, to Mrs. Blair ; 
all of whom were complimented on their attention to this in- 
teresting sulgeot; while the two former received due praise 
for the truly maternal care with which they had reared their 
ofi&pring* 

VoL I. contains sixteen Lectures ; the first of which is occu* 
pied with the subject of " parental love." Next follow gene- 
ral observations, and explanatory remarks. In Lect. IV. and V. 
it is laid down as a maxim, ^^ that Schools ought to be the 
Images of Life:" VI. contains an account of theprivate attempts 
to. reform public customs : VII. " Moral Seasons :" VIII. on 
the " Activity and Curiosity of Children :" IX. "Natural His- 
tory :" X. « Parental Substitutes :" XL " Advantages of Pub- 
lic, compared with those of retired Situations :" and XII. ^^ the 
Learning and Sci^ice of Infancy." All the. remainder are 
dedicated to a consideration of the " Virtues of Infancy ;" and, 
" the Propriety o^ as well as advantages resulting from, a 
Love of Truth." 

Parental tenderness is a principle, which when virtuously 
.and afiectionately founded, leads, we are told, to the great- 



MR. WULLJAMa. 61 

r 

est and best actions, and has '' immortality for its object in tlie 
prosperity and happiness of a family*" " But, it is mischievous 
and fatal^" lulds our author, ^^ if not conducted by reascm and 
virtue/' ^^ Mistaken indulgence by parents of weak and ordi* 
nary understandings, and the efiects of that fondness which 
spoils children, by over nursings saving them trouble, and fos- 
tering their caprices, do not come under consideration at this 
time. Too much care and attention to save them trouble, may 
be sometimes owing to real affection under the directing w:eak 
judgment ; but the common indulgence of children in thdur 
Cfl^rices, proceeds from the want of sufficient affection, or- a 
selfish vqpvd to ear oi«m.MM». To pwpie steady and salutary 
measures, necessary to the health, education, and happiness di 
children, may be often attended with pain and anguish to our- 
selves, but hardly ever to them. Parents usually allege, in excuse 
for not adjusting deviations; that they have not the heart to cor- 
rect ; that they cannot bear to see children suffer, or to hear 
them cry. With the affectation of tenderness, they are guilty of 
actual inhumanity ; they suffer the springs and principles of 
their future characters to be weakened and injured, because 
they have not sufficient affection to extend their denres and 
views to the general happiness of their offspring : and the prc^ 
bability and prospect of future wretchedness make no impres- 
sions on their hearts. But they cannot bear to have little 
capiices checked, or irregularities of temper smothered and ad- 
justed ; because, though they have no hearts, they have out- 
ward senses, which are affected and disturbed by the e8:elam&- 
tions and complaints of the children. These parents are to be 
found in the class of seiitimental moralists^ who make high pre- 
tensions to virtuous affections, and who have no feeling but 
for themselves." 

Mr. Williams considers ^^ correction," as a brutal idea» 
<^ Bodily punishment," according to his systepi, ^^ is never ne- 
cessary with diildren, unless they ha(re been injudiciously 
managed, and then it would not be used by a v^%e man, who 
had time to have recourse to inducements,^ Punislmient," 
addi; he^ << is the, expedient of ignorance and vice; as it is the 



32 .^^ ME. WILLIAMS. 

manner of a savage to use violence on a madune whose rnove^ 
mooti are obstructed. Wisdom never puiishes because it can 
aclfqsl; and it corrects errors by removing their causes. 
Children, who have the good fortune to be under the direction 
of wise and virtuous parents, by having their little deviations 
observed and adjusted in time, enjoy present happiness in a 
much greater degree than others ; while the essential princi- 
ples of future exceUencc are taking firm root in their minds." 

Mr. W. also considers it as a common error on the part of 
parents, to contemplate riches as the means of happiness. He 
deems this error fatal to children ; and he fancies it almost in- 
credible, ** that men, in a state of considerable civilization and 
knowledge, should have been generally employed in procuring^ 
for their children all the means of happiness except the capacity 
of enjoying it." " Parents," it is added, " either wholly neglect 
every rational method of forming the temper and character of 
infancy, or entrust it without choice or consideration to those, 
who oflfcr on the cheapest terms ; while tliey themselves pursue 
the arts of accumulating wealth, of obtaining honours, or pro- 
curing pleasures*. Children form their opinions, and learn 
their morality, not fi*om the lessons they occasionally hear, but 
fh>m the examples before them. They disregard the formal 
pfeoepts of low and wretched schoolmasters, and pant for the 
moment when they may accompany tlieir parents in paths 
strewed with gold, and have their hours and days dissolved in 
pleasure. 

** I have been severely animadverted upon, for presuming 
to charge the present times with barbarism. I should be glad 
to be directed in denominating the unnatural inattention and 
want of wise and manly regard, in parents for their of&pring. 
Men and women of fortune seem to be the only unnatural 
brutes in the creation. They alone produce their children, 
without affection; and when born, they alone desert, or leave 
them to the care of any who will take them from mercenary 
motives. They cruelly withhold that food from their young 
which all other animals delight in administering; risk their 
lives to avoid the tender office of beneficent love; and prevent 



MR. WILLIA]tf% ' SA 

tbe possibility of fanning the first sparks of dpmestic affection. 
And, when they have thrown their children into the hands <^ 
nurses and schoolmasters, they betake themselYes with great sa- 
tisfaction to cares and employments better suited to their csper 
cides ; and bestow expence, attention, and trouble,. of which 
they think their children unworthy, on inferior animals, which 
they render proper associates for themsdves. Is it wonderful, 
the children of such persons are not prop^ly prepared for their 
stations? — that any foolish customs prevail in fichoob?-— 
that we are taught as many languages as were given at Babel^ 
and with the same effect of confusing and ruining our intel-* 
IcjCta. ?---^#^d» that n ledMd oimMag » fdiiM bffllthy, hottMf 
virtuous, and intelligent, would be incomprehenstUe^ or tiwted 
with ridicule ?' 

After these preliminary observations, we are told, that 
^^ education is the art of preparing a child for the duties of 
life.'* The primary obyect of attrition is the botfy. It requires 
both judgment and care, to assist its growth and health; and^ 
to form die SxfA organs of senubility, so as to receive just im- 
pressions. The Spartan polky was for too rigorous and unr^ 
lenting: for the infant adjudged unlikdy to become hethhf 
and useful, was immediately put to death. This j^ostioii is 
enforced, from the case of Agesilaus, whose debility and defor- 
mity had nearly procured his condemnation. Persons of m 
distinguished rank have in many instances been preserved 
from a lingertog death by being snatched ^^ from Che bosooEnof 
an enervated mother, frovi the fetid air of her chamber, and the 
poison of cosmetics and perfume^ and put to the wholesome 
breast c£ a hardy peasant, suffered constantly to breathe die 
element in which it must live^ and tossed asd tumUed into 
life and activity. The heroes of antiquity are Sagmoi totomt 
bealth, vigour, and prudoice to this precaution. Cyrus ooKUt 
not have been the victor and idol of Asia^ if he had been nur- 
tured by Mandane; he is therefore said to have been brought 
upbysh^herds* The founder of Rome was nwiBignfji to « 
w»l£ Indeed wy Animal must be a better inolhertlMm a fine 
JadyJ* 

^OU lU D 



34 Ml. WILLIAMS. 

Our author next censures ^^ the injudicious and inhuman 
tneasnres usually adopted under pretence of tenderness and 
kindness. Thus, the child is taught to dread every wind that 
blows ; and is made to believe, that the element in which he' 
is destined to live, is his greatest enemy. This is not a faO' 
ciful or exaggerated description. In communities called civi- 
lized, where riches are obtained by industry, but misemployed 
by injudicious luxury; where fortunes are provided for yoimg 
people, and where young people are not prepared for the use 
or enjoyment of their fortunes; the greater number of those^ 
not under the necessity of labour, are totally useless to the 
world. They live for the preservation of their lives ; or, hav- 
ing been taught to i^prehend injuries and dangers from earth, 
air, water, and every thing around them, they die daily, and 
undergo for years the terrors and injuries of a dissolution, 
which nature has ordained but once.'' 

' At length, when the faculties of the man develope ; or, token 
the soul has possession of the body, the business of education is 
generally commaiced. The first years of life, we are told, are 
left to ignorance or accident ; and the disposition, bias, and 
character, thus formed at random, are cither rendered means of 
distinction, or subject to the permanent restraints of prejudice 
and custom. <^ Education is an apprenticeship for the employ- 
ments of life." What are those employments ? — good hus- 
bands and wives ; good parents ; dutiful children ; affectionate 
relations and friends ; useful members of communities ; and 
benevolent citizens of the world. The principles of tbese du- 
des are in all men similar ; and the measures to be taken with 
all children, to render them moral agents, are similar also. 
Education should consist not of precepts, but of exercises coiv 
nected with such important sitaations. We never misappre- 
hend the object, when qualiiying youth for any inferior occupa- 
tion or employment. In that case, we do not furnish maxims 
to be committed to memory ; for, we see a good mason or car^ 
pentcr cannot be formed by rules on the use of stone or of 
timber ;-— we exercise persons designed for such employments 
in their practical branches, and hardly ever fail of accomplish* 



MR. WILLIAMS. 35 

ing our puiposes. This is tlic method pointed out by rieason, 
by philosophy, and by the wisdom and practice of antiquity, in 
the instruction of man for the duties of life. 

*^ To act on public theatres, men are immured in colleges 
with priests ; and, to discharge the duties of society, women arc 
shut up in nunneries and convents, or in boarding schools re- 
:»embling them in inconveniences and. vices. There, super- 
stition, mechanic order, and poor unwholesome diet, check the 
vigour of the body and mind, or break the spirit into a dispo- 
sition, to be ever- insincere, hypocritical, and servile. This is 
the^description of modern education. 

^^ Youthodipald be haJMtuated to tenoparance ; and prepared 
for the accidents of life, even by occasional abstinence ; but, 
while children are guarded against intemperance, they should 
be fully fed with nutritive and generous food ; and the lessons 
of abstinence should appear to them to be moral, not econo- 
mical. . The present scanty diet has fatal effects on their con- • 
stitutions. Disorders occasioned by repletion are easily re- 
inoved;^duMe occasioned by inanition seldom or never. Children 
starved in our Uttle schools, never becomevigorous and healthy." 
It is far. worse, we are assured, in. respect to females; andit is 
here intimated, as a general truth, that '< hardly a young person 
bred up at a boarding school, can suckle her own children !" 

Do you wish to induce a child to love his brothers and sis- ' 
ters? — do not ^oin it as a duty : for injunction cannot effect, 
it may obstruct, your purpose. Produce connexions, or good 
offices between them, and you will obtain the object. Do you 
wish to render a boy susceptible of the great passions of love, 
friendship, patriotism, and universal benevolence? Do not in- 
flame, or enfeeble his opening mind, with the glowing strains 
of ancient or modem eloquence on these subjects ; train him in 
the actual exercise and art. of. sacrificing present gratifications, 
to those at a litde distance ; and teach him by repeated expe-' 
rience, that every pleasure is multiplied by the participation 
of others. This is the art of education. 

Reason and custom are at variance in their motives; and 
they^(&[ in.thie. m^an$ of acquiring their objects. The in* 

D 2 



S8 MR. WILLIAMS* 

ter, and unimpeachable morals, anupartment in the British 
CoflPee-House, Charing-Cross, was accordingly selected for 
this purpose ; and the congregation, which bad now dwindled 
to twelve or fourteen, accordingly assembled there, for a con- 
siderable period. The wits of that day were accustomed to 
remark that the dinner, accompanied by excellent Madeira^ 
and no small share both of good humour and hospitality 
usually given by the above-named patron of the institu- 
tion, in Brewer-street, after the lecture, operated as no small 
inducement to attendance. 

When this establishment had closed, Mr. Williams engaged 
in a variety of literary works, and being fully sensible of tlie 
numerous calamities to which authors in general are not unfre- 
quently liable in a peculiar degree, particularly in this coun- 
try, he conceived tlie happy idea, if not of annihilating, at least 
of alleviating the misfortunes of this class of men. Accord- 
ingly, he associated with a few friends, whose numbers at 
first did not exceed six ; and of these the narrator is un* 
luckUy enabled to name only two, besides himself, viz. Captain 
Morris, the elder brother of a gentleman whose Lyric Muse 
has often prolonged the midnight festivities of the metropolis, 
and gladdened the hearts of all those asssembled around the 
convivial board ; together with the Rev. John Gardiner, since 
d^eceased, but then Vicar of Battersea."^ The sudden death of 



9th. That thit fundamental and important truth, although by nattire In man, U vat 
not only prior to, and independent of, any human laws or reveal&d rbuoion, but 
mutt itill be equally to in a supposed sute of totally uneducated and perfectly solitary 
individuality ; yet in that of society it will admit or require the concurring aids of both 
Uw and religion, in as far as they may be usefuf or necessary for the said mos( essential 
olject. 

loth. That, lutly, the expediency or necessity in society for these aids firom law and 
nligbn, will be precisely in proportion to the deficiency or ineflkacy of the best use of' 
right reason or natural religion ; and the degree of perfection In both laws and religions 
for mankind, must necessarily and eiactly be in the ratio of their conformity and con- 
Aicifaiieas to the most essential object of human nature, as stated in the 7th article of 
this Cited. 

London, 1793." 

* Perhaps, the name of Mr. John Nichols, F. S. A. author of the Histoiy of Leicester- 
•hire, Uteraiy Anecdotes^ &e. &c. ought to be add^ to the foundera already named. 




MR. WILLIAMS. 29 

« 

die leftmed and accomplished Floyer Sydenham, M. A. of 
Wadham College, Oxford, in extreme poverty, and liten^y 
of a broken heart, originally attracted their attention, and 
proved not a little favourable to their infant institution, in con* 
sequence of the sensations produced by that melancholy event. 
It was at first intended, under the idea of supporting and en- 
couraging obscure^ but meritorious writers, to publish their 
works for their own exclusive benefit ; but it soon became ap- 
parent, that this would be converting the founders into book- 
sellers ; and that the trouble, risk, and uncertainty of siich 
an undertaking, would swallow up their scanty funds, and 
annihilate all their beneficent projects. It was accordingly 
det^mined, after some inefiectual experiments, to confine thon- 
selves to occasional relief. Even this contracted plan, for a long 
time assumed an inauspicious aspect ; but, at length, recourse 
was wisely had to publicity. Annual dinners were arranged 
and advertised ; popular noblemen were selected as Presidents 
and Vice Presidents ; while respectable Gentlemen became 
Stewards and Registrars. In addition to this, a r^ular com- 
mittee was formed, and at length a house for the institution 
was selected and rented in a central . situation. Subscrip- 
tions^ and benefactions now flowed in apace ; and a posthumous 
donation fi^m a namesake and descendant of Sir Isaac Newton, 
at length contributed to ^ve stability to the system. It might 
appear both invidious and indelicate, to mention the names of 
men who are still alive ; but, it may be allowed to observi^ 
that the author of this narrative has himself recommended and 
procured occasional assistance for one of the greatest tnathe<> 
maticians now existing in QredX Britain, with whose feelings 
on this occasion, he had a long and almost hopeless contest. 

Although the funds, as already observed, were at first 
scanty, and their powers of beneficence necessarily circum- 
scribed, yet, Mr. Williams, and his worthy associates proceed- 
ed with undiminished ardour in their career, and, in the course 
of twelve years, they appear from the registers to have dis- 
tributed the sum of 1680/. 85. among one hundred and five 
persons. Since that period, from causes already assigned, their 



86 USU^VriLLlAUB. 

ttnictioM of nature are by trial and experience; tlioie of ^tt- 
cation» by words, manners, and precq)ts. Children when pat 
to school, are literally pttt to books; under the care of a man, 
.whdis merdy a librarian in authority. Widi' him, learning is 
every thing ; and the use of learning — is to be learned. 

*^ The plan in general credit is, that of which authority or 
fear is the principle ; for the same reason tliat arbitrary govern- 
ments, under various forms have been generally established. 
Every understanding is competent to wield the sword of a des- 
pot ; while the arrangements of political and civil liber^, seem 
to be bai*ely within the reach of human talents. In education, 
every solemn and pedantic brute, may terrify feeble and helpless 
in&ncy into convulsive efibrts: it may be barely in the power 
of the wisest mind to comprdiend the tendencies and direction 
ef the human frame; to assist without controlling its powers ; 
and to correct its deviations, without destroying the spirit wkidi 
may occasion them. In both cases, the easy method is adopted 
by ordinary und^standings, who still exult in superiority of 
numbers, and in the difficulties which embarrass and defetft die 
dBforts of those, who quit the public path, for the labynnllia of 
regulated liberty, or of reasonable education. These enthu- 
siasts, these visionaries, as they are commonly denominated, are 
not likely to be reclaimed, or indeed, to rdinquish their hopes* 
* by the reproach and ridicule of opponents. EstiAiatidg the 
blessings of liberty, or of a reasonable and humaifie education, 
by effects in detached and imperfect instances, their imagina- 
tions form splendid ideas of perfect systems, executed with wis- 
dom and probity. Though these ideas may never be reaKzed, 
yet, like perfect forms and models in the arts, they are ever pre- 
sent to the mind of the artist, ^ho enlarges his satisfaction and 
pleasure as he i^proaches and copies them." 

It was in vain that Mr. Williams attempted toobtain »sistance 
from books ; even Rousseau, proved unavailing, as he thought 
his plan of leaving children wholly to theiinselves, or to employ 
them only in such exercises as invigorate their bodies, <^ had 
•o much the character of brutality, as to be inadmissible." Not- 
withstanding this declaration, our author appears to have copied 



MB. WILLIAMS* S? 

the lessons of the author of Enulfi on a variety of occasions, . 
more specially when the latter took the ancients for his models. 

Truth, he says, was his first object; and he soon found, 
that the exercise of authority was productive of hypocrisy; 
instead of " forcing," therefore, he recommends children, tu 
be " led" into employments. Were the " driving of a hoop, 
in the streets, to be assigned as a task," adds he, ^^ the lunuse- 
ment would disappear, and this species of dexterity, resolu- 
tion, and perseverance, would never attain its present perfec- 
tion : the boy who now overcomes the difficulties of crowds^ 
would then be obstructed by the first passenger, and wearied 
with the subtest etxHixm.^ His experietee at length taught 
him, *^ that the common method defeats its own etid by en- 
deavouring to anticipate it; and that the first years of infancy 
are misemployed in studies which might prove the ornament 
or felicity, of more advanced periods." 

In conjunction with one of his pupils, he commenced the 
study of natural history, a subject then but little known to 
himself; and he soon found that the boy was fiirnished with 
occupations suited to his powers, and boundless as his curio- 
sity. The properties of wood and iron were examined, in 
their native forests and mines ; and the labours of the carpenter 
and blacksmith superintended, when brought into use, for 
the purpose of trade and domestic economy. They also, at 
the tame time, read " Emile^" . and <* perceived its system to 
be a collection of maxims suited to ancient Greece, blended 
with the customs of American savages." But the fears, the 
jealousy, and intervention of the parents, soon put an end to 
these interesting pursuits. 

On another occasion, to render untruth odious, our teacher 
appears to have actually obtained a lying boy, from a workhouse 
by way of practically exhibiting to his scholars the danger, 
baseness, and inutility of such a base and cowardly habit. 

He seems to have found the children of persons of conditioQ, 
extremely perverse at first; but not half so much so, according 
to his notions, as their parents. The latter were irreclaimable! 

'* Children brought to me," observes he^ ''were vidcws 

D S 



38 .MIU WILLIAMS. 



men in miniature. The business of fashionable education, 
conducted with ostentation and expence in private families, 
is on the principles of artificial gardening; and the pupils are 
hot-house plants. Their progress and beauty dazzle or sur- 
prijse superficial observers ; but they sicken at the first breath 
of common air; they have latent insipidities discernible to a 
natural or accurate taste, and they fade or perish with the 
rapidity they sprung up. — My actual business was generally 
different from the direct execution of my plan. Quintiliau 
says, those who would learn music of Timotheus, were obliged 
to pay double price, if they had any previous instruction. It 
required more judgment and delicacy than I could always 
comimand, to dissolve the meretricious charms of refined afieo- 
tation or to correct passions forced into maturity, without ex* 
citing resentments, which would have disappointed all my 
purposes. The iimnediate danger was from the early formation 
of vicious habits ; especially when the growth and vigour of 
premature passions were considered, by parents, as indications 
of superior characters." 

It was the fixed opinion of Mr. Williams, that without the 
confidence of the pupil all the important purposes of education 
are lost ; and he seemed to think, that the character of a boy 
at school, is his character for life. In his time, be was <mi1t 
.acquainted with three usefiil books: Comenius's **Janua 
Linguarum," " Spectacle de la Nature," and the " Preceptor.** 
.Happily since that period, we have been provided with a mul- 
titude of useful works, and it will be the fault both of the pre^ 
sent and the next generation, if .they be not more wise than 
the preceding ones. 

It must have been seen in the course of this work, that Mr. 
Williams, while a young man, was eager to overturn many of 
.what he deemed, the prevailing errors of the times; and if not a 
desperate zealot of political reform, that he was, at least, de^ 
sirous of profiting by the fights and knowledge of the age in 
whicli he lived. He accordingly hailed the commencement 
of the French Revolution as an epoch peculiarly fortunate^ 
not only for the nation itself, but also for the human species* 



MIU WILLIAMS. 39 

With some of the actors on this great scene he was personally 
acquainted, particularly with Brissot, whom he had known in 
England; and who, like himself, was not only addicted to lite- 
rature, but had been at one time employed also, in the educa- 
tion rf youth. 

At an early period of the revolution, and while as yet it re- 
mained unsullied with crimes of any great magnitude^ Mr. 
Williams, with Dr. Priestly, Sir James Mackintosh, and some 
other distinguished Englishmen, were declared French Citizens, 
by the Legislative Assembly. Soon after this, when Louis XV I. 
was at length persuaded to form a new administration from 
among those in direct' opposition to his goyeminent, it was 
determined to invoke his assistance in the formation of a 
new constitution; and he was accordingly invited to Paris, 
by Roland, then minister of the home department. He ac- 
cordingly repaired thither; but he was neither seduced by this 
flattering distinction, nor led to augur any but the most sinister 
events, from the character and conduct of those in power. 
He beheld the Jacobins active, indefatigable, and sanguinary; 
' while on the other hand, he perceived that the Brissotins, as 
they were then called, were passive, credulous, and utterly 
incapable either of promptitude or decision. 
'- Madame Roland, in her &mous <^ Appeal to Impartial 
Posterity," while giving an account of her husband's second ad- 
niihiBtration, expresses high respect for the talents of our author, 
as one of those connected with the new destinies of France. 

f^ Paine," observes, this celebrated female, '^ is better cal- 
cidatied to make a revolution, than form a new constitution. 
He details and establishes those great principles, of which the 
exposition strikes every eye, gains the applauses of a dub, or 
-excites the enthusiasm of a tavern; but for cool discusdon in a 
committee, or the regular labours of a legislator, I conceive 
David Williams infinitely more proper. Williams, although 
made a French citizen also, was not chosen a member of the 
convention, in which he would have been of more use; but 
wras invited by the government to r^air to Paris, where he 
passed several months, and frequently conferred with the most 

B 4 



40 MB* WUXIAltS. 

active ropreBentothres of the nation. A profound thinker and 
a real friend to mankind, he appeared to me to combine their 
means of happiness, as well as Paine feels and describes the 
abuses which constitute their misery. 

^^ I saw him from the yery first time, that he was present 
at the sittings of the assembly, uneasy at the disorder of the 
debates, afflicted at the influence exercised by the galleries and 
in doubt whether it were possible for such men, in such cir- 
cumstances, ever to decree a national constitution. I cannot 
help thinking that the knowledge which he then acquired of 
what we were, attached him more strongly to his country, to 
which he was impatient to return. ' How is it possible^' said 
he to me^ < for mento debate a question, who are incapable 
of listening to each other? Your nation does not even take 
pains to preserve that external decency which is of so much 
consequence in public assemblies : a giddy manner, cardess- 
ness, and a slovenly person, are no recommendations of a legis- 
lator; nor is any thing indifferent which passes in public, and 
of which the effect is repeated every day ?' 

^^ Good heavens ! what would he say at this time, if he 
were to see our senators dressed, since the Slst of Mi^, like 
watermen in long trowsers, a jacket, and a o^, with the bosom 
jo£ their shirts open, and swearing, and gesticulating like 
drunken sansculottes? He would think it perfectly natural £ar 
Ihe people to treat them like their lacqueys, and for the whide 
nation debased by its excesses, to crouch beneath the rod of 
the first despot who shall find means to reduce it to subjec- 
tion. — Williams, is equally competent to fill a place in the 
paarliament or the senate, and will carry with him true dignity 
wherever he goes." 

He doubtless obtained this lady's approbaticm in conae* 
quence of his thorough hatred and disaj^robation of the 
Jacobins. These were considered by him as so many ferocious 
monstars, the declared and irreconcileable enemies of all sys- 
tems calculated to restrain their passions. Like her too, he 
wished by some signal exertMHi to put down and to punish 
Robespierre^ of whose fiitnre crimes, the minds of both 

1 



MB. WILLIAMS* 



41 



to have been already deeply imbued by anticipation. Nor 
ought it to be forgotten, that, from the very first, he counselled 
the preservation of the king, and augured the most sinister, 
events firom his decqpitation. 

On Mr. Williams's return, he wished to complete the con- 
tinuation of Hume, a work whidi he had undertaken at the 
special request of a spirited individual, who had already pro- 
vided a scries of most superb and expensive copper-plates. 

But, as our author bad been recently in France^ and the 
part he had taken while there; was cruelly and grossly mi». 
Tjpresented, the iavour of the court and ministry could 
scarcely be expected to such an vsaiimttMogf A oompttHnise 
therefore enaued, and a sum of money was tendered and ao* 
cepted under the head of indemnification. 

Mr. Williams, was now getting old, without beddming rich r 
hii health too had fiuled, and infirmities of every kind seemed 
ready to assail him. A piuralytic affection having threaten^ 
to suspend the use of his limbs, he removed to Brompton fiir 
a cfayange of mr, and rent^ a house iheare, for a considerable 
period. But his fortune was not calculated to support this 
charge, and it was fimcied by some^ that fidling like Benti* 
vogUo, into misery in his old nge^ he would be refiised admits 
tsnce^ parbaps, into that very hospital, which he himself had 
erected. Btit this was not the case, for on the contrary, in 
eoBieqiMBice of the kind recommendation of Lord Pelham^ 
now Earl of Ckidiester, and i^ large body ci the subscribers^ 
be was invited to take up bis abode in the house of th^ 
Literary Fund, Gerard Stre^ Soha Ther^ in the character 
of a rmderUiofy director of the institution, he was to be daily 
seeo, and lulled to. He sat chiefly in the drawing^xopm^ 
with A maffble bust of Mr. Newton, an avunent benefiurtpr t^ 
theaodely, on one side of him, and another of himself in th^ 
cfiposite comer. These had been executed by an able aitist^is 
e emsc q u ence of « vote of the sodeCy, and were conseo'ated tp 
gratitude ! 

' Ia this honourable asyhun, Mr. WiHiasns was c^efiilhpr 
attended by Jut nieoc^ to wbosn he very {woperiy bequeathed 



42 MR. WILLIAMS. 

the bulk of hii»> fortune, which did not exceed a feVr hundred 
pounds. After a gradual decay of some years, he at last 
calmly resigned his breath, on the 29th of June, 1816, and 
was interred on the succeeding Saturday, in St. Anne's church, 
Soho, where the following simple inscription marks the place 
of his sepulchre : 

David Williams, Esq. 

AGED 78 years: 

Founder of the Literary Fund. 



In his person, Mr. Williams was tall, and well propor^ 
tioned; he had been once accounted handsome; and was 
always particularly attentive to his dress. In his manners^ he 
was courteous and afiable, and contrived at loigth to attach 
to him a number of respectable gentlemen, whose principles 
were eminently hostile both to the political and religious creed 
which he had originally professed. 

In respect to the religious tenets, at one time entertained 
by Mr. Williams, we are not fiilly prepared to descant, be- 
cause we are not acquainted with their precise import and ten- 
dency. It appears from his own works that the opinions whidi 
had gone abroad on this subject, were eminently unfriendly to 
his views, as a teacher of youth. Without meaning ta afford 
the slightest sanction to any thing contained in the foUowiag 
quotation, it is here given merely with a view of convejing 
some of his early opinions, both on the subject of edacatioo 
and religion, and that too precisely in his own words : 

*^ In a state of general efiervesoence, when the spirit of 
curiosity is impelled by strong passions, the aid of religion is 
thought requisite : and some ideas of religion are unavoidable^ 
On this subject I am not usually left to my own juc^^ment : 
an opinion prevailing that I must be averse to religious prin* 
dples^ the female interest of fiunilies is exerted in precautions 
against my influence. 

^* I can allow for prqxwsessions, or any thing analogous lo 
principle; but I abhor profligacy. If the women are sopei^ 



MR, WILLIAMS. 43 

stitious, the men are unprincipled : while the mother is anxi* 
oiis the child be not contaminated with philosophy, the father 
wishes religion to be formed into a convenient dress, to be put 
on or off at the pleasure of the wearer. It is my misfortune 
in common with thousands to disbelieve pretensions to divine 
communications, which have popular sanctions. I call it a 
misfortune because in the present condition of society, it is 
attended with inconveniences ; and whatever may be alleged of 
the motives to free thinking, they do not generally furnish 
compensations for its disadvantages, or injuries. Hence the 
contradictory phenomena of the moral world ; whence know- 
ledge is gradually dissipating prejudice ; without affecting the 
forms of religion or diminishing the number of its votaries. * 

" The experiment I made on the subject, at some expence 
to the peace of my mind, and the convenience of my fortune, 
has furnished information which cannot be obtained by every 
enquirer ; and the results, if establishments were demolished, 
every thing wearing at this time the form of religion would 
be extinguished. You will perceive I do not allege the fact as 
an argument for establishments : they form the great asylum 
of unprincipled hypocrisy. The general murmur of good- 
will attending the first intimation of my design, expressed the 
wishes of thousands ; but they ventured not beyond a wish : 
and many of those who flew to the standard of liberty before 
they had estimated the inconvenience, have atoned for the 
imprudence by an humiliating species of recantation ; or sunk 
into the ranks of superstition, with precautionary accumula- 
tions of insincerity. Religion shelters infidels in disguise: 
it is the fortune of incautious sincerity, or improvident rash- 
ness to be branded with the unequivocal marks of irreligion. 

^< No man, believing the admirable provisions of nature to 
be superseded by those of revelation, will treat it with con^ 
tempt, or even with habitual negligence; yet contempt of 
religion is the disposition, not of professed free-thinkers, for 
they are actuated by a different sentiment; it is the general 
duposition of the times : no persons ridicule it so firequently, 
-er wHb so much pleasure, as those who save appearances re- 

7 



86 MR. WILLIAMS. 

structions of nature are by trial and experience; those of ddtt- 
cation, by words, manners, and precepts. Childrto when pat 
to school, are literally put to books; under the carie of a man, 
,wh<5is merely a librarian in authority. With' him, learning is 
every thing ; and the use of learning — is to be learned. 

** The plan in general credit is, that of which authority or 
fear is the principle; for the same reason tliat arbitrary govern- 
ments, under various forms have been generally established. 
Every understanding is competent to wield the sword of a des- 
pot ; while the arrangements of political and civil liberty, se^m 
to be bai'ely within the reach of human talents. In education, 
every solemn and pedantic brute« may. terrify feeble and helpless 
in&ncy into convulsive efibrts: it may be barely in the power 
of the wisest mind to comprehend the tendencies and direction 
ef the human frame; to assist without cohtrolling its powers ; 
and to correct its deviations, without destroying the spirit which 
may occasion them. In both cases, the easy method is adopted 
by ordinary und^standings, who still exult in supmorky of 
numbers, and in the difficulties which Embarrass aiitd \iefei(t ttte 
efforts of those, who quit the public path, for the labyrintfis of 
r^ulated liberty, or of reasonable education. Tbese «ithii- 
siasts, these visionaries, as they lire commonly dendmmM!^ aiie 
not likely to be reclaimed, or indeed, to rdni^qaish their hbpest 
* -by the reproach and ridicule of opponents. EstiAiatiil^ the 
blessings of liberty, or of a reasonable and humavie education, 
by efiects in detached and imperfect instances, their 'hhagi&a- 
ticms form splendid ideas of perfect systems, excfcuted iriA wis- 
dom and probity. Though these ideas may never be realized, 
yet, like perfect forms and models in the arts, they are ever pre^ 
sent to .the mind of the artist, leho enlarges his satisfacdonaod 
pleasure as he approaches and copies them.^ 

It was in vain that Mr. Williams attempt^ toobtain lasistande 
•from books ; even Rousseau, proved unavailing, as he thought 
his plan of leaving children wholly to iheikiselves, or to ethplcff 
them only in such exercises as invigorate their bodies, ^< had 
so much the character of brutality, as to beinadmissible.'' Not- 
withstanding diis declaration, our author appears to have copied 



MR. WILLIAMS. S7 

the lessons of the author of Em^l^9 on a variety of ocdEusions, , 
morie ^gpecially when the latter took the ancients for his models. 

Truth, he says, was his first object; and he soon found, 
that the exercise of authority was productive of hypocrisy; 
instead of " forcing," therefore, he recommends children, to 
be "led" into employments. Were the "driving of ahoop, 
in the streets, to be assigned as a task," adds he, " the amuse* 
ment would disappear, and this species of dexterity, resolu- 
tion, and perseverance, would never attain its present perfec- 
tion : the boy who now overcomes the difficulties of crowds^ 
would then be obstructed by the first passenger, and wearied 
with the slightest exertion." His experience at length taught 
him^ ** that the common method defeats its own end by en- 
deavouring to anticipate it ; and that the first years of infancy 
are misemployed in studies which might prove the ornament 
or felicity, of more advanced periods." 

In conjunction with one of his pupils, he commenced the 
study of natural history, a subject then but little known to 
himself; and he soon found that the boy was furnished with 
Occupations suited to his powers, and boundless as his curio- 
sity. The properties of wood and iron were examined, in 
their native forests and mines ; and the labours of the carpenter 
and blacksmith superintended, when brought into use, fcxr 
the pmpose of trade and domestic economy. They also^ at 
the same time, read " £mile,"«and " perceived its system to 
be a collection of maxims suited to ancient Greece, blended 
with the customs of American savages." But the fears, the 
jealousy, and intervention of the parents, soon put an end to 
these interesting pursuits. 

Qn^another occasion, to render untruth odious, our teacher 
appears to have actually obtained a lying hcfy, firom a workhouse^ 
by way of practically exhibiting to his scholars the danger, 
baseless, and inutility of such a base and cowardly habit. 

He seems to have found the children of persons of conditioB, 
extremely perverse at first; but not half so much so, accorduig 
to his notions, as their parents. The latter were irreclaimable 1 

^* Cluldrciii btsDught to me," observes he, ^* were vicious 

D 5 



^ 4 1 MB. Wll.t|AM8« 

spectii^ it with the multitude, or who are supported in ease 
mid affluence by its emoluments. 

^* The pretensions . of divine messengers are "^not, to m^ 
matters of light discourse. They are in my sincere apprehen«> 
sion) among the most fruitful and pernicious sources of im- 
posture, or oppression ; they check industry by the support of ■ 
opulent classes, constitutionally allied to ill^timate *power; 
and they produce greater evils in human societies, than any 
other causes in my knoMfledge. If I ever refer to them, it is 
not with trivial ribaldry, but with serious concern, or indignant 
abhorrence. I am not, however, the apostle of irreligion. 
The baneful tree has struck its roots too deeply for my strength* 
I would not encounter the monsta-s that guard it, to tear off 
a branch, or to scatter a few leaves." 

It appears, that the subject of this memoir w<^ very cautious 
of attempting to make proselytes. Whatever Hi^ own doubts 
might have been, he never tried to infuse them into the 
minds of his pupils. *^ I'ersons," adds he^ *^ having recourse 
to me, in education, have therefore nothing to apprehend firpm 
me. While I scorn the affectation of sentiments I disapprove, 
* lean respect sincerity, even in pernicious prgudices; and I 
avoid all discussion of opinions denominated religioDS. This 
conduct is so consonant to my inclinations, it is become a 
habit of so easy a nature, that fiunilies who have been many 
years ccmnected with me iu education, suppose me a clergy- 
man in the full exercise or practice of customary duties ; and 
frequently wish me to perform such occasional offices as might 
give them opportunities of pecuniary compliments. 

<< No proposition," says he^ ^in one of his discourses, can 
be incontroyertiblie, if the following be not, — - Moral philo- 
sophy to be asjosefiil as any other science, should be as free, its 
principles deduced from experience, not from authority; liba»l 
and informed minds have generally been convinced of this 
truth ; and the conviction operated in various methods for the 
advantage of society. T^he respect they impressed on their ac- 
quqintanc^ the ipfluence pf their conversation or writkigi^ 
were JSiiv(m;nJ;>le to th(i intarests pf maiij^nd. But mcval pki« 



MR. WILLIAJtf S. 4f5 

loeophj remained in a specif of obscurity; sometimes deq)!; . 
clouded by scorn or contempt. It seemed to me an enterprise 
of som^ merit, to. seize an advantageous spot, left unguarded by 
superstitious despotism: where the cruelties or injuries oS ex- 
hausted phrenzy had produced a suspension pf hostilities, called 
tcieratioft. The ground was untrodden^ it had its inconveni- 
^ces, perhaps its dangers. The little interest or address in 
my power, could not induce one man to accdmpony me; and 
I first occupied the post alone. 

*^ WheUier a measure^ which may have some e£fe^ in con* 
tinning the alliance <^ morality and religion, can be justified, 
may be matter of future oonsideraiioiu My presoit concern 
is, to dispel the obscurities of ignorance or misapprehension. 
The injuries of malignity, I will, if possible, contem|>tuousIy 
avoid, if not, I wiU endeavour to repel them. I speak before 
persons who have attended every step in the undertaking; 
whose judgment I esteem more than any thing assuming the 
fi^rm or consequence of public opinion. 

^ In opening the duqpd in Margaret-street, it was. my objecft 
to claim for moral philosophy, the toleration attowed the extra- 
vagancies of gloomy enthusiasm, or the dogmas of ferocaoas 
sedition. Others had dared to think or write mth fi-eedom ; but 
none had placed morality at the side of superstition, by pulidicly 
teaching its doctrines. This object may not be out of my 
view, whatever be the fluctuations of the society form^ by tbie 
notice of my intention. I tpeak to the knowledge of miany, 
that I have o^lected obvious interests, and Inroke vahiiA>le 
fiiendships to avoid the empiricism of a sectary ; to adhere 
scrupulously to a design, which I may yet see adknowkged 
in its utmost importance." 

He concludes, by observing ^< that the impertinenee of vul- 
gar athebm is similar to that of a worm contemi^ikig the iqf stem 
of Newton." 

It has already been seen in the course of this narrative thai 
Mr. Williams was a great and zealous firiend to iruihi and he 
censtantly inculcated its maxims, into the two sexes^ as indii» 
peniaUy necessary for both. He approved of civility and 



.1 1 



r^i..*\tim^ MMLCBoadBDei merit and escHlenoe entitled to an 
^ecnoBMe re ctycim. But. on tbe ocber hand, the affect* 
isnoa JC tnese ^ualirit;^ '▼a:* nicst curdiaily detested by him 9 
ix*re esiMcublv wotfii subserrieizc xo JDiean or seifish views. 

Hl* W3» jccustumiAi 07 conaaAgr cammtmawof as something that 

xr:nuits» iit: jtcervai bvcween hamih ^ o i »uu > L f and mean servi- 

ii'^'. Asnuu aanmm&soiby dbevcioaof knovled^ 

> yrtgni^u a/ oiiiirscie auirauca» or iMits in othen, which it is 

ic\ tioiiKv x* JtK.^: imi with which it could not assimilate. 

:k :Kniictic» .aenffi>r^% ^tuc rrje ccmpiaisance might yield to 

ix- .e«ni%.'*s ji* iTv-iQuc.cfii!^ Of* orfi^rj Unrodd the limits inva- 

■-oiv \rf<f»o^ixx; •* > ,"*•% 5vi":j "T<.'><s;. bi^e coosidered as a 

^t >Vi;uivu vA .)wtft> JOiK ^KNBUXC^ ax osMJHKrSk <eUom to be 

. vf^^iM «r wiliiit Qtmiif-^ He jiw dkemncd this quality not 

-^ rv^ia«i«ciy .it vtun w ifa ctt w» d» ratw^ : duid citen productive 

i ^KV»i. >is<m>^k *^*a <«rcic^«c tv? oecers? wxtkh : to sooth 

sK ••v\**^ «!*£. it»>^*wik'%«. oc ccxjicxi*: :o cjexvf rrrvaie men out 

.A K%. ^•%-.»vM> ,v -^wotctj : iad to rr*^ lie ;^POBBnnteof 

,N>Mc^^v\ ^>i«^ «» ^Hr oMWMsitt . awom iff .mn^ icvtk^cr haft white, 
v^ IMKrV^-N ^^-^«)»»: ^ j c' iiKif iW' ^ kM due «' luttesar. Wheii 
!^^i<ri»i Wn^ ><<><*wn «ici»i)9MiKii ik"^ ik» iikf cTaDfiddan and 
,iMicW W <winnwiy>iiir. tlK«a »^ e3UK-t^ ia ike confibon of 
t^^W^r YMitiH(tWMiiN^ w r^( ^ 4< » wiM^ )ui^ aic^fssned a Ofeaaefar strong 

\tv W>)lkMWis xvm4«i»c<o(^ :V 1^5^ ivvi»rcxc occasionally 
M v^M^^ v< x>wr i^iKic fti-^vih^ «$ ^e^«> ^Kyeicocw M tJe in poirt 
v«' >^v^ MS? ws>c^>< : a?M W <9s;k>ksm^ bis ctfiuaions u-ecly 

IV^i^rj^Y^ tWe ciiW ^"4' hi$ «ifi\ he aff^H»« to hat>f diangeJ, 
iNt \*MWr tc^ Ka^^ \>Mh^c^l wiost <4' his meiw$^ At an earlier 
)y*T^Ni. i^!^ Ka!s hert\ altiNidT notiov>L ho m-as a great stickler 
i;v \y*^i^. K>th in n«f>rvt u^ gotvmroent and religion : bat he 
*hN% ^\>t\'^»' ^^ haw gradwally rel«x<\K ami as the society wiJch 
W K^^ i;sxrN*t>1 viT^^ UlxraUy sup^vr<tl by many gcntlcmca 
t^ht^ VcM ^^xvs xrtHki" ij\M\v-*iir.cm : ^o ^o c^ften beheld liim in 



MR. WILLIAMS. 4»7 

his latter days, connected both with eminent divines of the. 
estabhshed church and: respectable placemen, who were alike 
eager to promote his humane views. 

For some years before his demise, a gradual decline of mind 
as well as of body seems to have taken place. He was feeble^ 
and not only wrote but uttered his sentiments with some diffi- 
culty. Although supposed to have been, at one period, gifted 
with a considerable portion of eloquence, yet he was not fond 
of public speaking, and for a long time previously to his dis^ 
solution, he constantly and studiously, n^lected the opportu- 
nities afforded by the usual compUmentary toast, at the annual 
diimer : << to the founder of the Literary .Fund." On those o<^ 
casions, he remained silent, and declined to make any public 
return of his acknowlegements. 

We shall conclude this memoir, witii the following passage^ 
written by a quondam friend and biographer. 

^^ The distinguishing traits of Mr. Williams' character, were 
a boundless philanthropy and disinterestedness; studious of 
every acquisition that forms the taste, but implying the 
strength of his genius to the arts of government and education, 
as objects of the highest importance to the welfare of naticmd, 
and the happiness of individuals. In his dress, elegandy plain ; 
in domestic life, attentive to the niceties of decorum ; in pubUo, 
politely ceremonious ; in all his manners dignified .and distin- 
guished; in conversation, animated; in his person, tall and 
^reeable^ having a conunandinglook softened vnth aftability." 

Ust of the Works of the late David JViUianfs, Esq. 

1. Several single Sermons, published at different times. 

2. Letter to David Garrick, Esq. oh his conduct as a man- 
ager and performer, 8vq. 1770. 

S. Essays on Public Worship, Patriotism, and Projects of 
Reformation, 12mo. 177S. 

4. An Appendix to the above, 12mo. 1774. 

5. Sermons on Religious Hypocrisy, 2 vols. 8vo. 1 774. 

6. Treatise on Education, 12mo. 1774. 



48 MB. WILLIAMS. 

• J. Pkn of an Academy for the Iiistractioii of Yoatfa^ 1 774. 
: S» The Philosopher; consisting of three Polemical Conver- 
sations, 8vo. 1775. 

9. A Liturgy ; containing the universal Principles of Re- 
ligion and Morality, 8vo. 1776*. 

iO. A Letter to the Protestant Dissenters, on the Political 
Conduct of their Body. 

11. A Letter to Sir George Saville, Bart, }d. P.. on the 
Nature and Extent of Intellectual Liberty, 8vo. 1779. 

12. Apology for professing the Religion of Nature, 6vo. 

1 S. Lectures on the Universal Principles of Reli^on and 
Morality, 2 vols. 4to. 1779. 

14. Letters on Political Liberty, Svo. 1782. 

15. Letters on Education, 3 vols. 8va 1789. 

16. A Plan of an Association on Oxistitutional Principles, 
small 8vo. 

17. Lessons to a Young Prince, 8vo. (This was never 
publicly avowed.) 

18. History ot Monmouthshire 1 vol. 4to. wbh plates from 
drawings, by hisfriend the Rev. Mr. Gardener, Vicar of J^- 
tersea. 

Id. The first part of Claims «f Literature, ccmtaining the 
.oi%in, motives, objebts, uni transactions t>f the Literary Fund, 
dvdw 1803. (A new edition of this work, with a slrart life, 
accompanied by a portrait of the aadior, w^ published by 
Miessrs* Nichols and Bentley, in 1816.) 



49 



No. Ill, 
The Rev. JOHN DISNEY, D. D. F. S. A. 

X HE present, as well as the former volume, contains the lives 
of many eminent divines of the church of England, who have 
not only reflected honour on our national establishment, but 
also on human nature, f 

The article now subjected to the perusal of the reader, is 
intended to convey a biographical sketch of a distinguished 
clergyman, who deemed it proper, in the prime of life, and 
with the full possession of his faculties, to withdraw from that 
revered institution, of which he was an ornament, forsaking 
all prospects of ecclesiastical preferment, to profess himself 
not only a believer in, but the pastor of a different, and in 
some respects, perhaps, an hostile faith.— Ed. 



The late John Disney, D. D. is descended from a very ancient 
and respectable family in Lincolnshire. His father John Disney, 
of Lincoln, Esq., possessed an estate at Swinderby, in that 
county, and had several children, all of whom, with the ex- 
ception of one f , appear to have paid the great debt of nature. 

The subject of this narrative was born in the city just 
mentioned, on September 1 7, 1 746. Being son of a gentle- 
man in affluent circumstances, he of course received a liberal 

• See vol. i. Life of Dr. William Cleaver, Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, p. 16.; Dr. 
W. Jackson, Lord Bishop of Oxford, p. 9«. ; the very Rev. Dr. Vinceut, Dean of West- 
Aiitster, p. 125., aod Dr» WauoD> Lord Bishop of Uaudaif, p. 429. 

f Mr. Disney, an elder bsother, in consequence of a marriage widi an heiress of tliat 
nama, assumed the addendum of Fitche, and by this lady, obtained the estate <ji Dan- 
bury P«rk in ihe^couoty of £Bsex. One of his jdaugliten married Sir W. Hil»fy» ^^' the 
other bequne the wife of her first cousin, Mr. Disney, a barrister of Tlie Inner Temple. 

VOL. II. £ 



^ 4 h MB. "WlthJAUB. 

spectii^ it with the multitude, or who are supported in ease 
aiuji affluence by its emoluments. 

^ The pretensions . of divine messengers are "^not, to me^ 
matters of light discourse. They are in my sincere appreheUf- 
aioO) among the most fruitful and pernicious sources of im- 
posture, or oppression ; they check industry by the support of - 
opulent classes, constitutionally allied to illegitimate *power; 
and they produce greater evils in human societies, than any 
other causes in my knoMfiedge. If I ever refer to them, it is 
not with trivial ribaldry, but with serious concern, or indignant 
abhorrence. I am not, however, the apostle of irreligion. 
The baneful tree has struck its roots too deeply for my strength. 
I would not encounter the monsters that guard it, to tear off 
a branch, or to scatter a few leaves." 

It appears, that the subject <^this memoir w<^ very cautious 
of attempting to make proselytes. Whatever hi^ own doubts 
might have been, he never tried to infuse them into the 
minds of his pupils. *^ Persons," adds he, ^^ having recourse 
to me, in education, have therefore nothing to apprehend from 
me. While I scorn the affectation of sentiments I disapprove, 
* I can respect sincerity, even in pernicious prejudices ; and I 
avoid all discussion of opinicms denominated religious. This 
conduct is so consonant to my inclinations, it is become a 
habit of so easy a nature, that £unilies who have been many 
years ccmnected with me in education, suppose me a clergy- 
man in the full exercise or practice of customary duties ; and 
frequently wish me to perform such occasional offices as might 
give them opportunities of pecuniary compliments. 

*^ No proposition," says he, ^* in one of his discourses, can 
be incontrovertible, if the following be not, — - Moral philo- 
sophy to be as useful as any other science, should be as free, its 
prinpples deduced from experience, not from authority; liberal 
and informed minds have generally been convinced of this 
truth ; and the conviction operated in various methods fiar the 
advantage of society. T^he respect they impressed on their ao- 
quqintanc^ the influence of their conversation or writings, 
were £ivcmjrfJ>le to ihg intarests pf manj^nd. But mcval phi- 



MR. WILLIAMS. 4f5 

loeophj remained in a specif of obscurity; sometimes deqply . 
clouded by scorn or contempt. It seemed to me an enterprise 
of som^ merit, to seize an advantageous spot, left unguarded by 
superstitious despotism : where the cruelties or injuries oS ex- 
hausted phr^izy had produced a suspension cf hostilities, called 
toleratiotu The ground was untrodden, it had its inconveni- 
^ces, perhaps its dangers. The little interest or address in 
my power, could not induce one man to accdmpony me; and 
I first occupied the post alone. 

'^ WheUier a meaisUre^ which may have some efiept in con* 
tUming the alliance <^ morality and religion, can be justified, 
may be matter of future oonsideraiioii* My presoit concern 
is, to dispel the obscurities of ignorance or misapprehension. 
The injuries of malignity, I will, if possible, contem|>tuousIy 
avoid, if not, I wiU endeavour to repel them. I speak before 
persons who have attended every step in the undertaking; 
whose judgment I esteem more than any thing assuming the 
form or consequence of public ojnnion. 

** In opening the duqpd in Margaret-street, it was. my objecft 
to claim for moral philosophy, the toleraticm attowed the extra- 
vagancies of gloomy enthusiasm, or the dogmas of fisiodoiH 
sedition. Others had dared to think or write mth fi'eedam ; but 
none had placed morality at the side of superstition, by pulidicly 
teaching its doctrines. This object may not be out of my 
view, whatever be the fluctuations of the society form^ by thie 
notice of my intention. I tpeak to the knowledge of many, 
that I have o^lected obvious interests, and Inroke valui^le 
fi*iendships to avoid the empiricism of a sectary ; to adhere 
scrupulously to a design, which I may yet see adknowl^ed 
in its utmost importance." 

Heccmdudes, by observing ^* that the imjpertinenee of vul- 
gar athebm is similar to that of a worm contem^itogthe iqfstem 
of Newton." 

It has already been seen in the course of this narrative thai 
Mr. Williams was a great and zealous friend to iruihi and he 
oeastantly inculcated its manms, into the two sexes^ as indii» 
pensaUy necessary for both. He approved of civility and 



4() MR. WILLIAMS. 

politeuefliy and considered merit and excellence, entitled to aii 
aiFectionate reception. But, on the other hand, the aiFect- 
ation of these qualities was most cordially detested by him 9 
more especially when subservient to mean or selfish views. 

He was accustomed to consider complaisance as something that 
occupies the interval between haughty obstinacy and mean servi- 
lity. A mind harmonised by the union of knowledge and virtue, 
is prepared to tolerate infirmities or faults in others, which it is 
not inclined to adopt ; and with which it could not assimilate. 
He thought, therefore, that true complaisance might yield to 
the tempers or inclinations of others beyond the limits inva- 
riably prescribed to its own. Politmess^ he considered as a 
gradation of beauty and elegance in manners,, seldom to be 
expected in young people. He also deemed this quality not 
unfrcquently in opposition to the virtues ; and often productive 
of great baseness, when employed to deceive women ; to sooth 
the vices and infirmities of princes ; to cajole private men out 
of their probity or property ; and to give the appearance of 
benevolent condescension to selfish views. 

He detested deceit above all things, and was accustomed to 
observe, that as the camelion assumes every colour but white, 
so flatterers exhibit all principles but that of honesty. When 
females have become accustomed to this false gratification and 
delight, he contemplated them as exactly in the condition of 
those unfortunate wretches who have acquired a taste for strong 
spirits, and cannot live without them. 

Mr. Williams considered the plays performed occasionally 
at some of our public schools, as highly objectionable in point 
of decency and morals ; and he expressed his opinions freely 
and frequently on this subject. 

Towards the close of his life, he appears to have changed, 
or rather to have outlived most of his friends. At an earlier. 
period, as has been already noticed, he was a great stickler 
for reform, both in respect to government and religion : but he 
now seems to have gradually relaxed, and as the society wliich 
he had founded was liberally supported by many gcntlemea 
who held offices under government ; so we often beheld liim ia^ 



MR. WILLIAMS. 4»7 

his latter days, connected both with eminent divines of the. 
established church and: respectable placemen, who* were aUke 
eager to promote his humane views. 

For ^ome years before his demise, a gradual decline of mind 
as well as of body seems to have taken place. He was feeble^ 
and not only wrote but uttered his sentiments with some diffi- 
culty. Although supposed to have been, at one period, gifted 
¥rith a considerable portion of eloquence, yet he was not fond 
of public speaking, and for a. long time previously to his dis^ 
solution, he constantly and studiously neglected the opportu- 
nities afiPorded by the usual compUmentary toast, at the annual 
diimer : << to the founder of the Literary .Fund." On those o<^ 
casions, he remained silent, and declined to make any public 
return of his acknowlegements. 

We shall conclude this memoir, witii the following passage, 
written by a quondam friend and biographer. 

" The distinguishing traits of Mr. Williams' character, were 
a boundless philanthropy and disinterestedness; studious of 
every acquisition that forms the taste, but applying the 
strength of his genius to the arts of government and education, 
as objects of the highest importance to the wel&re of nations, 
and the happiness of individuals. In his dress, elegantly plain ; 
in domestic life, attentive to the niceties of decorum ; in pubUo, 
politely ceremonious; in all his manners dignified .and distin- 
guished; in conversation, animated; in his person, tall and 
^reeable; having a conunanding look softened vrith aftability." 

List of the Works of the late David fViUianfSy Esq. 

1. Several single Sermons, published at different times. 

2. Letter to David Garrick, Esq. on his conduct as a man- 
ager and performer, 8vq. 1770. 

. S. Essays on Public Worship, Patriotism, and Projects of 
Reformation, 12mo. 1773. 

4. An Appendix to the above, I2mo. 1774. 

5. Sermons on Religious Hypocrisy, 2 vols. 8vo. 1 774. 

6. Treatise on Education, 12mo. 1774. 



48 MB. WirZiIAMS. 

. 7. Pkn of an Aoulony fisr the iDStracdcm of Yoatfay 1774. 
. 8, The Philosopher; oonnstiiig of three Pohmic&l Conver- 
setioDS, 8vo. 1775. 

9. A Liturgy ^ containing the unirersal Principles of Re- 
ligion and Morality, 8vo. 1776*. 

10. A Letter to the Protestant Dissenters, on the Political 
Conduct of their Body. 

11. A Letter to Sir George Saville, Bart, M. P. on the 
Nature and Extent of Intellectual Liberty, 8vo. 1779. 

12. Apology for professing the Religion of Nature, 8vo. 

1 5. Lectures on the Universal Principles of Religion and 
Morality, 2 vols. 4to. 1779. 

14. Letters on Political Liberty, Sro. 1782. 

1 5. Letters on Education, ,3 vols. 8 va 1 789. 

16. A Plan of an Association on Ccmstitutional Principles, 
small 8vo. 

17. Lessons to a Young Prince, 8vo. (This was never 
publicly avowed.) 

18. History ot Monmouthshire^ 1 vol. 4to. with plates from 
drawings, by his friend the Rev. Mr. Gardener, Vicar of Bat- 

tersea. 

Id. The first part of Claims of Literature, containing the 
origin, motives, objects, and transactions of the Literary Fund, 
8vo. 1803. (A new edition of this work, with a shoit life, 
aocomp^ied by a portrait of the author, was published by 
Messrs. Nichols and Bentley, in 1816.) 



49 



No. IIL 
The Rev. JOHN DISNEY, D- D. F. S. A. 

X HE present, as well as the former volume, contains the lives 
of many eminent divines of the church of England, who have 
not only reflected honour on our national establishment, but 
also on human nature. * 

The article now subjected to the perusal of the reader, is 
intended to convey a biographical sketch of a distinguished 
clergyman, who deemed it proper, in the prime of life, and 
with the lull possession of his faculties, to withdraw from that 
revered institution, of which he was an ornament, forsaking 
all prospects of ecclesiastical preferment, to profess himself 
not only a believer in, but the pastor of a different, and in 
some res{)ects, {perhaps, an hostile &ith. — Ed. 



The late John Disney, D. D. is descended from a very ancient 
and respectable family in Lincolnshire. His &ther John Disney, 
of Lincoln, Esq., possessed an estate at Swinderby, in that 
county, and had several children, all of whom, with the ex- 
ception of one f , appear to have paid the great debt of nature. 

The subject of this narrative was bom in the city just 
mentioned, on September 17, 1746. Being son of a gentle- 
man in affluent circumstances, he of course received a liberal 

• See vol. i. Life of Dr. William Cleaver, Ixjrd Bishop of St. Asaph, p. 16. ; Dr. 
W. Jackson, Lord Bishop of Oxford, p. 9«. ; the very Rev. Dr. Viiiceut, Dean of West- 
miusier, p. 135., and Dr, Watsoo> Lord Bishop of Llaudaff, p. 429. 

f Mr. Disney, an elder btother, in consequence of a marriage with an heiress of tliat 
nam«, assumed the addendum of Fitche, and by this lady, obtained the estate oi Dan- 
hvry Park in ihe.couoty of Essex. One of his jdaugliten married Sir W. Hilatyy Bart, the 
other bequne the wife of her first cousin, Mr. Disney, a barrister of Tlie Inner Temple. 

VOL. II. £ 



50 PB. mfiSEY. 

education. After obtaining a knowledge of the first prin- 
ciples' of human learning at home, he was sent to Cambridge ; 
for his &ther was a whig'; and that University was then deem- 
ed favourable, both to the inculcation and developement of 
those principles which had produced the Revolution of 1688 ; 
and by placing William III. on the throne, paved the way 
for the introduction of the illustrious House of Brunswick to 
the government of these realms. 

Having been entered a member of Peter-House, he soon 
distinguished himself by the amenity of his manners, the 
correctness of his conduct, and a taste and turn for sober 
enquiry and investigation. Being educated a member of 
the Church of England, he resolved in due time to ap- 
pertain to its ecclesiastical establishment. Accordingly he 
Altered first into deacon's, and thai into priest's orders, and 
became vicar of Swinderby, a small living in his native county, 
if we mistake not, in the gift of his own family. Although en- 
titled only to vicarial dues, this, which was his first preferment, 
firom a variety oi circumstances, became a very desirable ac* 
quisition. He afterwards obtained the rectory of Panton, in 
the same county with the former. % 

It was his good fortune, while at Cambridge, to be honoured 
with the acquaintance of Dr. Edmund Law, afterwards Bishop 
of Carlisle, who had been first a Fellow of Christ CoU^e; 
then Master of Stl Peter's, and afterwards a Prebendary of 
Durham. This eminent, pious, and liberal dignitary of the 
Church of England, in 1 769, obtained the bishopric of Car- 
lisle, soon after which he nominated Mr. Disney one of his 
chaplains. 

Meanwhile our young divine had passed through the 
intermediate degree, LL. B., and at length attained the dis^ 
tinction of D. D. High prospects in the church were now 
opened to him, and he had every thing to expect from the 
fiiendship of the worthy prelate under whose jurisdiction 
he had some time lived, and beneath whose roof he oc- 
caBionally resided. But Dr. Disney, had entertained cevw 
tain doubts as to articles of fidth and modes of discipline; 
eitjomod and laid down, by authority, and subscribed to by' all 



DRk DISNEY. 51 

wbo acknowleged the jurisdiction of the English hierarchy. 
If the writer of this article be not greatly misinformed^ he wa« 
not singular in respect to his scruples* The articles^ about 
this period, had become a suli^ect of attention, and many dis^ 
tinguished members df the Anglican Church bad. objected to 
iheir nature and tendency. . An associadpn was. actually 
formed, and a respectable body, both of GJmrchmi^ff and. Dis- 
senters, held a meeting in London *, for the expreaaapiarpoae 
of petitioning parliament on. this very subject 

No relief having been obtained, but on the contrary^ all 
hope of alteration being cut off. Dr. Disney detezmined to 
act in strict oonfermity to hk prinapjl^ and proi^sioiisi. 

Accordingly, after due deliberation, he determined to wfthr 
draw entirely from the communion of the Church oi England ; 
and therefore, in a plain, open, and manly manner, resigned all 
his preferments. 

He was, perhaps, mduced, in some small decree, upon the 
presoit occasion, by the prmciples and practice of the vener^r' 
aUe and Reverend Francis Blackbume, archdeacon of Cieve* 
lapd, with whom he afterwards became so intimately connected, 
by an alliance with his &mily. This distinguished clergyman 
^ was the author of the ^^ Confessional, or aftill and firee enqniry 
into the right, utility, edification, and success of establishing 
systematical Confessions of Faith and Doctrine, in Protestant 
Churdhes." That work was then much read, and had, at length, 
acquired no small d^ree of cdebrity; so favouraUe^ indeed, 

was he to the Dissenters, that a respectable body of them, resif- 

» 

dent in the metropolis, was desirous to enrol sudt a distin*- 
guished name in the list of their ^ pastors, on the demise of 
Dr. Chandler. 

Whatever his precise motives may have been^ the conduct of 
Dr. Disney must be allowed to have been honourable and dis* 
interested. He doubted-— olyected — was confirmed in his 
dissent -*- resigned his emoluments — and finally vrithdrcw* 
At such a man as this, it was impossible for the finger of scorn 
to point; for the tongue of calumny to criminate ; or for the 
8erpent4ioolii of bigotry to assail 

• At the Feidwn TtTeni, Leicester Square. 

E 2 



5Q DR. DISNEY. 

He was soon after an attendant at the Unitarian chapel^ 
in EsBez-Street, Londcm ; and when Dr. Lindsay, worn out by 
age and infirmities, ceased to preach there, he became the sue- 
<;e8sar of a man with whom he had acted for some vears as a coad- 
jator. As he supposed London was unfavourable both to his 
own health and that of his children, he declined residing within 
, the immediate operation of' its dense population, and smoky 
atmosphere ; but as a residence in its vicinity was convenient, 
he hired a house, and lived for some years in Sloane-Street, 
Cihelsea. 

Meanwhiici the Doctor occasionally occupied his leisure 
hours with literary pursuits, to which he seems to have been 
addicted from his youth. So early as 1771, he had published 
Several of his sermons ; and as he considered ** ale-houses,^ as 
the great seed-beds of vice, he some time after published 
'^ thoughts on licensing them." In 1783, he printed and de^ 
tailed his reasons for quitting the Church of England ; and in 
the course of the next year he published a ^' Dialogue between 
a conunon Unitarian Christian and an Athanasian ;" in which 
his own peculiar tenets, as well as those of the sect whose 
doctrines he had embraced and advocated, are fully exhibited 
and defended. 

With the late Dr. John Jebb, the celebrated physician, who 
was educated, like himself, at Cambridge, where he obtained 
a fellowship. Dr. Disney kept up a long intercourse, which was 
accompanied for a series of years with the most sincere friendship 
and esteem. In many points of view, their characters exactly 
assimilated; they were both educated in the principles of the 
Church of England ; they both resigned their church prefer- 
ments on changing their principles, and they were both con- 
nected by a bond of uilion, that has bound together the greatest 
and best men of antiquity, the idem serUirede repiMica. This 
truly worthy man died in 1 786, leaving behind him a most ac- 
complished widow, who, at an earlier period, had wielded her 
pen in behalf of her principles, and proved victorious in a con- 
test with a celebrated dietary, who like a great man of an- 
tiquity, had the mortification << tq &U by the band of a 



OR. DISNEY* 53 

woman." On the death of Dr. Jebb, in 1787, Dr. Disney 
determined to erect, what Sir William Jones considered as 
the noblest monument to the memory of a literary man ; and 
accordingly, in the course of the ensuing year, he published 
a memoir, in which he estimates the character, praises the 
patriotism, developes the religious opinions, and conveys a 
just and appropriate idea of the life of that truly pious, worthy^ 
and patriotic physician. 

On the approach of the French Revolution, no one more 
truly rejoiced at those halcyon days then seemingly re- 
served for mankind, towards the dose of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. He accordingly defended and justified the conduct of 
the National Assembly on the principles of the British consti- 
tution ; and rejoiced that they should take our Revolution of 
1 688 as their great exemplar. But when a ferocious race of men 
arose, and dipped their hands in blood, no one felt more ab- 
horrent at their n^>acity, cruelty, and injustice, than the sutgect 
of this narrative. From that moment he began to augur the 
most disastrous results, both in respect to the best interests of 
human nature, and those of his native country. Mild, peace- 
able, and orderly, he loved liberty and equal laws ; but he 
detested tumult; he hated disorder; he dreaded aiiarchy ; he 
abominated persecution. 

The great sacrifices in point of ecclesiastical preferments, 
as well as the resignation of all his hopes, and all his ambi- 
tion, at the shrine of principle, have already been mentioned. 
And here, it affords no common pleasure to observe, that they 
were not unproductive of future advantages, although then 
wholly unseen, and entirely imexpected. 

Dr. Disney had for many years been acquainted with Mr. 
Dodson, of Boswell-court, Chancery-lane. This gentlatoan, 
who led a retired life, was nephew to that great lawyer. Sir 
Michael Foster; and on his demise, he left a pretty large 
portion of his property, which w|is considerable, between Mr. 
Serjeant Praed, and the subject of this memoir, who were ap- 
pointed his executors. The latter aftei^wards wrote " Memoirs 
of his life." 

E 3 



54 DR. DISNEY. 

Nor w^ Dr. Disney less ^rtunate in respect to another 
character well known in the political worid. •»— Mr. Thomas 
Brande^ who had assumed the addendum of HoUis, in con- 
seqaence of the will of Mr. Timothy Hollis, a person of singu- 
lar character^ great worth, and exemplary patriotism. With 
this gentleman he had travelled through Italy; and dieir 
opinions and principles being of a similar tendency, the former 
unexpectedly found himself his heir, at his decease. 

Mr. Thomas Brande Hollis, never haxring been married, de- 
termined, like his benefector, to select an heir for himself; and 
accordingly pitched upon and educated a promising young 
man expressly for this purpose. 

But the subject of his intended beneficence happening to 
die, at an early period of life^ he determined to choose 
another, and accordingly, after a longhand intimate acquaint- 
ance^ fixed on Dr. Disney. Thdr principles, both pddtical 
and religious, were nearly if not exactly the same ; the maiden' 
fiil^ter of the testator for whom he had amply provided, was 
old and infirm ; and he had no immediate relatives whatever. 
The Hon. Thomas Brand, son of Gertrude Baroness Dacre^ 
ttnd Knight of the Shire for the county of Hertford^ to whom 
this lady bequeathed her fortune, was only a third or fourth 
cousin. 

On the demise of Mr. B. Hollis*, Dr. Disney published a 



• Memoirs of Thomas Brand Hollis, Esq. F, R,S. and S. A. 

Of Ac ancestors of this gentleman, we have the following brief fmt aadieotic 
•ccomkt. 

1. John Brand, citizen and mercer of London, died May 6th 1708, leaving three 
•oca bj his wife, whose maiden name was Ashby. 

3. Thomas Brand, Esq. of the Inner Temple, married Margaret Niehol, only daugh- 
ter, and heir of John Niehol, of Chipping-Barnet, in the county of Herts, Esq. and was 
great grandfather of the Hon. Thomas Brand, of the Hoo, one of the present repre- 
tentatives of that county. 

8. Tmiothy Brand, of the Hyde, near Ingatestone, Essex, having continued fbr iotaie 
tUae» the mercantile concerns of his father John, who appears to have been a aUk- 
mercer, purchased the above esute in 1718, and partly ra-built the mansion. Retir- 
mg from trade, he afterwards became a Deputy>Ldeuteiiant and acting Magistrate fbt 
«he county, and aenred the office of Sheriflf. By his marriage with Sarah, daughter of 
Thomas Rickliog, Esq. he left two daughters, Sarah, who marriti Richaid Grindal. 
Esq. of Austin Fntis^ and Eliabctby a maiden lady, wh^ ^led laf'^v. 

1 



DR. DISNEY. , 55, 

quarto volume, containing his life, very appropriately adorned 
with a number of excellent engravings. This was intended a& 



ThoMa«, his ooly iod, of whom we are now about to treat, was born in 1719> and 
was educated, first at Brentwood, and afterwards at Felsted, in his native county ; 
ihence he was removed to the college of Glasgow, and matriculated in the third class, 
b 1738. He attended the lectures of Professor Hutchinson, and always entertained a 
high respect for that gentleman : his bust, indeed, was constantly placed in one of 
his apartments, in London. 

In 1735, he was admitted a student of the Inner Temple, and in 1741, soon after 
h'ls return from the north, appears to have taken chambeis within tKe precincu of that 
InnofOnirt. 

In the sumiaer oC 1748^ ha act Q«t on his travela with his friend Mr. Thomas 
Hollis, and they fetamad together, during the winter ef 1749. Mot jear^ he pro- 
ceeded by himself on his second tour through France, Italy, and Germany, and con* 
tinned abroad until the summer of. 1733. During this period, he became acquainted 
with the liOrds Nortli and Dartmouth, who w«re then also travelling on the continent ; 
and he kept up a correspondence with the latter, after their separation. 

Soon after his second arrival in England he was elected a member both of the Royal 
Society and the Society of Antiquaries ; lie also became a Governor of St. ThomM** 
Hospital, &c. While actively employed in town, during the winter, io a regular attendance 
on these and similar institvtiODS, he constantly spent the summer at Ms country seat, 
culled the Hyde, in the embellishment of whic^, he appears to have taken great deli|^t. 
In 1761 y he completed his hall, under the lupcrintcndance of that celebrated architect. 
Sir William Chambers ; and in 1773, oibtunedan alteration of woant of the acycuiung 
roads, so as to render the approach to his abode both more easy and more comfortable. 
There he, at length, finally settled, being determined to " enjoy the peace of natim," 
io hu own grounds. And there too, he vias firequentlj^ visited by the assertors of publie 
liberty, particularly Dr. John Jebb, who appears to have delighted ^in this charming 
retreat. Alluding to whdt was felt by him during the spring, at the Hyde, a little 
before bis demise he observed : *' The sight of nature in her first exertions, is itself 
vaenfjk to make a man better. I think I feel iu force," He died soon afters 
March 3, 1786. 

In 1774, Mr. Hollis moat unexpectedly obtained an addition of several thovsaiidi 
a year, to his patrimonial fintiine, by the demise of a friend, who has been diMftcteriaed 
as << an Englishman, a lover of liberty, his country, and its original eonstitutiOD, as 
aaost nobly confirmed at the glorious revolution.*' In the coorse of the very next year, 
however, in consequence of ceruin rumours spread to his disadvantage on thb veij 
account we find him observing, in a letter dated August 8, 177S, ** The bounty and 
munificence of my friend, have not contributed to my peace of mind, in conaequenot 
of the malice and envy of particular persons. They b^gan very early, and have eon* 
tinned to prevent that enjoyment, which I might have expected : for after the sevenpC 
txamination of myself, I am not sensible ^lat I have altered my prindplea, my manner 
of life, or conduct in general, or to any person in particuli^, but endeavouretf to fidlow 
the example of my friend." 

Soon after this event, in addition to his own, he assumed the name and anna of v 
** Hollis," conusting of the pUeut, or cap of liberty, on a circular antiqoe shield, guUt, 
■tudAad within a bofdei of twelve circles, or. The crest wna ibnned of t wretih of tht 

E 4 



56 DJEU DISNEY* 

a companion to the life of Mr. Thomas HoUis, and it must 
be allowed to exhibit a fine specimen of the recent advance- 



ecAcnn, gides and or; a dagger in pale, pointed downward, argent. The hilt an owl in 
profile, or, standing on the guard, or. 

*< At sibi dat clypeuro, dat acutae ciupidis hattim; 
'' Dat galeam capiti; defenditur «gide pectua." 

O^d. Met. Vi. 78, 79. 

In 1780, he at length accomplished his wish of doing honour to the memory of hit 
deceased friend, by the publication of his life, in a magnificent quarto volume, ac- 
companied by an appendix of the tame size. Both of these were adorned with superb 
engravings, and the whole consists of a series of the best book prints that has ever ap- 
peared in England. The expencc of this work must have been prodigious; it was 
never published, but given away liberally, both to distinguished individuals and socie. 
ties : in short, it wai sent eveiy where, and to eveiy one, whence the least good to the 
cause of public liberty was likely to be derived. To Mr. Archdeacon Blackbume, who 
compiled the work, and who had before received the sum of five hundred pounds, in 
consequence of a bequest in the la(e Mr. Thomaa Hollia'a will, a noble compensation 
was presented. It is greatly to be lamented, that this publication should have contained 
some strong reflections against the Roman Catholics ; but the genius of the age, and 
the temper of the public mind, has since experienced great alteration in respect to 
this essential point. 

It ia well known, that Mr. Thomas Hollis was desirous of being a member of the 
House of Commons; and it now renuiins to observe, that it would have been fortunate 
for Mr. Brand Hollis, had he never attempted to become a legislator. On the dissolution 
of ParKament, in September 1 774, a seat for the borough of Hindon, was offered him . 
and as he was to be exempt from all personal interposition at the election, a zealous, but 
imprudent firiend, having undertaken to act as his agent, neither trouble nor dis- 
gimce appeared to be attached to this transaction. He was accordingly returned with 
the celebrated General Smith for his colleague ; but the election was declared vouf, 
and a committee of the House aoon after declared, " that the sitting membcn, and 
petitioners, had alike been guilty of notorious bribery.*' A prosecution immediately 
ensued, and the defendants were sentenced to pay a fine of 1000 marks, and su£kr six 
months imprisonment. 

' The military candidate, on this occasion, hireil very expensive apartments, and lived 
Jn great splendour within the rules of the King's Bench, but the subject of this memoir 
consigned himself, during that unhappy half year, to obscurity ; and never thought on 
thia affithr, during the remainder of his lifie, without horror. 

During the American war, Mr. Brand Hollis was a strenuous friend to and advocate 
for the cause of the colonies. On this occasion, he appears to have been at considerable 
pains and expeuce in circulating what are called ** Liberty Tncts ;'* he also encounged 
several writers to publish on that skie of the question. 

It was about this period, we believe, that he first became acquainted with Thomaa 
Paine, whose first work produced such great effect on the inhabitants of the Trana- 
Atlantic continent. His portrait, ever afler, occupied a conspicuous part in the honae 
in Cliesierfield-street, May Fair. 

On the conclusion of peace, Mr. Adams was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary from 
the United States of America, to the court of London ; and both this gentleman and 
his lady spent some time at the Hyde> both in 1786 and 1787* On their return to 



DR. DISNEY. ^7 

tnent of the arts in England. And let it not be forgotten here, 
that the two Hollises, together with the subject of this memoif, 



America, they bectme his correspondents ; and it would tppear, from some of the Vice- 
President*! letters, that he was then, at least, no enemy to regal government, limited 
by the laws. We have always understood, that the late Colonel Hamilton, one of 
General Washington's Aides-de-Camp, was a bold and open assertor of this doctrine* 
But soon after the demise of the President, the Federalisu lost their superiority ; and 
the republicans ever since, appear to have constituted a decided majority, at least^ in 
all I he elections. 

The Americans had already nominated a HoUisian Professor, out of compliment to 
so many of that name, who had been bene&ctors toHavrard Collie ; and in 1787) the 
UniTcrsity of CusbrUge, in Masstchnasett'sy oonfiBrRd on the subject, of this memoir 
the degree of LL. D. in the most flsttering terms : ** Vir iDe pu B dann TIiqbih BriAd 
Hollis Armiger, nostrse reipuhJicse literariae Harvadianae fauter beneficus, et liberalis, 
&c." In addition to repeated presents, he bequeathed to this college the sum of of>e 
liundred pounds ; and presented many boolcs also to the Society of Arts^ of which he 
had been elected a member many years before his demise. 

As Mr. Hollis never was a member of the House of Commons^ the circle trod by 
him was of course limited. In 17 80, he associated in ficnrming the " Society for Con- 
stitutional Information," the chief object of which was a reform in Pariiameot. Ac- 
cordingly, in conjunction with a number of independent gentlemen who had opposed 
the American war, and sincerely r^oiced at its termination, he continued a constant 
attendant at the meetings, and a aealons promoter of the ends of its institution, in 
compsny with the late Sir William Jones, afterwards one of his Mijeity's Judges, 
in Bengal ; John Hume Tooke, author of the << Diversions of Purley," and late M.P. 
for Old Sarum ; Sir Samuel Romilly, afterwards Solicitor-General ; Major Cartwrightl 
Mr. Day, &c. ^c. He also concurred, in 1780, with the Rev. Christopher Wyvill, 
Chairman of the Yorkshire Committee, in a petition to Parliament *' to enquire into 
and correct the gross abuses in the expenditure of public money; to reduce all 
exorbiunt emoluments; to rescind, and abolish all sinecure' places, and unmerited 
pensions: --and to appropriate the produce to the neeesaities of the State, in such a 
manner as to the wisdom of parliament should seem meet." 

Mr. Brand Hollis, who, as one of the " Deputies for Westminster,'* appears to 
have assembled with Mr. Pitt, and others, at the St. Alban's tavern, was Chair- 
man of that Committee, the report of which was drawn up by Dr. John Jebb, eontain- 
lAg a statement of supposed grievances, He was also present in the character of a 
" Deputy from Essex," at several other assemblies for the same purpose, in 1781, ' 
when the late Mr. Pitt also attended, aiwl exhibited uncommon warmth, eloquence, 
and zeal, in -behalf of a reform of what he was pleased to term, " the Commons 
House of Parliament.*' When that gentleman afterwards became minister, he, at 
three several epochs, moved the great question of reform in the representation ; and 
on all those occasions he was supported by the subject of this memoir and his firiends. 

In 1786, Mr. B. Hollis, although differiog in his religious opinions, became a liberal 
subscriber to the Protestsnt Dissenting Academy, at Hackney, an institution, which . 
after a brilliant commencement, and although supported by liberal fiindsy ceased to 
exist in 1796. In 1788, he was one of the stewards of the meeting for celebrating the 
centenary of the revolution of ^688 } in 1789> he beheld> with inopfcssible delight^ 



98 DR. DZ3K£Y. 

possessed not only a fine taste for, but were liberal enoourager* 
of the various productions both of die chisel and the .gcaver. 

Dr. Disney expresses himself thus, in his preface to the 
memoirs, dated from "the Hyde, September 28, 1808." 

*^ No apology is intended to be offered for the following 
sheets ; they will sufficiently speak for themselves. The gene- 
rous minded reader will approve the design; and, the bio- 
grapher trusts that the courteous reader will candidly accept 
the execution. He is not conscious of having mistated or 
misrepresented a single fact; or, having concealed or em- 
blazoned a single trait of character. He scorns to offer any 
unworthy sacrifice at the altar of truth. He may also be 



the dawn of liberty in France; and saw with no unall tatiifiiction> that it was as yet un- 
accompanied with bloodshed. 

In 1793, he co-operated with Mr. now Earl Gray, and the " Friends of the 
People/Mn an attempt to procure a parliamentary reform, and on February 24, 1793, 
«u aHack«d, in a bookseller's shop, in Piccadilly, with a fit of apoplexy ; but he re- 
covered from this seizure, and his health happily returned. 

In respect to religion, he was bred a Dissenter) but he afterwards became an 
Unitarian. 

In his character Mr. Brand Hollis was mild^ in his temper amiable, in his manners 
obliging. '* Preserve your serenity!" was a favourite maxim with him, and this he 
ooostanily recommended to all his friends. His cabinet of antiquities was both rare 
and valuable ; and his taste in vertilt was deemed chaste and conrect. Like his pre- 
dtcessor, he collected all books, medals, pictures, and gems, connected with the caiise 
of liberty; or calculated to inspire a love of it in other individuals, and among other 
nations as well as his own. He was indolent, however, and averse from business ; so 
that with a laige unincumbered fortune, he was sometimes in want of money. 

When the house of Dr. Priestly was destroyed by a 'mob, in 1791, he made him a 
libeiai present ; to Dr. Geddes, in 1801, he transmitted lOol. ; and he was one of the 
first to sttbsaibe tu relieve Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, firom the difficulties likely to acme 
firom his imprisonment in Dorchester Jail. 

In 1801, he left London, for the last time, and expired on Sunday September?, 
M04, at the Hyde, without a sigh or a struggle, as he was sitting in his drawing-^room. 

He wu buried in the chancel of the eiublished church, where a small sarcophagns» 
with the following inscription, has been erected to his memory. 

« Thomas Biund Hollis, Esq. 
OF THE Htdb, 

r.H.S. AND S.A. 
DltD SEPT. IX. MDCCCIV. AGED LXXXIT. 
IN TESTIMONT OP PlIIBNDSHlP AND QRATITUDEr 
THIS MONITMtllT 18 BRtCTKD 

IV John Disney, d.d. v.^. a." 



DR. DISNEY. . 59 

ezcnsed for repeating here what he has taken occasion to oIk 
serve elsewhere ; — that under certain circumstances, ^^ the 
tribute of finendship a.nd gratitude became a debt of honour and 
of justice ; and he who agreeably to the cu^ms of the ancients, 
* Does^ not sacrifice to Heroes till after Sun-set^' equally re- 
pels, all su^icion of interest, and every petulant chai^ of 
designed exaggeration. * 

^^ These memoirs are not intended to be committed to the 
ordinary forms of publication. The circle of private friends 
will accept vrith tenderness what is presented to them with 
tmmixed good will ; a few of our public libraries will continue 
to preserve in the company of its betters, this minor produc- 
tion in biography. 

'< Some of the engraved plates which accompany the 
present volume, are given in deference to the taste of the 
writer's friend, and in confirmation of it; while the introduc- 
tion of others will gratify his own-feelings. ' They will jointly 
give to this little work an increased interest in the estimation 
of those personal friends from whose attachment and constancy 
he has derived some of the greatest comforts of his life. 

^^ The portrait of Mr. Brand HoUis was engraved from a 
drawing in crayons in the early part of his life. It was taken 
at the desire of his firiend, Mr. Thomas Hollis, was carefully 
preserved by him, and considered as a correct likeness. It 
might be added, that since his decease, an artist of distin- 
guished ability was invited to make an e£fort with his chisel 
from memory : but the opportunity was irrecoverably lost 

<< The two sections of the hall and staircase at the Hyde, 
were engraved for Mr. Brand Hollis, a few years before his 
death, from the drawings of Sir William Chambers, who ex* 
ecuted the design in 1761, as stated in the body of the work. 

" Of the figure of * liberty,* or * Britannia,' (may the 
names ever be synonjrmous !) a correct account cannot be 
^ven* The design is masterly, and the graver of Bartelosaa 

* S«e a '< Memoir of Miclntl Dodaon^ Ek}." 1800; and the dedlcaUoa oPdie ' 
comfanble Jortin to Arehb'ubop Herring 17 S3, prefixed to the lecood fohuM p 
<« Ecdetfltttel BettitlDi." 



60 Dlt. DISNEY. 

!mB bwi employwl in a freedom of manner ainguJarly cliat 



c of his sulijects and liimsclf. 

; engraved \ 



ten'stic 

) Sarcophagi 

drawings whicli he made in the course of the last winter, 
t They possess exjiression which does credit to his abilitieE and 
I exertion, and an accuracy wliich distinguishes his fidelity in 
I .delineation. The antique knocker, preserved in the title page, 
I was also drawn, and engraved by the same faithful artist, 

" The large Roman Sarcophagus, is seven feet one inch in 

I length, and eleven inches in height, an may be seen from the 

IfKsle atmexed. In front are figures in alto relievo, (according 

Lto the Memoirs of Thomas HolLs, p. 129.) of Roman work- 

\ mansliip, representing the whole race of fauns, faunesses, and 

I aatyrs of diiierent ages, very perfect and antique. But the 

iree groupes of figures would appear to be more accurately 

I described, by saying tliat the centre compartment represents 

I sacrificiiig, supported on the riglit side by a satyr, 

I nnd on the left, by a faun. At his feet, are the panther and 

I tiger. On the ground, is the sacred basket from which is 

I issuing the serpent. At one end of the front, are Silenus, 

\ with an infant Bacchus in his arms, and a dog and a goat at 

i bis feet ; at another end, a female bacchanal playing with 

^'nibals. This sarcophagus was brought from Rome together 

jrith its companion, by William Lloyd, Esq. of Gregories, 

r Eeaconsfieltl, Buckinghamshire, and both were purchased 

ftpf him in June 17GI, by Thomas Hollis, Esq., in order (as 

Elie writes, July 8, same year) to be presented to his 'good 

kflJd friend, Mr. Brand.' And the Sarcophagi Mr, Brand, 

Uaflerwards Mr. Brand HoUis) greatly esteemed, and always 

llxmsidtired ' as making the principal ornaments of his hall.' v 

'. " Concerning these, and some other marbles, Mr. HoUia" 

FTOte to his friend (July 17, same year,) ' Remember how- 

, that 1 am to deliver these marbles to you like a gende- 

f man and a friend, that is, free of all charges whatever ; nor 

e you to depart from your disposition, from the scrubbinesscs 

L of the country, and tamper with my imderstrappers,' &c 

■' The Greek Sahcofuaui'S, the companion of the former. 



4 



I 



DR. DISNCY. 61 

though less in size (being five feet three inches long, and one 
foot three inches high, and the cover seven inches high) was 
also purchased of Mr. Lloyd, and presented to Mr. Brand, 
as before mentioned. In the front and on each aide, are 
figures in alto relievo^ * representing (according to the 
Memoirs, p. 129. before cited) the Amazons begging peace of 
Theseus, king of Athens, by means of Hippolita his queen, as 
related by Plutarch.' Rich in figures and Greek workman- 
ship; and very entire and perfect The cover is also in 
alto relievo. See Plutarch's Life of Theseus. ■ * The Athe- 
nians charged their right wing, and a great number of the 
Amazons y^ere slain. At lengtli, after four months, a peace 
was concluded between them, by the mediation of Hippolita.' 
Dryden's Translation, 1703. vol. i. p. 41 — 43; or Lang- 
home's, 1801. vol. i. p. 29. 

<< But it has been suggested to me with greater sfiparent 
correctness by that informed mytholc^ist, and ingenious artist 
Mr. Harman, on his recently examing this valuable relique of 
antiquity, that the subject of this Greek Sarcophagus, is the 
story of Ulysses' discovery of Achilles, concealed by his 
mother, Thetis, among the daughters of Lycomedes. Ulysses 
visited the court of Lycomedes, in the character of a mer- 
chant, and exposed various trinkets to the young women for 
their choice, and mixed with these some warlike weapons. 
The daughters of Lycomedes chose such things as were appro- 
priate to female occupations. While they were in the act of 
making this selection, Ulysses caused a trumpet to be sounded, 
when Achilles, although dressed like a woman, immediately 
seized a spear and shield. By this stratagon, Achilles was 
discovered and sent to the Trojan war. Agreeably to this 
story, the centre figure is Achilles with a shield on his left 
arm, brandishing a spear in his right hand ; the figure kneel- 
ing before him is his favourite female ; the five figures near her 
are her sisters, and the old man behind them is Lycomedes; 
ihe figure in a cap is Ulysses, rejoicing in his success, and 
i)diind him are his two companions. — Oh the end next to 



S8 DR. DIWEY* 

possessed not only a fine taste for, but were liberal encourager* 
of the various productions both of die chisel and tfae^pcayer. 

Dr. Disney expresses himself thus, in his preface to the 
memoirs, dated from "the Hyde, September 28, 1808." 

^^ No apology is intended to be offered for the following 
sheets ; they will sufficiently speak for themselves. The gene- 
rous minded reader will approve the design; and, the bio- 
grapher trusts that the courteous reader will candidly accept 
the execution. He is not conscious of having mistated or 
misrepresented a single fact; or. having concealed or em- 
blazoned a single trait of character. He scorns to offer any 
unworthy sacrifice at the altar of truth. He may also be 



the dawn of liberty in France; and saw with no tmall satis&ction^ that it was as yet un- 
accompanied widi bloodshed. 

In 1793, he co-operated with Mr. now Earl Gray, and the ** Friends of the 
People/' /in an attempt to procure a parliamentary reform^ and on February 24, 1795* 
was attacked, in a bookseller's shop, in Piccadilly, with a fit of apoplexy ; but he re- 
covered from this seizure, and his health happily returned. 

In respect to religion, he was bred a Dissenter } but he afterwards became an 
Unitarian. 

In his character Mr. Brand Hollis was mild, in his temper amiable, in his laaoners 
obliging. <« Preserve your serenity!" was a favourite maxim with him, and this he 
eonstantly recommended to all his friends. His cabinet of antiquities was beth rtie 
and valuable ; and hit taste in vertii was deemed chaste and conrect. Like hia pre- 
decessor, he collected all books, medals, pictures, and gems, connected with the cusc 
of liberty; or calculated to inspire a love of it in other individuals, and among other 
nations as well as his own. He was indolent, however, and averse from burineta ; so 
that with a large unincumbered fortune, he was sometimes in want of money. 

Wlien the house of Dr. Priestly was destroyed by a 'mob, in 1791, he made him a 
liberal present ; to Dr. Geddes, in 1801, he transmitted lOoI. ; and he was onf of the 
first to subaaibe tti relieve Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, firom the difficulties likely to aciue 
from his imprisonment in Dorchester Jail. 

In 1801, he left London, for the last time, and expired on Sunday September f, 
M04, at the Hyde, without a sigh or a struggle, as he was sitting in hia drawiBg^<voom. 

He wu buried in the chancel of the eitablished church, where a small saicc^tfatguay 
with the followiog inscription, has been erected to his memory. 

** Thomas Brand Hollis, Esq. 

OF THE HyDB, 

JP.H.S. AND S.A. 

DIED SEPT. IX. MDCCCIV. AGED LXXXIV. 

IN TESTIMONT OP FRIENDSHIP AND GRATITUDE 

THIS MONUMBNT IS IRtCTKD 

IV John Disney, d.o. f.^.a." 



DR. DISNEY. . 59 

excused for repeating here what he has taken occasion to ob- 
serve elsewhere ; — that under certain circumstances, ^^ the 
tribute of finendship and gratitude became a debt of honour and 
of justice; and he who agreeably to the customs of the ancients, 
* Does not sacrifice to Heroes till after Sun-set^ equally re- 
pels, all suspicion of interest, and every petulant charge of 
designed exaggeration. * 

^^ These memoirs are not intended to be committed to the 
ordinary forms of publication. The circle of private friends 
will accept vdth tenderness what is presented to them with 
immixed good will ; a few of our public libraries will continue 
to preserve in the company of its betters, this minor produc* 
tion in biography. 

'^ Some of the engraved plates which accompany the 
present volume, are given in deference to the taste of the 
writer's friend, and in confirmation of it; while the introduc* 
tion of others will gratify his own feelings. ' They will jointly 
give to this little work an increased interest in the estimation 
of those personal firiends from whose attachment and constancy 
he has derived some of the greatest comforts of his life. 

^^ The portrait of Mr. Brand HoUis was engraved from a 
drawing in crayons in the early part of his life. It was taken 
at the desire of his friend, Mr. Thomas Hollis, was carefully 
preserved by him, and considered as a correct likeness. It 
might be added, that since his decease, an artist of distin- 
guished ability was invited to make an efifort with his chisel 
from memory : but the opportunity was irrecoverably lost 

<< The two sections of the hall and staircase at the Hyde, 
were engraved for Mr. Brand Hollis, a few years before his 
death, firom the drawings of Sir William Chambers, who ex- 
ecuted the design in 1761, as stated in the body of the work. 

" Of the figure of * liberty,* or * Britannia,' (may the 
names ever be synon3mious !) a correct account cannot be 
given. The design is masterly, and the graver of Bartelozzi 

* S«e a '< Memoir of Miclntl Doda<»» Ek}." 1800 \ and the dedicatioa oP the in- 
campmbk ionin to Archbisbop Herring 1753^ prefixed to the lecood vohme of hu 
'"Bccleiiiitallieaiifki." 



S8 DR. DIWE^* 

possessed not only a fine taste for, but were liberal enoourager* 
of the various produGtioii& both of die chisel and dieipBaver. 

Dr. Disney expresses himself thus, in his preface to the 
memoirs, dated from "the Hyde, September 28, 1808/* 

*^ No apology is intended to be offered for the following 
sheets ; they will sufficiently speak for themselves. The gene- 
rous minded reader will approve the design; and, the bio- 
grapher trusts that the courteous reader will candidly accept 
the execution. He is not conscious of having mistated or 
misrepresented a single fact; or. having concealed or em- 
blazoned a single trait of character. He scorns to offer any 
unworthy sacrifice at the altar of truth. He may also be 



the dawn of liberty in France; and saw with no unall satitfiiction^ that it was as yet ud- 
accompanied witli bloodshed. 

In 1793, he co-operated with Mr. now Earl Gray, mA the '* Friends of the 
People," /m an attempt to procure a parliamentary reform^ and on February 24, 1795, 
was attacked, in a bookseller's shop, in Piccadilly, with a fit of apoplexy ; but he re- 
covered from this seizure, and his health happily returned. 

In respect to religion, he was bred a Dissenter) but he afterwards became an 
Unitarian. 

In his character Mr. Brand HoIUs was mild^ in his temper amiable, in his nanners 
obriglng. " Preserve your serenity!" was a favourite maxim with him, and this he 
ooostantly recommended to all his friends. His cabinet of antiquities was both fare 
and valuable ; and his taste in vertilt was deemed chaste and conrect. like hie pre- 
decessor, he collected all books, medals, pictures, and gems, connected with the caive 
of liberty; or calculated to inspire a love of it in other individuals, and among otW 
nations as well as his own. He was indolent, however, and averse from burineia ; so 
that with a large unincumbered fortune, he was sometimes in want of money. 

When the house of Dr. Priestly was destroyed by a 'mob, in 1791, he made him a 
liberal present ; to Dr. Geddes, in 1801, he transmitted lOol. ; and he wee on^ of the 
first to subsaibe tii relieve Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, from the difficulties likely to tcnie 
firom his imprisonment in Dorchester Jail. 

In 1801, he left London, for the last time, and expired on Sunday September 9, 
M04, at the Hyde, without a sigh or a struggle, as he was shtii^ in his drawiBf40om. 

He wu buried in the chancel of the established chtirch, where a small sarcopbigns» 
with the following inscription, has been erected to hu memory. 

*' Thomas Brand Hollis, Esq. 
OF THE Htdb, 

JP.H. S. AND S. A. 
DIED SEPT. IX. MDCCCIV. AOED LXXXIV. 
IN TESTIMOITT OP FRIENDSHIP AND GRATITUDE 
THIS MONVMBNT 18 BRtCTXD 

IV John Disney, d.d. f.^.a." 



DR. DISNEY. . 59 

excused for repeating here what he has taken occasion to ob- 
serve elsewhere ; — that under certain circumstances, <^ the 
tribute of firiendshipand gratitude became a debt of honour and 
of justice ; and he who agreeably to the customs of the ancients, 
• Does not sacrifics to Heroes till after Sun-set^' equally re- 
pels, all suspicion of interest, and every petulant charge of 
designed exaggeration. * 

<' These memoirs are not intended to be committed to the 
ordinary forms of publication. The circle of private friends 
will accept with tenderness what is presented to them with 
immixed good will; a few of our public libraries will continue 
to preserve in the company of its betters, this minor produc- 
tion in biography. 

^^ Some of the engraved plates which accompany the 
present volume, are given in deference to the taste of the 
writer's friend, and in confirmation of it; while the introduc- 
tion of others will gratify his own fiselings. * They will jointly 
give to this little work an increased interest in the estimation 
of those personal firiends from whose attachment and constancy 
he has derived some of the greatest comforts of his life. 

*^ The portrait of Mr. Brand HoUis was engraved from a 
drawing in crayons in the early part of his life. It was tak^i 
at the desire of his friend, Mr. Thomas Hollis, was carefully 
preserved by him, and considered as a correct likeness. It 
might be added, that since his decease, an artist of distin- 
guished ability was invited to make an eflbrt with his chisel 
from memory : but the opportunity was irrecoverably lost 

<' The two sections of the hall and staircase at the Hyde, 
were engraved for Mr. Brand Hollis, a few years before his 
death, from the drawings of Sir William Chambers, who ex- 
ecuted the design in 1761, as stated in the body of the work. 

" Of the figure of * liberty,* or * Britannia,' (may the 
names ever be synonjrmous I) a correct account cannot be 
{^ven. The design is masterly, and the graver of Bartelozzi 

* S«e a '< Memoir of Miclntl DodaODy Ek}." 1800; ind the dedicatioa oPtbe in- 
compmble Jonin to Arclibiiliop Herring 17^^39 prefixed to the lecood vohme of hu 
<' Ecdeiiiital Rffibifki." 



60 DR. DISNEY* 

has been employed in a freedom of manner singularly charaC' 
teristic of his subjects and himself. 

" The two Sarcophagi are engraved by Mr. Bazire, from 
drawings which he made in the course of the last. winter. 
They possess expression which does credit to his abilities and 
exertion, and an accuracy which distinguishes his fidelity in 
delineation. The antique knocker, preserved in the title page, 
was also drawn, and engraved by the same faithful artist. 

" The large Roman Sarcophagus, is seven feet one inch in 
leligth, and eleven inches in height, as may be seen from the 
scale annexed. In front are figures in alto relievo^ (according 
to the Memoirs of Thomas HoUis, p. 129.) of Roman work- 
manship, representing the whole race of fauns, faunesses, and 
satyrs of different ages, very perfect and antique. But the 
three groupes ^f figures would appear to be more accurately 
described, by saying that the centre compartment represents 
Bacchus sacrificing, supported on the right side by a satyr, 
and on the lefl, by a faun. At his feet, are the panther and 
tiger. On the ground, is the sacred basket from which is 
issuing the serpent. At one end of the front, are Silenus, 
with an infant Bacchus in his arms, and a dog and a goat at 
his feet; at another end, a female bacchanal playing with 
cymbals. This sarcophagus was brought from Rome together 
with its companion, by William Lloyd, Esq. of Oregories, 
near Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, and both were purchased 
of him in June 1761, by Thomas Hollis, Esq., in order (as 
he writes, July 8, same year) to be presented to bis ^ good 
old friend, Mr. Brand.^ And the Sarcophagi Mr. Brand, 
(afterwards Mr. Brand Hollis) greatly esteemed, and always 
considered ^ as making the principal ornaments of his hidL' ^ 
. " Concerning these, and some other marbles, Mr. Hollis 
wrote to his friend (July 17, same year,) * Remfember how- 
ever, that I am to deliver these marbles to you like a gentle- 
man and a friend, that is, free of all charges whatever ; nor 
are you to depart from your disposition, from the scrubbinesses 
of the country, and tamper with my understrappers,' kc 
^^ The Greek Sarcophagus, the companion of the form^» 

5 



DR. DISNEY. 61 

though less in size (being five feet three inches long, and one 
fix>t three inches high, and the cover seven inches high) was 
also purchased of Mr. Lloyd, and presented to Mr. Brand, 
as before mentioned. In the front and on each side, are 
figures in aUo relieWf * representing (according to the 
Memoirs, p. 129. before cited) the Amazons begging peace of 
Theseus, king of Athens, by means of Hippolita his queen, as 
related by Plutarch.' Rich in figures and Greek workman- 
ship; and very entire and perfect The cover is also in 
aUo relievo. See Plutarch's Life of Theseus. — — * The Athe- 
nians charged their right wing, and a great number of the 
Amazons \^ere slain. At length, afler four months, a peace 
was concluded between them, by the mediation of Hippolita.' 
Dryden's Translation, 1703. vol. i. p. 41— 43; or Lang- 
home's, 1801. voL i. p. 29. 

** But it has been suggested to me with greater apparent 
correctness by that informed my thologlst, and ingenious artist 
Mr. Harman, on his recently examing this valuable relique of 
antiquity, that the subject of this Greek Sarcophagus, is the 
story of Ulysses' discovery of Achilles, concealed by his 
mother, Thetis, among the daughters of Lycomedes. Ulysses 
visited the court of Lycomedes, in the character of a mer- 
chant, and exposed various trinkets to the young women for 
their (choice, and mixed with these some warlike wei^ns. 
The daughters of Lycomedes chose such things as were appro- 
priate to female occupations. While they were in the act of 
making this selection, Ulysses caused a trumpet to be sounded, 
when Achilles, although dressed like a woman, immediately 
seized a spear and shield. By this stratagem, Achilles was 
discovered and sent to the Trojan war. Agreeably to this 
fitory, the centre figure is AchUles with a shield on his left 
4nn, brandishing a spear in his right hand; the figure kneel- 
ing tefore him is his favourite female ; the five figures near her 
iure her sisters, and the old man behind them is Lycomedes; 
ihe figure in a cap is Ulysses, rejoicing in his success, and 
Jsdiind him are bis two compauions. — On the end next to 



68 ^^^^^^1 

tice. Indeed, his own life, conduct, and conversation, formed 
the most popular and powerful aid on this, and indeed, every 
other similar occasion. 

Some idea of his religious opinions may be gathered from 
his account of those of his friend Mr. Brand Holiis, as 
exhibited in the life of that gentleman.* After slating that 
he had been educated in the principles of a Protestant, dis- 
tent from the established church, chiefly with reference to 
the power of the civil magistrate, in matters of religion, &c. 
he adds as follows : " But from his subsequent reading and 
reflection, he became a firm believer in the Unity and 
Supremacy of the one God and Father of all ; and in the 
divine mission (of) Christ as the messenger and prophet of 
God; and he was, agreeably to such his faith, not only a 
member of the chapel in Essex Street, London, but a liberal 
benefactor to it. 

" He was unequivocally a behevet in the resurrection of 
Christ : * the evidence of a future state,' says he, in a paper now 
before me, ' is such as leaves no doubt in my mind.' And I 
remember hb very seriously, and emphatically obseri-ing, that 
' he utterly hated an immoral action.' ' Where then,' con- 
tinues he, ' may we expect to find a better source, or greater 
security for the religion, and virtuous conduct of any man, 
ihan in the conviction of the government, wisdom, and good- 
ness of the one only God ; — in a belief of the divine mission 
of Jesus, and of a resurrection to a future slate of distri- 
bulive justice and mercy; and connected with these, in the 
profession of a rooted aversion to every immoral action. 
More copious articles of faith may be professed, and believed, 
by good and excellent men of all religious persuasions ; but 
men are not necessarily good and excellent, because of their 
lengthened creed. ' Indeed, when any creed is imposed, the 
very act of imposing implies suspicion on the part of the iin- 
poser : and such imposition may invite, and in some hard 
cases will compel men to become hypocrites. And ihe world 
has been long told by the history of the Christian t-Imrch, 
how very inadequate bucIi means are to the advancement of 

■ Mtmoiu, p.i*. 



DR. DISNEY. 61 

though lese in size (being five feet three inches long, and one 
fixit three inches high, and the cover seven inches high) was 
also purchased of Mr. Lloyd, and presented to Mr, Brand, 
as before mentioned. In the front and on each side, are 
figures in alto relievo, ' representing (according to the 
Memoirs, p. 129. before cited] the Amazon's beting peace <£ 
Theseus, king of Athens, by means of Hippotita his qUeen, as 
related by Plutarch.' Rich in figures and Greek workman- 
ship ; and very entire and perfect. The cover is also in 

aUo relievo. See Plutarch's Life of Theseus. ' The Athe- 

nians chained their right wing, and a great number of the 
Amazons #ere slain. At lengtli, alVer four months, a peace 
was concluded between them, by the mediation of Hippolita.' 
Dryden's Translation, 1703. vol. i. p. 41 — tS; or lADg- 
home's, 1801. vol. i. p. 29. 

" But it has been suggested to me with greater ^parent 
correctness by that informed mythologist, and ingenious artist 
Mr. Harman, on his recently examing this valuable relique of 
antiquity, that the subject of this Greek Sarcophagus, is the 
story of Ulysses' discovery of Achillea, concealed by his 
mother, Thetis, among the daughters of Lycomedes. Ulysses 
visited the court of Lycomedes, in the character of a mer- 
chant, and exposed various trinkets to the young women for 
their thoice, and mixed with these some warlike weapons, 
e daughters of Lycomedes chose such things as were aj^ro- 
D female occupations. While they were in the act of 
s selection, Ulysses caused a trumpet to be sounded, 
illea, although dressed like a woman, immcdiatdy 
' and shield. By this stratagem, Achilles was 
: sent to the Trojan war. Agreeably to this 
sitre figure is Achilles with a shield on his left 
lUhing a apear in his right hand ; the figure kneel- 
1 is his favourite female ; the five figures near her 
, and the old man behind them is Lycomedes; - 
in a cap is Ulysses, rejoicing in his success, and 
^arc lii!> two companions. — (^ the eud next to 



m Bo DIt. DISNEY. 

I IiHB been employed in a freednm of manner singularly clisrai!^ 
L (eristic of his subjects and himself. 
I " The two Sarcophagi are engraved by Mr, Bozire, from 
ft drawings which be made in tlie course of the last winter^ 
^ They possess (^presslon which doe» credit to his abilities ani 
I iBXertion, and an accuracy wliich distinguishes his fidelity ii 
m delineation. The antique knocker, preserved in the title pag^ 
m was also drawn, and engraved by the same faithful artist. 

■ •■ " The large Roman Sarcophagus, is seven feet one inch in 
K' lengtli, and eleven int^bes in height, as may be seen from the 
I flcale aimcxcd. In front arc figures in alio relievo, (according 
I .to the Memoirs of Thomas HoUis, p. 129.) of Roman work- 
r Uianship, representing the whole race of I'auns, faunesses, and 
I utyrs of dilTerent ages, very perfect and antique. But the 
L three groopes of figures would appear to be more accurately 
I described, by saying that the centre compartment represents 
^.Bacchus sacrificiiag, supported on the right side by a satyr, 
I and on the left, by a faun. At his feet, arc the panther and 
I tiger. On the ground, is the sacred basket from which is 
I issuing the serpent. At one end of the front, are Silenus, 
I with an inftuit Bacchus in his arms, and a dog and a goat at 
I hia feet; at another end, a female bacchanal playing with 
K ^mibals. This sarcophagus was brought from Rome togetheF 

■ jvith its companion, by William Lloyd, Esq. of Gregories, 
W near Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, and both were purchased 
Kpf him in June I7G1, by Thomas HoUis, Esq., in order (as 
I he writes, July 8, same year) to be presented to his ' good 
l| old friend, Mr. Brand.' And the Sarcophagi Mr. Brand, 
K (afterwards Mr. Brand Hollis) greatly esteemed, and always 
Bconsidered ' as making the principal ornaments of his hall.' 
ft. . " Concerning these, and some other marbles, Mr. Hollis 
■Mrrote to his friend (July 17, same year,) ' Remember how- 
(jirer, that I am to deliver these marbles to you like a gentle- 
I man and u friend, that is, free of all charges whatever ; nor 
I are you to depart from your disposition, from the scrubbine&scs 
I ^ihc country, and tamper with ray understrappers,' &c. 
K _" The Greek SARCorHAiius, the companion of the former^ 



DR. DISNEY. 



61 



though less In size (being five feet three inches long, and one 
foot three iiiches high, and the cover seven indies high) was 
also purchasetl of Mr. Lloyd, and presented to Mr. Brand, 
as before mentioned. I» the tVonl and on each aide, are 
figures in alto rdievo, ' representing {according to the 
Memoirs, p. 129. before cited) tiie Amazons begging peace of 
Theseus, king of Athens, by means of Hippolita his queen, as 
related by Plutarch.' Rith in figures and Greek workman- 
ship ; and very entire and perfect. The cover is also in 

alio relievo. See Plutarch's Lite of Theseus ' The Atlie- 

nians charged their right wing, and a great number of the 
Amazons were slain. At length, after four months, a peace 
was concluded i)etween them, by the mediation of Hippolita.' 
Dryden's Tranalation, 1703. vol. i. p. 41 — 43; or Lang- 
horne's, 1801. voL i. p. 29. 

" But it has been suggested to me with greater apparent 
correctness by tliat informed inythologist, and ingenious artist 
Mr. Harnian, on his recently exaining tliis valuable relique of 
antiquity, that the subject of this Greek Sarcophagus, is the 
story of Ulysses' discovery of Achilles, concealed by liis 
mother, Thetis, among the daughters of Lycomedes. Ulysses 
visited the court of Lycomedes, in the character of a mer- 
chant, and exposed various trinkets to the young women for 
their choice, and mixed with these some warhkc weapons. 
The daughters of Lycomedes chose such things as were appro- 
priate to female occupations. While they were in the act of 
making this selection, Ulysses caused a trumpet to be sounded, 
when Achilles, allliough dressed like a woman, immediately 
seized a spear and shield. By this stratagem, Achilles was 
di^overed and sent to the Trojan war. Agreeably to this 
alory, the centre figure is Achilles with a slueld on his left 
arm, brandishing a spear in his right hand ; the figure kneel- 
ing before him is his favourite female ; the five figures near 
are her sisters, and the old man behind them is Lyco 
ihe figure in a cap is Ulysses, rejoicing in his sue 
ixbind him arc his two companions. — Oti the < 



62 DR. DiSNEY. 

the %ure of Lycomedes, is Hector, slain by Achilles, u]> 
finished^ On the other, is Achilles killing Tenthesilea, queen 
of the Amazons, &c« 

" The view of the Hyde, the paternal residency <rf Mr. 
•Brand Hollis, and those of the Hermitage and the piece of 
water there, were painted in the autumn of 1806, by that ixi- 
genious artist and very worthy man, Mn George Cuit of 
Richmond in Yorkshire: and it was some gratification to 
have a second opportunity of emplo}dng bis correct pencil, after 
an inter\^al of thirty years. The two former are engraved by 
Mr. Bazire ; the water<-piece is engraved by another hand. 
* " The mural monument was the sculpture erf Mr. King erf 
Bath, and is very well executed from a design of my own; 
but makes no claim to any other recommendation than that 
of simplicity and neatness. 

^^ A catal<^e of some marbles, bronzes, pictures, and 
gems, has been made, and indeed printed for private use. It 
was not drawn up without attention, and has received con- 
siderable improvement from the assistance o£ two respectable 
friends, Mrs. Howard of Pinner, in Middlesex, a lady whose 
erudition is exceeded only by her diffidence, modesty, and 
Jbenevolence : ami the Rev. James Tate, master of the Gram- 
mar School (rf Richmond in Yorkshire, and late Fellow of 
Siiioiey College, Cambridge, a gentleman whose learning, diU^ 
gence, and zeal oninently distinguish him, in conducting his 
scholars through the highest departments of a classical edii^ 
caticMLi" 

It was not until some time after he had resigned his livings in 
the Church of England, that Dr.Dism^ became personally iu^ 
^minted with Mr. Brand Hollis. He had known him, however, 
long before, through the medium of the learned Archdeacon 
Blackbume, a common friend of both ; and if the memory of th^ 
wviter of this article be correct, he drew up an index fer the 
tfFO splendid volumes, containing the life of Mr. Thbm^fe 
Hd]i% edited by the above g^tleman, illustrated with mxaf 
fin* phitto/and a variety of miscdlaneous dissertations. Theik* 



DR. DISNEY. 63 

acquaintance soon ripped into firiendship, andthat friendiliip 
continued to improve during a space of many year% un?- 
tnt>ken and unintermpted by any sinister event. 

In 1 786, they took a journey tc^gether, for the purpose of col- 
lecting materials for the life of Dr. Jebby which was published 
in the course of the socceedii^ year. Of this able and amiable 
man, they both entertained the highest respect ; and his bust 
constantly occupied a distinguished place in the parlour of 
Mr. Brand HoUis's town house. On his demise they tranfr* 
ferred their friendship to his widow. But it may be more 
satisfactory, perhaps, for the reader to peruse these interesting 
particulairs, as stated by himself in the printed life of the 
eminent and worthy physician just alluded to. 

** It was not till the end of 1782, or early in die year 17839 
that the writer of the present page (Dr. Disney), upoa hia 
resigning his situaticm in the established church, andremoving 
to London, became personally acquainted with Mr^ Brand 
Hollis; but that acquaintance proceeded to friendships and 
that friendship continued to improve, and was nnintemipted.at 
long i^ he lived. 

*^ Dr. J<^ J^bb, the common friend of Mr. Brand Hollis^ 
and his biographer, and the friend of the whole human rac^ 
in all thdr best and dearest interests, died March. 3, I76ltt^ 
In the course of the next month, an intention of undertaking 
the collection and publication of his works, with some account 
of his life and labours, was announced; and at the; end- c^ 
twdve months, that engagement with the public was completed^ 
in 3 vols. 8vo. Early in the summer of the same year in which 
owe frigid died, Mr. Brand Hollis and myself spent some days 
together at Cambridge, in order the more oorrecdy to roiew 
the knowledge of past scenes on this . theatre of Dr. JebbV 
academical and theological life^ and to consnit the.opUiion &bA 
advice of his friends, oA various matters respecting the pr<K 
posed puUication. 

*^ In August, 1791, I met my friend (Mr;. BrandHolUs) l^ 
his own request at Salisbury, in his return from Dorsetshire, and 



62 DR. DiSNEY. 

the figure of Lycomedes, is Hector slain by Achilles, un» 
finished^ On the other, is Achilles killing P^ithesilea» queen 
of the Amazons, &c. 

. " The view of the Hyde^ the paternal residence oS Mr. 
•Brand Hollis, and those of the Hermitage and the piece of 
water there, were painted in the autumn of 1806, by that in- 
genious artist and very worthy man, Mr, George Cuit of 
Richmond in Yorkshire: and it was some gratification, to 
have a second opp<^unity of emplo}dng bis correct pencil, after 
an inter\'al of thirty years. The two former are engraved by 
Mr. Bazire ; the water<-piece is engraved by another hand. 
• " The mural monument was the sculpture erf Mn King of 
Bath, and is very well executed from a design of my own; 
but makes no claim to any other recommendation than that 
of simplicity and neatness. 

^^ A catal<^e of some marbles, bronzes, pictures, and 
gems, has been made^ and indeed printed for private use. It 
was not drawn up without attention, and has received con- 
siderable improvement firom the assistance o£ two respectable 
fi*iends, Mrs. Howard of Pinner, in Middlesex, a lady whose 
erudition is exceeded only by her diffidence, modesty, and 
Jbenevolence : ami the Rev. James Tate, master of the Granv- 
mar School o£ Richmond in Yorkshire, and late Fellow of 
SUtocy College, Cambridge, a gentleman whose learning, diU^ 
gence, and zeal eminently distinguish him, in conducting his 
scholars through the highest departments of a classical edii^ 

It was not until some time after he had resigned his livings in 
the Church of England, that Dr.Disni^ became personally iu^ 
^minted with Mr. Brand HoUis. He had known him, however, 
long before, through the medium of the learned Archdeacon 
Blackbume, a common friend of both ; and if the memory of th^ 
wviter of this article be correct, he drew up an index for the 
tfFO splendid volumes^ containing the life of Mr. Thomas 
Hd]i% edited by the above g^tleman, illustrated with mant 
fin*.phitto,and a variety of miscdlaneous dissertaticms. Thefr 



DR. DISNEY. 63 

acquaintance soon ripped into firiendship, and that friendslup 
continued to improve during a space of many year% un?- 
broken and uninterrupted by any sinister event. 

In 1 786, they took a journey tc^gether, for the purpose of col- 
lecting materials for the life of Dr. Jebb, which was published 
in the course of the socceedii^ year. Of this able and amiable 
man, they both entertained the highest respect ; and his bust 
constantly occupied a distinguished place in the parlour of 
Mr. Brand HoUis's town house. On his demise they tranfr* 
ferred their friendship to his widow. But it may be more 
satisfactory, perhaps, for the reader to peruse these interesting 
particulars, as stated by himself in the printed. life of the 
eminent and worthy physician just alluded to. 

" It was not till the end of 1 782, or early in flie year 1783^ 
that the writer of the present page (Dr. Disney), upoa hi» 
resigning his situaticm in the established church, andremoving 
to London, became personally acquainted with Mr^ Brand 
Holli»; but that acquaintance proceeded to friezidship^ and 
that friendship continued to improve, and was uninterruptediu 
long ifo he lived. 

*^ Dt, Jcim Jtkbf the common friend of Mr. Brand Hollis^ 
and his biographer, and the friend of the whole human rac^ 
in all thdr best and dearest interests, died March.2, l^M^ 
In the course of the next month, an intuition of undertaking 
the collection and publication of his works, with soioe; account 
of his life and labours, was announced; and at the^ end: c^ 
twdve months, that engagement with the public was completed^ 
in 3 vols. 8vo. Early in the summer of the same year in which 
our frigid died, Mr. Brand Hollis and myself spent some days 
together at Cambridge, in order the more oorrecdy to nmew 
the knowledge of past scenes^ on this theatre of Dr. Jeb^V 
academical and theological life^ and to consult thcopinion lOid 
advice of his friends, on various matters respecting the pr<K 
posed puUication. 

" In August, 1791, I met my friend (Mr;, BrandHollis) l^y 
his own request at Salisbury, in his return from Dorsetshire, and 



61 DR. oiSN£Y. 

visited Southampton and Winchester in company with him^ 
on our way home." 

^' In the disposition of his fortune at his death," says Dr. 
Disney*, " Mr. Brand Hollis might seem, as it were, to have 
adopted the precedent of his friend (the late Thomas Hollis, 
Esq.); and the date of his will (November 2, 1792,) was 
nearly twelve years before his decease. He left his only sur- 
viving sister f an annuity, charged on his estate in Essex ; he 
also gave small pecuniary legacies to several of his friends ; 
made provision for some of his servants, and gave more limited 
legacies to the rest of them ; and bequeathed, without annexing 
any condition, all his real and personal estates, as well those 
in Essex, which he inherited from his father, as those in Dor* 
setshire, which he received from his friend, ^ and all other 
his real as well as personal estates, whatsoever and where6o- 
ever, to Dr. John Disney, of Sloane-Street, Knightsbridge, 
near' London, his heirs, executors, and administrators, to his 
and their sole use and benefit.' He also appointed him his 
executor of such his last will and testament. 

^^ On no one occasion," adds Dr. D. *^ and in no -one in- 
stance in the course of our confidential or familiar conversation, 
either in London, or at the Hyde, during my repeated visits 
ther^ did he give the slightest intimation of his partial 
intention, or drop one unguarded expression leading that way. 
** So lately as September, 1 802, he presented to me a sleeping 
cupid, by Algardi, upon his indirectly learning from anotho: 
persbn that I much admired it ; but this marble was the only 
memorial which he hod given me in his life-time. Since his 
death, I have sometimes thought that I could call to my re- 
membrance some feint traces of his greatwatchfulness over him- 
self in this practised reserve ; and I can with pleasure bring 
back to my recollection some marked evidences of his regard ; 
but these, in no degree amounted to tokens of fidendship so uik 
bounded, and which he intended to confiim, by so magnific^it 
and splendid a bequest." 

* Mcmoin^ p. 23. f Mr* Brand is tioce deaJ; Eq^ 



DR, DISNET. 65 

Oil the demise of Mr. Brand Hollis, in the autumn of 1804, 
his surviving friend placed the corpse of his munificent bene- 
factor next to the bone^ of his father, in the chancel of his 
parish church. He also soon after erected a monument to his 
memory, with an appropriate inscription, expressive of his 
*' friendship and gratitude." The workmanship is exquisite, 
and the whole partakes of the beauty and simplicity of ancient 
times.' 

He also composed his *' Memoirs," which were printed in 
1 808, with the annexed motto, " Amicitise Sacrum." Owing 
to inattention on the part of the person to whom he confided the 
care of this work, the paper is of a very inferior quality ; and 
he intended, on this very account, with his usual liberality, to 
have published another edition, ^not to be sold, but to be pre- 
sented to the fi'iends of the deceased. Prefixed, is a very fine 
engraved portrait, after the manner of chalk, of Mr. B. HoUis, 
when in his thirty-second year, drawn from the life, at 
Rome, in 1752, by Pozzi, and engraved, in 1807, by E^ 
Bocquet. The other engravings, consisting of sarcophagi^ 
a view of the Hyde, the grounds, and the summer-house, are 
all executed with great fidelity, taste, and skill, and there is 
one plate that does not disgrace the well known talents of 
Bartalozzi. 

But Dr. Disney was doomed, after the lapse of a few fleeting 
years, to stand in need of that " generous tear," which he had 
so often dropt over the tombs of other worthy men, with whom 
he lived in the habits of fi'iendship. His health had been for 
a long time in a declining state, and his ministry at Essex- 
Street chapel was first suspended, and then entirely ceased on 
this account. Indeed, he at length confined himself to the 
Hyde, in Essex, and with the exception of his signature to a 
requisition, as a fi'eeholder, to the lord-liqutenant, for a county 
meeting, we do not recollect that he exercised any public func- 
tions whatsoever. 

A worthy clergyman, who had enjoyed *^ an undeviatii^, 
uninterrupted firieodship of nearly thirty years ccmtimiance," 
who bad <^ seen him, under a variety of circumstancet, and 

VOL. II. F 



66 DR. DISNEY* 

without the made of dlaguise^ which he never assumed/' but 
*< with all that (^miess of temper, that generous firaokness of 
nature^ by which he was remarkably, characterized," thus 
describes his last illness : 

** His health had been sensibly declining for a considerable 
tune ; but be endured a painful and lingering illness with a 
fortitude and composure which were truly admirable. -— Per- 
fectly aware of his situation, he one day uAd& friend who was 
near him, ^ he had hoped all would have been over before that 
time; but he supposed a little more disciplinewas necessary; and 
all was ordered right.' At another time, he said to his physi- 
cian, ^ I hope I shall not have to go through all this, long.' 
— When momentarily expecting his awfiil change, he was 
most perfectly tranquil and collected in tbat expectation, ttod 
anxious for his release. He said, not long before his death, 
he felt completely free from pain, happy and comfortable to 
the greatest d^ee. — Again to. one who was most dear to 
him, he observed, — ^Amidst my severe afllictions, I have 
many comforts, and much to be Uiankfiil for, though I do 
suffer a good deal ; but I endeavour to be patient ; and I wish 
to bring my mind to believe, that this bed is the best place for 
me. Some have a much rougher journey out of this system 
than I have.' — It was a striking observation of a neighbouiv 
ing gaitleman, for whom he entertained great personal regard^ 
who, upon seeing him in his sick room not many days pre- 
vious to his dissolution, remarked, that ^ His was the only 
composed or happy countenance in the house.' 

*^ He frequently expressed his desire to be rdeased, and tliat 
he thought his time long. When a word or sentiment escaped 
him, he was the same precisely as ever, unchanged in aklE^ 
ness, suffering, and in death. When rapidly advancing to 
the most awful and tremendous of all moments, he continiicd 
calm and serene, kind to others, and composed and dignffied 
in his own views. — Till, at length, he breathed his last wMik 
ont a stmg^e or a sigh, — sunk into a state of sweet -and 
gentle rapose, and closed his eyes fen: ever on dus wtMrld»'^ 



DR. DISNET. 67 

* The chamber wher^ the good man meets his fate. 

Is privil^ed beyond the common walk 

Of virtuous life, quite in the verge of heaven*' 

*^ Such were the interesting awful scenes, such the sad train 
of concomitant circumstances, which I have partly witnessed,, 
or which have been represented to me with great accuracy 
and distinctness, as well as with deep interest, and the liveliest 
sensibiUty. So consistent, so dignified was the conduct of 
this approved servant of God in circumstances the most trying to 
human nature, — so enlightened, so vigorous were the prin- 
ciples which sustained and carried him through no common 
sufferings, — so bright and cheering, the hopes which inspired 
his breast even within the precincts of the tomb." 

At length, on the evening of Thursday, December 26, 1816, 
he was released by death from those afflictions produced by a 
long and lingering illness, which he appears to have bome^ 
not only with a manly fortitude, but an heroic constancy. 

Thus died in the 71st year of his age, John Disney, D* D. 
F. B. S., a man whose memory will be long respected by aU 
denominations of Christians, on account of the immense sacri- 
"fice made by him to his reUgious principles, when his in&nt 
family was as yet unprovided with the gifts of fortune^ an4 
while he himself only enjoyed the scanty means usually allotted 
in this country to younger brothers. But, while he differed 
with, and withdrew from the pale of the Anglican communion, 
his conduct, in respect to the established church, was respectful 
and urbane. In 1792, he defended the practice of ^^ public 
worship," from the attack of the learned Gilbert Wakefield ; 
and Christianity itself from the <' Age of Reason," written by 
Thomas Paine. 

On the other hand, he was always anxious to advocate the 
principles of ^^ Unitarian Christians," pardcplarly in a series of 
letters to Vicesimus Knox, D. D. against aU those who thought 
proper to impugn them ; while he anxiously endeavoured to 
promote Hmr spread by means of *^ sermixis,". and *^ dia^ 
logues," and still more by an uniform good and virtuous prac- 

F 2 



possesaediiDttonljr a fine taste for, but were liberal encoumger* 
0i die various prc^uctions both of the chisel and the graver. 

Dr. Disney expresses himself thus, in his preface to the 
memoirs, dated from "the Hyde, September 28, 1808." 

" No apology is intended to be offered for the following 
sheets ; they will sufficiently speak for themselves. The gene- 
rous minded reader will approve the design; and, the bio- 
grapher trusts that the courteous reader will candidly accept 
the execution. He is not conscious of having mistated or 
misrepresented a single fact; or having concealed or em- 
blazoned a single trait of character. He scorns to offer any 
unworthy sacrifice at the altar of truth. He may also be 



the dawn of liberty in France; and sair with no tmall satisfiictlon^ that it was as yet un- 
accompanied with bloodshed. 

In 1799, he co-operated with Mr. now Earl Gray, and the " Friends of the 
People," An an attempt to procure a pari ianienury reform, and on February 34, 1795, 
was attacked, in a bookseller's shop, in Piccadilly, with a fit of apoplexy ; but he re- 
covered from this seizure, and his health happily returned. 

In respect to religion, he was bred a Dissenter) but he afterwards became an 
Unitarian. 

In his character Mr. Brand Hollis was mild, in his temper amiable, in hia numm 
obliging. ** Preserve your serenity!" was a favourite maxim with him, and this be 
eoostantly recommended to all his friends. His cabinet of antiquities was bath fare 
and vsluable ; and his taste in verttL was deemed dkaste and correct. like his pre- 
decessor, he collected all books, medals, pictures, and gems, connected with the cansc 
of liberty; or calculated to inspire a k>ve of it in other individnab, and ■mong othar 
nations as well as his own. He was indolent, however, and averse from buifaiass ; so 
that with a large unincumbered fortune, he was sometimes in want of money. 

Wlien the house of Dr. Priestly was destroyed by a mob, in 179I9 he made him a 
liberal present; to Dr. Geddes, in 1801, he tratismitted lOol. ,* and he wu one «if the 
first to subscribe tu relieve Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, from the diflBcolties likely to acme 
firom his imprisonment in Dorchester Jail. 

In 1801, he left London, for the last time, and expired on Sunday September 9, 
M04, at the Hyde, without a sigh or a struggle, as he was sitting in his drawing-room. 

He wu buried in the chancel of the established church, where a small sarcopbagosy 
with the folbwing inscription, has been erected to his memory. 

« Thomas Brand Hollis, Esq. 
OP THE Htds, 

p. U.S. AND S.A. 
DIID SEPT. IX. MDCCCIV. AOED LXXXIV. 
IN TESTIMONT OP PRIBND8HIP AND GRATITUDE 
THIS MOffVMtllT 18 BRBCTtD 

BT John Disney, d.d. r.^. a." 



DR. DISNBY; . 59 

excused for repeating here what he has takai occasion to ob- 
serve elsewhere ; — that under certain drcumstances, ^^ the 
tribute of fin^idahip and gratitude became a debt of honour and 
of justice; and he who agreeably to the cu^ms of the ancients, 
• Does not sacrifia to Heroes till after Sumrset^ equally re- 
pels, all suspicion of interest, and every petulant cfaai^ of 
designed exaggeration. * 

** These memoirs are not intended to be committed to the 
ordinary forms of publication. The circle of private friends 
will accept with tenderness what is presented to them with 
unmixed good will ; a few of our public libraries will continue 
to preserve in the company of its betters, this minor produc- 
tion in biography. 

** Some of the engraved plates which accompany the 
present volume, are given in deference to the taste of the 
writer's friend, and in confirmation of it; while the introduc- 
tion of other? will gratify his own -feelings. ' They will jointly 
give to this little work an increased interest in the estimation 
of those personal firiends from whose attachment and constancy 
he has derived some of the greatest comforts of his Ufe. 

" The portrait of Mr. Brand Hollis was engraved from a 
drawing in crayons in the early part of his life. It was tak^i 
at the desire of his friend, Mr. Thomas Hollis, was carefully 
preserved by him, and considered as a correct likeness. It 
might be added, that since his decease, an artist of distin- 
guished ability was invited to make an efibrt with his chisel 
from memory : but the opportunity was irrecoverably lost. 

<* The two sections of the hall and staircase at the Hyde, 
were engraved for Mr. Brand Hollis, a few years before his 
death, from the drawings of Sir William Chambers, who ex* 
ecnted the design in 1761, as stated in the body of the work. 

** Of the figure of * Liberty,* or * Britannia,' (may the 
names ever be s3mon]rmous !) a correct account cannot be 
given* The design is masterly, and the graver of Bartelozzi 

* Sm a *< Memoir of Michtcl Dodion, Em|." iSOOj and the dedication oPthe in- 
compaitble 4ortin to Archbishop Hexring 17 S2, prefixed to the lecood Toluiae of hi* 
<« BcdeiiMMlllffiiitb." 



Co DR. DISNEY. 

lias been employed in a freedom of manner singularly charac- 
teristic of his subjects and himself. 

" The two Sarcophagi are engraved by Mr, Bazire, from 
drawings which he made in the course of the last winter. 
They possess expression which does credit to his abUities and 
exertion, and an accuracy which distinguishes his fidelity in 
delineation. The antique knocker, preserved in the title page, 
was also drawn, and engraved by the same faithful artist. 

" The large Roman Sarcophagus, is seven feet one inch in 
length, and eleven inches in height, as may be seen from the 
scale annexed. In front are figures in alto relievo^ (according 
to the Memoirs of Thomas Hollis, p. 129.) of Roman work- 
manship, representing tlic whole race of fiiunsy fiuinesses, and 
satyrs of different ages, very perfect and antique. But tlie 
three groupes <of figures would appear to be more accurately 
described, by saying that the centre compartment represents 
Bacchus sacrificing, supported on the right side by a satyr, 
and on the left, by a faun. At his feet, are the panther and 
tiger. On the ground, is the sacred basket from which is 
issuing the serpent. At one end of the front, are Silenus, 
with an infant Bacchus in his arms, and a dog and a goat at 
his feet; at another end, a female bacchanal playing with 
cymbals. This sarcophagus was brought from Rome together 
with its companion, by William Lloyd, Esq. of Gregories, 
near Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, and both were purchased 
of him in June 1761, by Thomas Hollis, Esq., in order (as 
he writes, July 8, same year) to be presented to his * good 
old friend, Mr. Brand.' And the Sarcophagi Mr. Brand, 
(afterwards Mr. Brand Hollis) greatly esteemed, and always 
considered * as making the principal ornaments of his hall.* 

. " Concerning these, and some other marbles, Mr. Hollis 
wrote to his friend (July 17, same year,) * Remember how- 
ever, that I am to deliver these marbles to you like a gentle- 
man and a friend, that is, free of all charges whatever ; nor 
are you to depart from your disposition, from the scrubbinesses 
of the country, and tamper with my understrappers,' &c 
l\ The Greek Sarcophagus, the companion of the form^u^^ 

5 



DR. DISNEY. 61 

though less in size (being five feet three inches long, and one 
foot three inches high, and the cover seven inches high) was 
also purchased of Mr. Lloyd, and presented to Mr. Brand, 
as before mentioned. In the front and on each side, are 
figures in alto relievOy * representing (according to the 
Memoirs, p. 129. before cited) the Amazons b^ging peace of 
Theseus, king of Athens, by means of Hippolita his queen, as 
related by Plutarch.' Rich in figures and Greek workman- 
ship; and very entire and perfect The cover is also in 
alto relievo. See Plutarch's Life of Theseus. — — * The Athe- 
nians charged their right wing, and a great number of the 
Amazons Were slain. At length, after four months, a peace 
was concluded between them, by the mediation of Hipjjolita.' 
Dryden's Translation, 1703. vol. i. p. 4?1 — 43; or Lang- 
home's, 1801. vol. i. p. 29. 

<^ But it has been suggested to me with greater ^parent 
correctness by that informed mythologist, and ingenious artist 
Mr. Harman, on his recently examing this valuable relique of 
antiquity, that the subject of this Greek Sarcophagus, is the 
story of Ulysses' discovery of Achilles, concealed by his 
mother, Thetis, among the daughters of Lycomedes. Ulysses 
visited the court of Lycomedes, in the character of a mer- 
chant, and exposed various trinkets to the young women for 
their choice, and mixed with these sojmie warlike weapons. 
The daughters of Lycomedes chose such things as were appro- 
priate to female occupations. While they were in the act of 
making this selection, Ulysses caused a trumpet to be sounded, 
when Achilles, although dressed like a woman, immediately 
seized a spear and shield. By this stratagem, Achilles was 
discovered and sent to the Trojan war. Agreeably to this 
fitory, the centre figure is Achilles with a shield on his left 
smif brandishing a spear in his right hand; the figure kneel- 
ing before him is his favourite female ; the five figures near her 
are her sisters, and the old man behind them is Lycomedes; 
ihe figure in a cap is Ulysses, rejoicing in his success, and 
J3dund him are his two companions. — On the end hext to 



63 ntuJuaNSY* 

tlic figure of Lycomedes, is Hector, slain by Achilles^ ui> 
finished*' On the other, is Achilles killing Tenthesilea, queen 
of the Amazons, Sec. 

" The view of the Hyde, the paternal residence of Mr. 
Brand Holiis, and those of the Hermitage and the piece of 
water there, were painted in the autumn of 1806, by that in- 
genious artist and very worthy man, Mr. George Cuit of 
Richmond in Yorkshire: and it was some gratificatian to 
have a second opportunity of employing his correct pencil, after 
an inter^^al of thirty years. The two former are engraved by 
Mr. Bazire ; the water-piece is engraved by another hand. 
* " The mural monument was the sculpture of Mr, King of 
Bath, and is very well executed from a design of my own; 
but makes no claim to any other recommendation than that 
of simplicity and neatness. 

^ A catalogue of some marbles, bronzes, pictures, and 
gems, has been made, and indeed printed for private use. It 
was not drawn up without attention, and has received con- 
siderable improvement from the assistance of two respectable 
firiends, Mrs. Howard of Pinner, in Middlesex, a lady whose 
erudition is exceeded only by her diffidence, modesty, and 
lienevolence : an4 the Rev. James Tate, master of the Gram- 
•max School of Richmond in Yorkshire, and late Fellow of 
Sutoey College^ Cambridge, a gentleman whose learning, dili* 
genee, and zeal eminently distinguish him, in conducting hit 
scholars through the highest departments of a classical edu* 
caticm." 

It was not until some time after he had resigned his livings in 
the Church of England, that Dr. Disney became personally ac- 
quainted with Mr. Brand Hollis. He had known him, however, 
long before, through the medium of the learned Archdeacon 
Blackbume, a common friend of both ; and if the memory of the 
writer of this article be correct, he drew up an index for the 
two splendid volumes, containing the life of Mr. Thomas 
Hollis, edited by the above gentleman, illustrated with tnant 
fiuft-ldftt^and a variety of miscdlaneous dissertations. Tbetf 



DE. DISNEY. 63 

aicquaintance soon ripened into firiendshipy and that friendsbip 
continued to improve during a space of many years, un?- 
broken and uninterrupted by any sinbter event. 

In 1 786, they took a journey together, fixr the purpose of col- 
lecting materials for the life of Dr. Jebb, which was publidied 
in the course of the succeeding year. Of this able and amiable 
man, they both entertained the highest respect ; and his bust 
constantly occupied a distinguished place in the parlour of 
Mr. Brand HoUis's town house. On his demise they trans? 
ferred their friendship to his widow. But it may . be more 
satisfaetory, perhaps, for the reader to peruse these interesting 
particidairs, as stated by himself in the pnnted.life of the 
eminent and worthy physician just alluded to. 

" It was not till the end of 1782, or early in the year 1783, 
that the writer of the present page (Dr. Disney), upoa his 
resigning his situaticm in the established church, andremoving 
to London, became personally acquainted with Mn Brand 
Hollifr; but that acquaintance proceeded to friendships and 
that friendship continued to improve, and was uninterrupted as 
long fis he lived. 

^^ Dr. John Jebb, the common friend of Mr. Brand HolUs^ 
and his biographer, and the friend of the whole human race^ 
in all their best and dearest interests, died March 2, 1 76t6^ 
In the course of the next month, an intention of imdertaking 
the collection and publication of his works, with somie amount 
of his life and labours, was announced; and at the< end <^ 
twdve months, that engagement with the public was compl^ed^ 
in 3 vols. 8vo. Early in the summer of the same year in which 
our fri&ad died, Mr. Brand HoUis and mysdf spent some days 
together at Cambridge, in order the more correctlj.to renew 
the knowledge of past scenes on this . theatre of Dr. Jebb'» 
academical and theological life^ and to consult the.opiniw rad 
advice of his friends, on various matters respecting the.prCK 
posed puUication. 

« In August, 1791, I met my friend (Mr. BrandHoUis) kg 
his own request at Salisbury, in his return from Dorsetshire, and 



61 DA* DisNEY. 

visited Southampton and WiBchester in company with him^ 
on oar way home." 

<< In the disposition of his fortune at his death/' says Dr. 
Disney*, ** Mr. Brand HoUis might seem, as it were, to liave 
adopted the precedent of his friend (the late Thomas HoUis, 
Esq.); and the date of his will (November 2, 1792,) was 
nearly twelve years before his decease. He left his only sur- 
viving sister f an annuity, charged on his estate in Essex ; he 
also gave small pecuniary legacies to several of his friends ; 
made provision for some of his servants, and gave more limited 
l^acies to the rest of them ; and bequeathed, without annexinj]^ 
any condition, all his real and personal estates, as well those 
in Essex, which he inherited from his father, as those in Dor- 
setshire^ which he received from his friend, * and all other 
' his real as well as personal estates, whatsoever and whereso- 
ever, to Dr. John Disney, of Sloane-Street, Knigfatsbridge, 
near London, his heirs, executors, and administrators, to his 
and their sole use and benefit.' He also appointed him his 
executor of such his last will and testament. 

" On no one occasion," adds Dr. D. " and in no one in- 
stance in the course of our confidential or fiuniliar conversation, 
either in London, or at the Hyde, during my repeated visits 
there, did he give the slightest intimation of his partial 
intention, or drop one unguarded expression leading that way. 
" So lately as September, 1 802, he presented to mc a slewing 
cupid, by Algardi, upon his indirectly leai*ning from another 
person that I much admired it ; but this marble was the only 
memorial which he hud given me in his life-time. Since his 
death, I have sometimes thought that I could call to my re- 
membrance some fiuint traces of his great watchfulness over him- 
' self in this practised reserve ; and I can with pleasure bring 
back to my recollection some marked evidences of his regard ; 
but these, in no degree amounted to tokens of friendship so un« 
bounded, and which he intended to confii*m, by so magnificent 
and splendid a bequest." 

• Memoirs^ p. 33. t ^l'** Brand is »Loc« dcaJ; Eob 



DR. DISN£T. 65 

' Chi the demise of Mr. Brand Hollis, in the autumn of 1804, 
his surviving friend placed the corpse of his munificent bene- 
factor next to the bones of his father, in the chancel of his 
parish church. He also soon after erected a monument to his 
memory, with an appropriate inscription, expressive of his 
** friendship and gratitude." The workmanship is exquisite^ 
and the whole partakes of the beauty and simplicity of ancient 
times. ' 

He also composed his ^' Memoirs," which were printed in 
1 808, with the annexed motto, " Amicitise Sacrum." Owing 
to inattention on the part of the person to whom he confided the 
care of this work, the paper is of a very inferior quality; and 
he intended, on this very account, with his usual liberality, to 
have published another edition, . not to be sold, but to be pre- 
sented to the fi-iends of the deceased. Prefixed, is a very fine 
engraved portrait, after the manner of chalk, of Mr. B. Hollis, 
when in his thirty-second year, drawn firom the life, at 
Rome, in 1752, by Pozzi, and engraved, in 1807, by E. 
Bocquet* The other engravings, consisting of sarcophagi^ 
a view of the Hyde, the grounds, and the summer-house, are 
all executed with great fidelity, taste, and skill, and there is 
one plate that does not disgrace the well known talents of 
Bartalozzi. 

But Dr. Disney was doomed, after the lapse of a few fleeting 
years, to stand in need of that " generous tear," which he had 
so often dropt over the tombs of other worthy men, with whom 
he lived in the habits of friendship. His health had been for 
a long time in a declining state, and his ministry at Essex- 
Street chapel was first suspended, and then entirely ceased on 
this account. Indeed, he at length confined himself to the 
Hyde, in Essex, and with the exception of his signature to a 
requisition, as a freeholder, to the lord-lieutenant, for a county 
meeting, we do not recollect that he exercised any public func- 
tions whatsoever. 

A worthy clergyman, who had enjoyed ** an imdeviating, 
uninterrupted friendship of nearly thirty years continuance," 
who bad ^* seen him, under a variety of circumstances, and 

VOL. II. F 



66 DR. DIgNST. 

without the made of diigaise^ which he never assumed,*' but 
^ with all that <q)enne8s of temper, that generous frankness of 
nature^ by which he was remarkably characterized/' thus 
describes his last illness : 

' ^* His health had been sensibly declining for a considerable 
time ; but he endured a painful and lingering illness with a 
fortitude and composure which were truly admirable. — Per- 
fectly aware of his situation, he one day told a friend who was 
near him, < he had hoped all would have been over before that 
time; but he supposed a little more disciplinewas necessary; and 
all was ordered right' At another time, he said to his physi- 
cian, ^ I hope I shall not have to go through all this, loog.' 
— When momentarily expecting his awfid change, he was 
most perfectly tranquO and collected in tbat expectation, and 
anxious for his release. He said, not long before his death, 
he felt completely free from pain, happy and comfortable to 
the greatest degree. — Again to one who was most dear to 
him, he observed, — ^Amidst my severe afflictions, I have 
many comforts, and much to be thankful for, though I do 
suffera good deal ; but I endeavour to be patient; and I wish 
to bring my mind to believe, that this bed is the best plaoe for 
me. Some have a much rougher journey out of this system 
than I have.' — It was a striking observation of a neighbour- 
ing gentleman, for whom he entertained great personal r^ard, 
who, upon seeing him in his sick room not many days pre- 
vious to his dissolution, remarked, that ^ His was the only 
composed or happy countenance in the house.' 

'^ He frequently expressed his desire to be released, and that 
he thought his time long. When a word or sentiment escaped 
him, he was the same precisely as ever, unchanged in side- 
ness, suffering, and in death. When rapidly advancing to 
the most awful and tremendous of all moments, he continued 
calm and serene, kind to others, and composed and dignified 
in his own views. — Till, at length, he breathed his last with- 
out a strug^e or a sigh, — sunk into a state of sweet and 
gentle repose, and closed his eyes for ever on this world. 



DE. DISNEY. 67 

' The chamber wher^ the good man meets his fate. 

Is privileged beyond the common walk 

0£ virtuous life, quite in the verge of heaven/ 

^' Such were the interesting awful scenes, such the sad train 
of concomitant circumstances, which I have partly witnessed^ 
or which have been represented to me with great accuracy 
and distinctness, as well as with deep interest, and the liveliest 
sensibility. So consistent, so dignified was the conduct of 
this approved servant of God in circumstancesthe most trying to 
human nature, — so enlightened, so vigorous were the prin- 
ciples which sustained and carried him through no commoo 
sufferings, — so bright and cheering, the hopes which inspired 
his breast even within the precincts of the tomb." 

At length, on the evening of Thursday, December 26, 1816, 
he was released by death from those afflictions produced by a 
long and lingering illness, which he appears to have borne, 
not only with a manly fortitude, but an heroic constancy. 

Thus died in the 71st year of his age, John Disney, D. D. 
F.,B.S., a man whose memory will be long respected by all 
denominations of Christians, on account of the immense sacri* 
"fice made by him to his religious principles, when his infant 
family was as yet unprovided with the gifts of fortune, and 
while he himself only enjoyed the scanty means usually allotted 
in this country to younger brothers. But, while he differed 
with, and withdrew from the pale of the Anglican communion, 
his conduct, in respect to the established church, was respectful 
and urbane. In 1 792, he defended the practice of " public 
worship," from the attack of the learned Gilbert Wakefield ; 
and Christianity itself from the " Age of Reason," written by 
Thomas Paine. 

On the other hand, he was always anxious to advocate the 
principles of ^^ Unitarian Christians," particularly in a series of 
letters to Vicesimus Knox, D. D. against all those who thou^t 
proper to impugn them ; while he anxiously endeavoured to 
promote dieir spread by means of *^ serm(Mls,'^ and *^ dia- 
logues," and still more by an uniform good and virtuous prac- 

F 2 



68 DR. DISNET. 

tice. Indeed, his own life, conduct, and conversation, formed 
the most popular and powerful aid on this, and indeed, every 
other similar occasion. 

Some idea of his religious opinions may be gathered from 
his account of those of his friend Mr. Brand HoUis, as 
exhibited in the life of that gentleman. * After stating that 
he had been educated in the principles of a Protestant, dis- 
sent from the established church, chiefly with reference to 
the power of the civil magistrate, in matters of religion, &c. 
he adds as follows : " But from his subsequent reading and 
reflection, he became a firm believer in the Unity and 
Supremacy of the one God and Father of all : and in the 
divine mission (of) Christ as the messenger and prophet of 
God; and he was, agreeably to such his faith, not only a 
member of the chapel in Essex Street, London, but a liberal 
benefactor to it. 

" He was unequivocally a believer in the resurrection of 
Christ : ^ the evidence of a future state,' says he, in a paper now 
before me, * is such as leaves no doubt in my mind.' And I 
remember his very seriously, and emphatically observing, that 
* he utterly hated an immoral action.' * Where then,' con- 
tinues he, * may we expect to find a better source, or greater 
security for the religion, and virtuous conduct of any man, 
jthan in the conviction of the government, wisdom, and good- 
ness of the one only God ; — in a belief of the divine mission 
of Jesus, and of a resurrection to a future state of distri- 
butive justice and mercy ; and connected with these, in the 
profession of a rooted aversion to every immoral action. 
More copious articles of faith may be professed, and believed, 
by good and excellent men of all religious persuasions ; but 
men are not necessarily good and excellent, because of their 
lengthened creed. ' Indeed, when any creed is imposed, the 
very act of imposing implies suspicion on the part of the im- 
poser: and such imposition may invite, and in some hard 
cases will compel men to become hypocrites. And the world 
has been long told by the history of the Christian church, 
how very inadequate such means are to the advancement of 

• Meiuoirei p. 54. 



DB. DISNEY. 69 

that truth and charity, which peculiarly belong to Christi- 
anity, and constitote'the great character of its master." 

In respect to his political opinions, he was at once mild, 
gentle, and firm. But these, like his religious creed, shall be 
here enumerated, and expressly in his own words, first pre- 
mising, that he was an enemy to violence of all kinds ; that he 
wished to succeed by argument alone, and that he both hated 
and constantly refused to associate witn those, whatever their 
professed pretensions might be, who wished to deface and 
destroy, rather than to repair and rectify. He kaew and 
he boasted that we possessed the noblest and freest consti- 
tution in the world; and he never went further than to 
express a wish coupled with an honest intention of removing 
some of those practices introduced by time and corruption, 
which are supposed, instead of adorning, to blemish and dis- 
grace the fabric. 

Afler stating the particulars of a petition to parliament, by 
the Yorkshire Association in 1780, "To enquire into and 
correct the gross abus^ in the expenditure of public 
money, to reduce all exorbitant emoluments, unmerited' pen- 
sions," &c. he continues as follows: " How earnestly and how 
repeatedly these well-intentioned and well-digested measures 
have been pleaded, and with what supercilious disdain, or 
barefaced evasion they have been treated by the venal satellites 
and sycophants of power, the present* existing situation 
of our bleeding country loudly proclaims, and will con- 
tinue to proclaim, till imperious necessity shall extort from 
parliament the radical reform of the constitution of the House 
of Commons, and set limits to the wanton extension of the 
House of Lords. 

" But the impracticability of obtaining the redress of these 
grievances will continue so long as Parliament continues unre- 
formed in its elections ; and so very unequally to repres^t 
the constituent body of the people; so long as dilq3idated and 
rotten boroughs shall send the same (number of) memberis, 

* ThU mtniCMtly alltukft to the ttsle of Gr«at Brituni in isofi. 



70 DR. DISNEY. 

a» the SOyOOO freeholders of Yorkshire ; so long as greRt towns 
like Leeds and Manchester shall not be admitted in such re^ 
presentation, and the city of Westminster allowed only to 
equal that of Old Sarum. — So long, with respect to all ques- 
tions of political -r^orm, shall we continue to proceed in a re- 
^ogade direction, and only lament our demonstrative foUy, 
when we are finally a ruined people." 

On Sunday morning, the 26th of January ISIT^ was de- 
livered the funeral sermon of this celebrated divine, who had 
perff^pned the same sad office at the demise of Dr. Priestley, in 
1804. It is entitled ^^ Hie Memorial of the Just," and was 
preached in Mill-Hill Chapel, Leeds, by the Rev. Thomas 
Jervis. 

*^ His death," said he, *^ may be truly considered as a 
public loss. I should, therefore, deem it a species of injustice 
to the public, were I not to attempt, however inadequately, 
to do justice to his memory; not by an ostentatious display of 
his exalted merits, wiiich need not the imposing aid of pane- 
gjrric to embjazon them, — but to pay that sacred tribute of 
the heart, which his memory justly claims from those who 
•were best acquainted with his many admirable qualities. This 
oiBce has been already pointed out to me by the suggestion of' 
some friends, whose opinion upon this subject, though perhaps 
too partial, yet is entitled to my attention and respect. Per- 
haps I may be allowed to observe, that, in the course of an un- 
deviating, uriinterrupted friendship of neariy thirty years con- 
tinuance — having seen him under a variety of circumstancffl^ 
and without the mask of disguise — which he never assumed— 
but with all that openness of temper, that generous franknen 
of nature, by which he was remarkably characterised — I 
should consider myself utterly destitute of observation and 
discernment of character, if I were not in some measure ccm* 
petent to estimate his talaits, and to appreciate his virtues* 

<^ Having recently been near him in some of the last inte- 
resting scenes of his valued life ; and, at his lamented death 
having joined with many highly respectable persons to pay the 
last solemn tribute of honour and affection to the departed^ in 



DR. DISNEY. 71 

attending the sacred rites o( septdture, and depositing bis 
venerable remains in the dlent tomb — you will not be sur- 
prised if I am almost afraid/ to trust myself upon this afifecting 
subject, while all die kindest sensibilities of the heart are 
awake^ tremblingly alive to the sentiments of unfeigned sor- 
row and regret. I am well aware tha^ upon this painfiil 
occasion^ I shall stand in need of that indulgence which I- 
have often needed, and as often escperienced, within these walls, 
from the candid auditory to which I now address mysd£ And 
I am persuaded, that the kindness of your sympathy wiU be 
prepared to make every reasonable allowance for the imperfe6t 
execution of the task which I have prescribed to myself — to 
which, notwithstanding, I feel myself unequal. 

** Doctor Disney was a man of no ordinary description. 
With great natural endowments, he had a mind stored with 
various knowledge and information; whilst a singular energy 
and vivacity of sentiment, a suavity and urbanity of manner, 
and a temper happily communicative^ gave a peculiar interest 
imd spirit to his conversation, and animated all around hinu 
Possessing high and varied attainments, he was eminently con- 
versant with the several departments of theology and litera- 
ture. And it may here be observed with propriety and advan- 
tage, that his controversial writings are remarkable for that 
manly liberality, candour, and moderation, which reflect 
honour on the cause which he espoused, and at once distinctly 
mark the character of the scholar, the gentleman, and the 
christian. ^ 

^' His estimable and accomplished character was estabHdied 
upon the just ground of his upright, and exemplary conduct 
through life. Distinguished by his rank in society, and 
adorned by the nobler distinction of his virtues, he was highly 
esteemed and respected in the neighbourhood in which he 
was resident ; in the circle of his numerous and respectable 
friends; and by all who were competent to judge of die purity 
of his principles, of the independence, the honour, and in- 
tegrity of his acdohs.** 



F 4 



7^ DR* DI8N£T« 

Dr. Disnejr has left behind . him an ample fortune^ kud a 
large fiunily. In 17749 he married an amiable woman, the 
daughter of the celebrated and pious Archdeacon Blackburiie, 
who died in 1809. By this lady he had eight cliildren. Of 
these, John, bred a barrister, and for some years Recorder of 
Bridport, married his first , cousin ; Algernon, who is still a 
bachelor, has attained the rank of a field oflScer in the army ; 
and there are five amiable daughters. 

A bust of this respectable gentleman, carved by the chisel 
of J. Cockaine, was exhibited in the model room of the Royal 
Academy in 1817. 

List of the Works 
Of the late Reo. John Disney^ D.D. F.S.A. 

1. Animadversions on Dr. Rutherforth, an 8vo. tra6t, 1768. 

2. Four Sermons, on Christmas-day, 8vo. 1771. N. B. 
These were afterwards republished, in his 2 vols, of Sermons. 

3. Loose Hints on Nonconformity, 1773. 

4. Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1774, 

5. Rational Christian's Assistant, 1774. 

6. Remarks on Dr. Balguy's Consecration Sermon, 1775. 

7. Short View of Confessional and Clerical Petition Con- 
troversies, 1^75. 

8. Thoughts on Licensing Public Alehouses, 1776. 

9. Remarks on Bishop Hurd's Charge, 1777. 

10. Considerations on the Clergy acting in the Commission 
of the Peace, 1781. 

11. Reasons for quitting the Church of England, 2d edition, 
1783. 

12. Memoirs of the Life and Writuigs of Arthur Ashley 
Sykes, D.D. with an Appendix, 8vo. 1785. 

13. A friendly Dialogue between an Athanasian and a 
Trinitarian, 2d edition, 1787. 

14. A Pre&ce to ^^ Discourses on various subjects, together 
with Considerations on Pluralities, by Sam. Disney, LL.B. 
late Vicar of Wanstead, Essex," 8vo. 1 788. 



DR. DISNEY. 73 

15. Address to the Bishops, 1790. 

16. Observations on the Homilies, 1790. 

17. Arranged Catalogue of publications on Toleration, 
Corporation, and Test Acts, Svo. 1790. 

1 8. Letter to the Students of Divinity, in the Diocese of 
Chester, 8vo. 1790. 

19. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Jortin, Svo. 
1792. 

20. The Book of Common Prayer Reformed, for the use 
of Unitarian Congr^ations, 1792. 

21. Letters to the Rev. Vicesimus Knox, D. D. 1792. 

22. Short Memoir of Bishop Edmund Law, 1800. 

23. Short Memoir of the Life of Michael Dodson, Esq. 
1800. 

24. Book of Common Prayer Reformed, with a Book of 
Psalms, and a collection of Hymns, 1802. 

25. Memoirs of Thomas Brand Hollis, Esq. 4to. 1808. 

26. Sermons, 4 vols. 8vo. 1793 and 1816. 

27. Six Letters occasioned by the institution of an Auxiliary 
British and Foreign Bible-Society, Svo. 1812. 

28. Remarks on Dr. Tomlin's (Bishop of Lincoln's) 
Charge, 1812. 

29. The Great Importance of a Religious Life Considered, 
1812. N. B. This was formerly published under the title of 
^' A Religious Life Considered; to which are added some 
Morning and Evening Prayers." The Editor in the 2d edition 
observes, ^^ that he has made certain omissions ; and has 
deemed it right, in justification to the original author, to ac- 
company the publication with an explicit statement of the fact." 

SO. Short Memoir of the Rev. R. E. Garnham, 1814. 

31. Short Memoir of the Rev. William Hopkins, B.A. 
1815. 

32. Dr. Disney also compiled an unpublished Index to the 
2 vols, of Mr. Thomas Hollis's Life. 



1816. 




WILLIAM THOMSON, LL. D. 

^With an ^tccount of some of Ma .FWnub and Omtew^x/rariesJ} 

1 HIS is <H)e of the moat extraordinftry men of letters <rf'tlie 
present age. His name with an exertion to poetry, is con- 
nected ynJih almost evei-y species <^ composition, and it would be 
impossible to write the history of the literature of the r&ga of 
Geoi^ III. without assigning him a place, if not very ele- 
vabed, at least somewhat conspicuous among the authors of 
that period. Had his life and adventures been regularly 
drawn up by himself; and had he favoured the world, like 
J. J. Rousseau, wltli " confessions," communicated birly, 
honestly, and without reserve, at the close of his lifc^ it 



PR* THOMSON. 7^ 

would have been a work truly curious and original. He had 
been connected with the English press, during a. period not fiur 
distant from half a century ; he was acquainted with a number 
of renowned veterans in the various branches of science and 
philosophy, in the southern as well as the northern portion of 
the United Kangdom, and he had taken by the hand, and 
conducted towards the temple of fiEAie^ a variety of unskilfiil 
tyros who were desirous by his means to attain the name of 
authors, and acquire without any previous labours the ap- 
plause and approbation of their countrymen. 

William Thomson, a native of Scotbmd, was bom in the 
year 17M» just after the battle of Culloden, which concluded 
the civil war occasicmed by the landing of the Young Chevalierj 
as he was then termed, much in the same manner that the 
ever memorable battle of Waterioo has terminate the long, 
portentous, and sanguinary strife on the Continent. The 
place of his birth was a cottage in the parish of Forteviot in 
Strathem. This obscure spot is situate six miles from 
Perth, a place which had largely participated in the then 
recent disturbances, and about thirty from Edinbur^ the 
capital, which with an exception to the castle had readily 
yielded to the power and the pretensions of an adventurous 
descendant of James II. 

The character o£ the Swiss is said to be tinctured by that 
of their deep valleys and majestic mountains ; and the minds 
(^ men, perhaps assume somewhat of the hue of those 
scenfes which are familiar to their early in&ncy. In this poiBt 
of view, therefore, it may not be improper to observe^ thai 
the subject of the present memoir first drew his breath on the 
banks of the Erne, which, during the floods that frequently 
occur in spring, autunm, and winter, desc^ids in torroitS) and 
while it exhibits several fine natural cascades, not unfrequently 
commits great damage in the adjacent strath or vaUey. Some of 
the stateliest of the Orchil hills too, whence this river derives 
its source, closely adjoin ; and while they terminate this dis- 
trict by means of an immense barrier, they^t the same time lift 
their kAy heads to the skies, now seemingly encumbered with 



76 DB. THOMSON. 

cloiids, now envel(^)ed in snow. At other periods, they 
exhibit a pleasing variety of sheep, goats, and black cattle, 
sent thither to graze on their steep and rugged sides. 

Matthew Thomson, the father, like the generality of his 
countrymen, was an industrious and ingenious man, who 
endeavoured to obtain support for himself and family by the 
junction of two or three^ distinct professions; for in the first 
place he united the trade of a carpenter to that of a builder ; 
while he occasionally appeared in the character of a husband- 
man, having rented a small farm, from a neighbouring noble- 
man, whose name will be mentioned hereafter with no com- 
mon degree of praise. By means of these various avocations, 
he contrived to bring up a femiiy of thirteen children. His 
wife was daughter of a neighbouring schoolmaster of the 
name of Miller, who resided at Aimtully, near Dunkeld. 
To this worthy mother William was indebted for his 
early proficiency in the rudiments of acquired knowledge. 
From her he learned to spell and to read English ; and. 
perhaps it was no small advantage to his intellects, that 
he was not born a few miles further among the highlands 
of Perthshire, as his talents might have been clogged, 
and his ideas encumbered by means of an additional lan- 
guage. To this same parent he was indebted also, for a 
religious education, as she instilled into his mind not only 
the first principles of ethics, but also all the tenets of, 
superadded to all the respect so commonly attached in this 
portion of the empire to, the kirk of Scotland. Another 
fortunate event, perhaps, for it is not meant to be con- 
cealed, that his father's circumstances were far more narrow 
and contracted than his heart — was his being born in Scot- 
land ; . for to persons of such a condition in England, all hopes 
of liberal acquirements are too frequently precluded by their 
station and finances. But the parochial schools of the north, 
at a mere nominal expence*, readily admit the youthful and 
ambitious student to a knowledge of the various branches of 

* Tht warn then paid to a country schoolmaster in ScotlaDd, couM not probibl^ 
have exceeded ooe shilling and sixpeoce per quarter. A salary u^wiwly attadiod, in 
order to supply the deficiency. 



DR. THOMSON, 77 

education, such as arithmetic and Latin ; and the writer of 
this article, has known mathematics, and even Greek taught 
there, with no small degree of ability. Into one of these, this 
young man was accordingly admitted ; and under Mr., Young, 
for that was the name of the obscure, but meritorious school- 
master, he was initiated in the rudiments of all the various 
kinds of knowledge that he himself had acquired. His pupil's 
early promise must have soon developed itself, for this gen- 
tleman, having been advanced to a more profitable establish- 
ment at Inch Ture, on the banks of the Tay, within the 
rich district of the Carse of Gowrie, the boy at his special 
request was suffered to remove along with him. Although 
but a few miles distance from the paternal cottage, yet this 
change appears to have been accompanied with some con- 
siderable expence, or at least, an addition to the former, such 
as the father of a very niimerous family could not easily sup- 
port. But here fortune kindly interposed : for the Rev. Mr. 
Randall who lived in the adjoining manse^ and had a son 
about the same age, being charmed with the promising 
talents of the youth, came forward with equal zeal and su^ 
cess, and it has been said, that an aged branch of the family, 
cheered with the reputation of his grandson, contributed 
something on this occasion. 

William fully realised all the hopes that had been enter- 
tained of him, and in addition to his scholastic improvements, 
soon discovered a degree of discrimination, as well as know- 
ledge of the world, seldom to be met with at such an early 
period of life ; and it is not a little remarkable, that after he 
had addicted himself entirely to books, he was eminently de- 
ficient in this very quality. The late Dr. Bisset, who knew liim 
well, has given the following example of it, in respect to the 
clergyman whose name and good offices have been already 
enumerated. 

" Even when a boy, William Thomson was a penetrating 
and sagacious observer of men. He very readily discovered 
the character of his friend Mr. Randall, which was both strongly 
marked, apd peculiar. The Rev. Thomas Randall was a man 

11 



78 DR. THOMSON. 

of connderable talentB and learning, especially in theology ; 
with a doA of rdigiousness which at first sight appeared the 
genuine enthusiasm of lively fancy and ardent passion, but was 
not wholly unmixed with policy. At this time most of the great 
towns in Scotland were enamoured of preachers who gave 
than what they called the real spirit of the gospd, and in- 
culcated faith and grace, instead of moral virtue. As the 
livings in towns were more lucrative than in the country, the 
assumption of this evangelical garb oflen promoted the am- 
bition of aspiring politicians in the church, as the appearance 
of loyalty, and what they call zeal for the constitution, oflen 
cflscalts aspiring politicians in the state. 

Mr. Randall assisted in the education of his son and young 
Thomson. He was at incredible pains to inspire the 
youths with a horror against popery. Thomson mentions 
the f(dlowing, as one of the modes by which he endeavoured 
to imprint on their juvenile minds a proper abhorrence of 
Anti-Christ. He would shew them a map of Europe, with 
certain parts mariced with red lines. These lines described 
the progress of the Holy Ghost in correcting sioners, and 
making the simple wise. Exhibiting to the boys Scotland^ 
with which they were best acquainted, he traced the course 
of the Holy Spirit through the southern and western counties, 
wherein the line had no interruption ; tliat is, where enthu- 
siasm had pervaded the whole country. There were small 
spedcs or dots of red in eastern and northern parts, where the 
spirit had occasionally reached, and established detached 
outposts, though at a great distance from the head quarters. 

The red line was not to be seen in Strathmore, the Stor- 
mont, or Athol, these being the scenes of pious and rational 
religion, without puritanical fanaticism. 

An extraordinary portion of ochre was, however, placed 
upon Stirling, an excellent benefice afterwards held by this 
spiritual geographer himself! 

^ Tlie contemplation of such a mixture of absurdity aad 
religious profession, tended to give the youthful niind rather 
« wreng notion onthe subject of religion ill general, be&Mre the 



DA. THOMSON. 79 

judgment was sii£5icieiitly matured to disdnguish between ge- 
nuine piety, and the freaks and fancies of its pressors. The 
same character made a very different impressiofi on William 
Thomson, a boy of extremely strcmg parts, and on his com- 
panion Thomas Randall the younger, a boy of very mode- 
rate abilities, mild and plastic. The tormer, bold and ori- 
ginal, thought for himself; he imbibed no portion of his 
^ostly director's spiritual sentiments, and perhaps rather 
merged to the opposite extreme, llie latter amere creature of 
example and authority, became the very saint that his &thar 
wished to form.'* 

The sudden and unexpected death of Mr. Tounj^ liie wor- 
thy school-master, under whom WiUiam had attained con-^ 
siderable proficiency, at length occasioned his removal from 
Inch Ture to Perth, after a residence of three years in the 
former spot* This ancient place, built on the banks of the 
Tay, is not only the chief town in the shire, but also the 
cif>ital of the adjacent district Here a new world waft 
opened for the wonder and iiMipection of a boy, who had 
been brought up in a little solitary fiEurm-Jknise^ and hdd no 
intercourse with, and indeed had never before seen any thing 
larger or more magnificent than a long straggling Scotch 
village. It was his fortune to be placed at the same granmiar 
school as that in which William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, 
the very able and doquent Chief Justice of the King's Bench 
in England, was educated under a Mr. Martin, then con- 
sidered as the Caledonian '^ Busby," on account of his talents 
and discernment Mr, Comfute, the master of that di^, 
who also possessed a considerable degree of shrewdness, took 
particular notice of his new pupil ; and after studying his 
character, and contemplating his energies, &irly predicted, that 
under equally &vourable circumstances, provided his powers 
of mind continued to expan^. with correspondent vigour, 
Thomson might one day rival Murray in point of talents. 

At an early age the subject of this memoir was sent to the 
Univornt^ of St Andrew, founded in 1411, by Bidiop Ward- 
low: It has since been remarked with no small duire of 



80 



DR. THOMSON. 



triumph, that the lowest, or initiated class of that year, con- 
tained an unusual number of able young men, most erf whom 
afterwards acquired no inconsideraUe d^ee of celebrity in 
life. William was but fifteen years old when first admitted as 
luminator ; while the Hon. Thomas, now Lord Erskine, was 
no more than eleven or twelve. Dr. George Hill, did not 
indeed emigrate towards the south like these young men : but 
he attained some fame and considerable preferment at home. 
Having at length become principal of the University where 
he was educated, and leader of the General Assembly, when 
Robertson the historian retired from those scenes of sublunary 
enjoyment* To these names may be added Dr. Moncrief, the 
physician; the worthy and learned Dr. Pierson, D.D. Minister 
of the Scotch Church, at Amsterdam ; Mr. Niel Ferguson, 
the Advocate ; and Professor Playfair ; although ^^ last not 
least," in this catalogue, being one of the most accomplished 
mathematicians of the present age. 

NotMrithstanding Mr. Thomson applied himsdf, in common 
with the other students, to mathematics, yet this was not a 
favourite study ; and consequently he never excelled in it. He 
soon attained great eminence, however, both as a classical 
scholar and a metaphysician ; and such was his reputation in 
r^ard to those, that it at length procured him a protector in 
the person of Thomas Hay, f^l of Kinnoul, whose ancestor 
George, had exercised the important post of Chancellor of 
Scotland, during part of the reigns of James I. and Charles I. 
This worthy nobleman, to whom Thomson's father was a 
tenant, possessed a fine taste for learning, to which he united 
great piety. With a generous munificence he was accustomed 
to encourage every one who displayed any extraordinary de- 
gree of proficiency. The promising talents of William Thom- 
son had already become the subject of eulogy and observa- 
tion within the precincts of the University ; and in 1 763 he 
was introduced to the notice of this worthy peer, then their 
Chan<?ellor, by an express recommendation, on the part of 
several of the Professors who took a lively interest in his fiiUft 
and fortune. 



im. THOMSOI^. 81 

Being a man of judgfnent, however, he determined to decide 
for himself, and put these boasted talents to a trial before he 
5rould undertake to encourage diem. An examination accord- 
ingly took place, and Horace, Juvenal, and Cicero, were the 
books selected for the experiment. Finding that the boy*$ merits 
fully corresponded with the general opinion entertained of 
him, he from that moment became the patron of a youth, per- 
haps still more dear to him by having been bom not. only iii 
his own vicinity, but also on his own estate. His lordship 
even condescended to take an active part in his education, 
and he accordingly prescribed him themes, with a view of imr 
proving his latinity ; and subjects for essays, for the purpose 
of meliorating his style : both of which proved eminently ser- 
viceable in future life. 

This fortunate event occurred when the young man was no 
more than sixteen or seventeen years of age ; soon after which 
his lordship took the entire charge upon himself and even 
admitted him into his own family. Accordingly he was received 
under the name, and in the capacity of librarian, at Duplin 
House, where there was a very fine and select collation of 
books, in different languages, both ancient and modem. 
Here, during the vacation, William was constantly employed, 
and here too, he found ample food for an insatiable curiosity, 
that finally produced both profit and instruction. His labours 
were doubtless stimulated partly with a view of advancing him- 
self in life, and partly from a wish to please his benefactor ; 
who being greatly addicted to study himself, sat in an adjoin-; 
ing room, whence he could superintend every thing that oc->- 
curred in the library. 

Meanwhile, during the session, the studies of the University 
were not forgotten, and a course of philosophy obtained for 
the youth an accession of fame and reputation. But the 
time was now arrived, when it became necessary to think of a ' 
proper destination ; and on this, as on all similar occasions, the 
choice was less directed, perhaps, by what is most congenial 
to the character and^nius of the party ; than by the facility 
of acquiring the favourite object of a settlement. His noble 

VOL. II. G 



8S 1>IU THOMSON. 

patron, who was born in 1710, had now attained a mature 
age; was a zealous member of the established church of Scot- 
land^ and held the clerical character in a high degree of esti- 
< mation. In addition to this, he had several tolerable livings 
in his own immediate gift. Another speculation, was to ob- 
tain the divinity chair of St Andrew's for his young friend. 

Mr. Thomson was accordingly destined for holy orders, and 
he succeeded in his theological studies precisely as he would 
have done in any other theoretical pursuit, in which a retentive 
memory and good understanding paved the way to success^. 
His progress was noted and applauded by the late Dr. Drum- 
moQd*, Archbishop of York, who occasionally visited his 
brother, and consequently had frequent opportum'ties to see 
and converse with him. Thus approved and supported, lie 
entered the divinity school with a high character; and the 
Chancellor, uniformly kind in his attentions on this occasion, 
obtained for him one of the kmg*s bursaries^ which, added to 
his own liberality, produced a comparative state of affluence. 

At this period, a certain dry kind of humour began to 
make its appearance in the conversation of Mr. Thomson, 
which indeed, never forsook him afterwards during the re- 
mainder of his life. Of this the following is an example, 
which has been communicated by one of his fellow-students. 

About the year 1774, while he still attended the divinitr 
school at St, Andrew's, it was the custom on certain days for 
all the young men, in turn, to read a chapter of the bible^ 
and repeat a prayer, in order to initiate them in the practice 
of public speaking; for which purpose, in order to increase 
the audience, many of the respectable towns-people were 
usually admitted. At length it came to the turn of Alexander 
Meldrum, a very modest young man, and then, not a little 
remarkable for his stifihess and formality. The portion of 
scripture selected on this occasion happened to be the I5th 
chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, in which^ by 

* His name was originally Hay, being the second son of George Henry E^ of 
Kinnoul ; but be assumed that of' DHnmnond^ as heir of entail, to his grrat-maif* 
fiuher, William Drummood Lord Strathilbm. 



DR. THOMSON. 83 

hastily scraping out the letter c^ our wicked candidate for 
holy orders contrived to render the whole passage ludicrous, 
viz. ^^ Behold I shew you a mystery: we shall not all sleep, 
but we diall all be hanged (changed) ia a moment, in the 
twinkling of an eye, at the last trump/' In consequence of 
this nem readings the whole hall was instantly in a titter ^ which 
increased to a broad laugh, and discomposed the muscles of 
the grave and venerable Professot of Divinity, when JVillief 
as he was then called, with much assumed gravity exclaimed : 
" A very quick execution indeed!" 

So requisite did it then appear, to acquire a sufficient stock 
of th^logy, previously to being admitted a Minister of the 
Kirk of Scotland, that six years' attendance at St. Andrew's 
was not deemed fully sufficient to qualify a young man for this 
charge. Two sessions more spent at Edinburgh, were actually 
supposed necessary on this occasion ; and thither Mr. Thom- 
son accordingly departed with the fidl consent, and doubtless 
at the express request, of his munificent patron. By the good 
offices of this kind nobleman, he was introduced to the two 
great literary stars that then adorned the northern hemisphere: 
Dr. Blair, at that period so famous for those discourses which, 
for the first time, rendered eloquence familiar to the Scottish 
pulpit ; and Dr. Robertson, whose talents as an historian, 
began even then, to render him known and respected through- 
out England and Europe. By these gentlemen he was treated 
with singular distinction; they discerned genius and erudition 
in the young scholar, and at the same time, congratulated 
themselves on obtaining such a valuable accession to an order 
of which they themselves were distinguished ornaments. 

His social disposition was now fully gratified in the northern 
capital; and it was there, perhaps, where he first imbibed 
that eager attachment to conviviality, find ^^ good fellows- 
ship," as it is called, which never forsook him through the 
remainder of his life. On the other hand, as he excelled in 
wit and humour, his company was greatly courted by his 
friends and fellow-students. And here it ought not to be 
omitted, that about this time, he formed an acquaintance with 

G 2 



84 



DR. THOMSON* 



Mr. Dugald Stewart, wbo, although his junior by seven years, 
already began to give an early promise of that proficiency, 
which has acquired for him so many literary laurels. With 
this gentleman he frequently conversed and argued on almost 
every topic, mathematics apart, contained within the whole 
circle of science — more especially on moral and political sub- 
jects; and above all, on metaphysics, in which they hpth 
excelled. 

Soon after this, Mr. Thomson was admitted a licensed 
preacher, previously to which he passed through the fiery 
ordeal of a long examination, which, indeed, he rather courte? 
than feared ; and the longer and far more dreaded ceremony 
of prajdng, preaching, and fiisting, absolutely necessary, pre^ 
viously to admission. 

The following facts shall be detailed in the express words 
of one of his intimate fi*iends and countrymen, drawn up at 
a time when he was still living, and probably with his own ex- 
press participation. 

** Thomson being now licensed to be a preacher, the first 
d^ree of Scotch orders, his patron was desirous that he should 
become assistant to the clergyman of the parish in which 
Duplin was situated, with the reversion of tlie living; then 
held by an old gentleman named Ranken ; and proposed to 
allow a liberal salary out of his own pocket, .so that the 
minister might be relieved from duty without a diminution of 
income. This intention was intimated to Mr. Ranken, who 
received it with displeasure, and, like the Archbishop of 
Grenada, seemed very indignant that any person should pre- 
sume to discover that he was becoming old. The Earl, ^s- 
a[^inted in this project, and seeing no prospect of a spe^y 
vacancy in his own immediate neighbourhood, recommende4 
his pupil to his friend the Earl of Hopetoun, patron of many 
livings much nearer Edinburgh, the chief seat of Scotch lite-, 
rature. Lord Hopetoun promised Thomson the first vacancy 
in his gift, if he should not then have a more advantageous 
benefice. 

** MMnwhile Thomson continued to preach for the clergy 



DH; THOMSON. 85 

in the neighbourhood, according to the custom of Scotch licen- 
dates, and also continued to superintend the Duplin library. 
In this repository he one day found a work, that to an anti^ 
quarian might have appeared a literary discovery. This was 
a Latin treatise, purported to be a letter of Archimedes to the 
King pf Syracuse, in which the renowned mathematician, 
master of the laws of reasoning, uses against the credibility of 
miracles, precisely the same argument which is emj^oyed by 
Hume. Archimedes cannot believe the fables of the poets, and 
the prodigies recorded by historians, because he has no expe^ 
rience of such things himself, nor ever knew eery one tjoho had' 
such experience J and because, as far as he knows of the com- 
mon course of nature^ it is uniformly in opposition to tales of 
miracles, prodigies, and deviations from the regular phe* 
nomena of nature. Thomson discovered this production to 
have come from the pen of the celebrated Dr. Pitcaim. 

^ On informing his Lordship of the book which he had becfn 
perusing, the Earl told^him, he presumed it had been given to 
his father by the author, with whom the late Earl had been ' 
well acquainted; and desired William to translate it into 
English, which task he performed to the great satisfaction of 
Lord Kinnoul and his literary friends. Lord Kinnoul had 
siqiposed with many others, that Hume denied the truth and 
the possibility of. miracles; Thomson proved to him, thai 
Hume's real doctrine is not, that miracles are impossible, but 
improbable; that we have no proper evidence of miracles, 
but the evidence of experience that they never existed. That 
this was the doctrine of Hume, though erroneous, his patron 
was perfectly convinced, by passages referred to by Thomson. 

" Whatever influence or power William Thomson could 
estaUish, either with a great man, any set of men, or society in 
general, he could attain only by indirect means. If he had 
been in public life^ he might have commanded high situation, 
by the extent of his capacity, the masculine force of ratiocina- 
tive eloquence, or by parliamentary ability. He would not 
have stolen favour by artifice and finesse. Without any 
very tedious research, a reader of political history raay^per^ 

G a 



86 DR. THOMSON. 

haps admit that it is possible for such a character to be sup- 
planted by a less capable,, but more crafty competitor. Such 
are to be seen in the houses of 'squires and lords as well as in 
the palaces of kings. The transcendant ability of Thomson, 
inspired envy into many of his cotemporaries, and into those 
^ho sought the &vour of Lord Kinnoul, jealousy. As such 
could not raise themselves to any thing near an equality with . 
Thomson, they tried to debase him to a level with themselves. 
One divine in particular had an eye to the most lucrative bene- 
fices probably about to become vacant, for himself and a com- 
panion of his theological studies, with whom he was very nearly 
connected. 

^' To facilitate this scheme it was necessary to remove 
Thomson out of the way. About such a house as Duplin 
toad-eaters' were not wanting. One of these^ a female, into 
whom celibacy infused additional asperity, and hardened rigid 
orthodoxy, was much delighted with the clergymen in ques- 
tion, because, though not very deep, they w^re evangelical 
preachers. Througji this toad-eater these divines suggested to 
Lord Kinnoul, that an opportunity opened for procuring the 
reversion of a good living to their much-respected friend^ Mr. 
Thomson : that old Mr. Porteus of Monivaird would be ex- 
tremely thankful for such an assistant ordained as bis suo 
cessor. Porteus, who had been predisposed by them for this 
arrangement, coincided; and his Lordship agreed. Thomson, 
though he discerned the influence and motives of the secret 
adviserSf and was himself averse to any appointment that 
would cause his absence £rom Duplin at a time when his 
presence was necessary to counteract hostile machinations, 
yet would not refuse an offer intended, he well knew, by his 
patron, for his benefit. The Earl promised that his new ean- 
ployment should not impede his exertions in his favour. He 
allowed Thomson fifty pounds a year out of his private purse 
during the life of Mr. Porteus, and obtained twenty pounds 
more from the landholders. 

" TThe presbjrtery of Auchterarder, to which the parish of 
Monivaird belonged, was remarkable for religious gloom and 




DR. THOMSON. 87 

fanatical austerity.* If a minister would be popular hesre, U 
was necessary for him to be rigidly severe in his mannas, as 
well as rigorously adherent to- all the horrors of puritanical 
orthodoxy. Thomson was neither the one nor the other. He 
associated more with the lairds, who are generally free and 
jovial, than with the ministers and elders ; he amused hiniself 
with hunting and fishing ; nay, he had even the ungodliness to 
play on the violin. Indeed, in the presbytery, he acquired 
the character of a bon vivant and pleasant companion, rather 
than that of a godly minister. His sermons cost him little 
trouble. By meditating a few minutes on the Sunday morn- 
ing, he was able to deliver a discourse replete with sense and 
eloquence, while some of his brethren were at hard labour 
through the whole week, to strain out a suffici^t quan- 
tity of mystical nonsense. This difference of character ttdd 
talents made Thomson very unpopular with some of hh bre- 
thren. Though, on the whole, he was much liked even in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder. In his own parish he was ex- 
tremely beloved, not only by the Ngay Highlanders, but even 
by the grave and somewhat melancholy Lowlanders.f Being 
(Nrdained in 1776, the following year he acquired very great 
fame, by a speech which he delivered in the General AssMibly, 
and on the following occasion: — A person of the name of 
Lawson, whose &ther was obnoxious to isome of the orthodox 
clergy, had applied for a licentiate's orders. 

^* Against the young man's character and qualifications 
there could be iio objection. Some of the ministers, however, 
opposed him on account of an extreme uncouthness in his man« 
ners and great ignorance of the world, and particularly of every 
thing approaching to genteel hfe ; although his family pos- 
sessed no inconsiderable estate in the parish of Au^terarder. 
The real truth was, that Campbell, the minister of Auchter- 
arder, entertained a grudge at Mr. Lawson's fiither, for having 

* See Newte's Toar through ScotUnc! and England, p. 251. 
t The (wrlsh of MoDiTaird, on the frontier of the Grampiaiw, (!csccn<U iaio the 
vallejr of Straihern. 

G 4f 



84 



DR. THOMSON* 



Mr. Dugald Stewart, wbo, although his junior by seven years, 
already began to give an early promise of that proficiency, 
which has acquired for him so many literary laurels. With 
this gentleman he frequently conversed and argued on almost 
every topic, mathematics apart, contained within the whole 
circle of science — more especially on moral and political sub- 
jects; and above all, on metaphysics, in which they lv>th 
excelled. 

Soon after this, Mr. Thomson was admitted a licensed 
preacher, previously to which he passed through the fiery 
ordeal of a long examination, which, indeed, he rather courteff 
than feared ; and the longer and far more dreaded ceremony 
of pra}dng, preaching, and fiisting, absolutely necessary, pre- 
viously to admission. 

The following facts shall be detailed in the express words 
of one of his intimate friends and countrymen, drawn up at 
a time when he was still living, and probably with his own ex- 
press participation. 

'^ Thomson being now licensed to be a preacher, the first 
d^ree of Scotch orders, his patron was desirous that he should 
become assistant to the clergyman of tlie parish in which 
Duplin was situated, with the reversion of the living; th&k 
held by an old gentleman named Ranken ; and proposed to 
allow a liberal salary out of his own pocket, .so that the 
minister might be relieved from duty without a diminution of 
income. This intention was intimated to Mr. Ranken, who 
received it with displeasure, and, like the Archbishop of 
Grenada, seemed very indignant that any person should pre- 
sume to dbcover that he was becoming old. The Earl, ^lis^ 
appointed in this project, and seeing no prospect of a spe^y 
vacancy in his own immediate neighbourhood, recommende4 
his pupil to his friend the Earl of Hopetoun, patron of many 
livings much nearer Edinburgh, the chief seat of Scotch lit€K 
rature. Lord Hopetoun promised Thomson the first vacancy 
in his gift, if he should not then have a more advantageous 
benefice. 

** MMnvdiile Thomson continued to preach for the dergjc 



DR, TH0M6(m. 85 

in the neighbourhood, according to the custom of Scotch licen- 
tiates, and also continued to superintend the Duplin library. 
In this repository he one day found a work, that to an anti- 
quarian might have appeared a literary discovery. This was 
a Latin treatise, purported to be a letter of Archimedes to the 
King of Syracuse, in which the renowned mathematician, 
master of the laws of reasoning, uses against the credibility of 
miracles, precisely the same argument which is em|^oyed by 
Hume. Archimedes cannot believe the fables of the poets, and 
the prodigies recorded by historians, because he has no expe^ 
rience of such things himself nor ever knew cny one who had' 
such experience^ and because, as far as he knows of the com- 
mon course of nature, it is uniformly in opposition to tales of 
miracles, prodigies, and deviations from the regular phe- 
nomena of nature. Thomson discovered this production to 
have come from the pen of the celebrated Dr. Pitcaim, 

^ On informing his Lordship of tlie book which he had been 
perusing, the Earl told^him, he presumed it had been given to 
his father by the author, with whom the late Earl had been ' 
well acquainted; and desired William to translate it into 
English, which task he performed to the great satisfaction of 
Lord Kinnoul and his literary friends^ I:x>rd Kinnoul had 
supposed with many others, that Hume denied the truth and 
the possibility of. miracles; Thomson proved to him, thai' 
Hume's real doctrine is not, that miracles are impossible, but 
improbable; that we have no proper evidence of miracleflr, 
but the evidence of experience that they never existed. That 
this was the doctrine of Hume, though erroneous, his patron 
was perfectly convinced, by passages referred to by Thomson. 

** Whatever influence or power William Thomson could 
establish, either with a great man, any set of men, or society in 
general, he could attain only by indirect means. If he had 
been in public life^ he might have commanded high situation, 
by the extent of his capacity, the masculine force of ratiocina- 
tive eloquence, or by parliamentary ability. He would not 
have stolen favour by artifice aqd finesse. Without any 
sery tedious research, a reader of political history raay^per-^ 

o a 



86 DR. THOMSON. 

haps admit that it is possible for such a character to be sup-* 
planted by a less capable, but more crafty competitor. Such 
are to be seen in the houses of 'squires and lords as well as in 
the palaces of kings. The transcendent ability of Thomson, 
inspired envy into many of his cotemporaries, and into those 
ffho sought the favour of Lord Kinnoul, jealousy. As such 
could not raise themselves to any thing near an equality with 
Thomson, they tried to debase him to a level with themselves. 
One divine in particular had an eye to the most lucrative bene- 
fices probably about to become vacant, for himself and a com* 
panion of his theological studies, with whom he was very nearly 
connected. 

^^ To facilitate this scheme it was necessary to remove 
Thomson out of the way. About such a house as Duplin 
toad-eaters' were not wanting. One of these^ a female, into 
whom celibacy infused additional asperity, and hardened liffi 
orthodoxy, was much delighted with the clergymen in ques- 
tion, because, though not very deep, they w^re evangelical 
preachers. Throug}i this toad-eater these divines suggested to 
Lord Kinnoul, that an opportunity opened for procuring the 
reversion of a good living to their much-respected friend, Mr. 
Thomson : that old Mr. Porteus of Monivaird would be ex- 
tremely thankful for such an assistant oirdained as his suc- 
cessor. Porteus, who had been predisposed by them for this 
arrangement, coincided; and his Lordship agreed. Thomson, 
though he discerned the influence and motives of the secret 
advisers, and was himself averse to any appointment that 
would cause his absence from Duplin at a time when his 
presence was necessary to counteract hostile machinations, 
yet would not refuse an ofifer intended, he well knew, by his 
patron, for his benefit. The Earl promised that his new em- 
ployment should not impede his exertions in his favour. He 
allowed Thomson fifiy pounds a year out of his private purse 
during the life of Mr. Porteus, and obtained twenty pounds 
more from the landholders. 

" The presbytery of Auchterarder, to which the parish of 
Monivaird belonged, was remarkable for religious gloom and 



DR. THOMSON. 87' 

fanatical austerity.* If a minister would be popular hete, it 
was necessary for him to be rigidly severe in his manners, as 
well as rigorously adherent Uy all the horrors of puritanical 
orthodoxy. Thomson was neither the one nor the other. He 
associated more with the lairde, who are generally free and 
jovial, than with the ministers and elders ; he amused himself 
with hunting and fishing ; nay, he had even the imgodliness to 
play on the violin. Indeed, in the presbytery, he acquired 
the character of a bon vivatU and pleasant companion, rather 
than that of a godly minister. His sermons cost him little 
trouble. By meditating a few minutes on the Sunday mom- 
ing, he was able to deliver a discourse replete with sense and 
eloquence, while some of his brethren were at hard labour 
through the whole week, to strain out a sufficient quan- 
tity of mystical nonsense. This difference of (Character mid 
talents made Thomson very unpopular with some of his bre- 
thren. Though, on the whole, he was much liked even in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder. In his own parish he was ex- 
tremely beloved, not only by the ^y Highlanders, but even 
by the grave and somewhat melancholy Lowlanders.-}- Being 
(Nrdained in 1776, the following year he acquired very great 
fame, by a speech which he delivered in the General Asaendbly, 
and on the following occasion: — A person of the name of 
Lawson, whose &ther was obnoxious to some of the ordiodox 
clergy, had applied for a licentiate's orders. 

^* Against the young man's character and qualifications 
there could be no objection. Some of the ministers, however, 
opposed him on account of an extreme uncouthness in his man- 
ners and great ignorance of the world, and particularly of every 
thing approaching to genteel life ; although his family pos- 
sessed no inconsiderable estate in the parish of Au^terarder. 
The real truth was, that Campbell, the minister of Aiiditer- 
ardcr, entertained a grudge at Mr. Lawson's &ther, for having 



* S«e Newte's Tour through SeotUnd and England, p. 251. 
f The parish of MoDiTaird, on the frontier of the Graznpiaot, dascenda into the 
vallejr of Strathern. 

G 4f 



86 DR. THOMSON. 

haps admit that it is possible for such a character to be sup-* 
planted by a less capable, but more crafty competitor. Such 
are to be seen in the houses of 'squires and lords as well as in 
the palaces of kings. The transcendant ability of Thomson, 
inspired envy into many of his cotemporaries, and into those 
Ji\iO sought the &vour of Lord Kinnoul, jealousy. As such 
could not raise themselves to any thing near an equality with . 
Thomson, they tried to debase him to a level with themselves. 
One divine in particular had an eye to the most lucrative bene- 
jfices probably about to become vacant, for himself and a com- 
panion of his theological studies, with whom he was very nearly 
connected. 

^^ To facilitate this scheme it was necessary to remove 
Thomson out of the way. About such a house as Duplin 
toad-eaters' were not wanting. One of these, a female, into 
whom celibacy infused additional asperity, and hardened ri^ 
orthodoxy, was much delighted with the clergymen in ques- 
tion, because, though not very deep, they w^re evangelical 
preachers. Throug}i this toad-eater these divines suggested to 
Lord Kinnoul, that an opportunity opened for procuring the 
reversion of a good living to their much-respected friend, Mr. 
Thomson : that old Mr. Porteus of Monivaird would be ex- 
tremely thankful for such an assistant oirdained as his suc- 
cessor. Porteus, who had been predisposed by them for this 
arrangement, coincided; uid his Lordship agreed. Thomson, 
though he discerned the influence and motives of the secrd 
advisersy and was himself averse to any appointment that 
would cause his absence from Duplin at a time when his 
presence was necessary to counteract hostile machinations, 
yet would not refuse an ofifer intended, he well knew, by his 
patron, for his benefit. The Earl promised that his new em- 
ployment should not impede his exertions in his favour. He 
allowed Thomson fifty pounds a year out of his private purse 
during the life of Mr. Porteus, and obtained twenty pounds 
more from the landholders. 

" The presbytery of Auchterarder, to which the parish of 
Monivaird belonged, was remarkable for religious gloom and 



DR. THOMSON. 87 

fanatical austerity.* If a minister would be popular hete, it 
was necessary for him to be rigidly severe in his manners, ias 
wdl as rigorously adherent ta all the horrors of puritanical 
orthodoxy. Thomson was neither the one nor the other. He 
associated more with the lairds^ who are generally free atid 
jovial, than with the ministers and elders ; he amused hhnself 
with hunting and fishing ; nay, he had even the ungodliness to 
play on the violin. Indeed, in the presbytery, he acquhred 
the character of a bon vivant and pleasant companion, rather 
than that of a godly minister. His sermons cost him little 
trouble. By meditating a few minutes on the Sunday niom« 
ing, he was able to deliver a discourse replete with sense and 
eloquence, while some o£ his brethren were at hard labour 
throu^ the whole week, to strain out a sufficient quan- 
tity of mystical nonsense. This difierence of (Character atid 
talents made Thomson very unpopular with some of his bre- 
thren. Though, on the whole, he was much liked even in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder. In his own parish he was ex- 
tremely beloved, not only by the ^y Highlanders, but even 
by the grave and somewhat melancholy Lowlanders.-}- Being 
(Htlained in 1776, the following year he acquired very great 
fame, by a speech which he delivered in the General Asaendbly, 
and on the following occasion: — A person of the name of 
Lawson, whose &ther was obnoxious to isome of the ordiodox 
clergy, had applied for a licentiate's orders. 

^^ Against the young man's character and qualifications 
there could be no objection. Some of the ministers, however, 
opposed him on account of an extreme uncouthness in his man- 
ners and great ignorance of the world, and particularly of every 
thing approaching to genteel life ; although his family pos- 
sessed no inconsiderable estate in the parish of Au^terlEtrder. 
The real truth was, that Campbell, the minister of Auditer- 
arder, entertained a grudge at Mr. Lawsoifs &ther, for having 



* S«e Newte's Toar through SeotUnd and England, p. 251. 
t The parish of MoDiTalrdy on the frontier of the Graznpiaot, dascentla into the 
vallejr of Scrathern. 

G 4f 



86 DB. THOMSON. 

haps .admit that it is possible for such a character to be sup- 
planted by a less ciqiable, but more crafty competitor. Such 
are to be seen in the houses of 'squires and lords as well as in 
the palaces of kings. The transcendant ability of Thomson, 
inq>ired envy into many of his cotemporaries, and into those 
ffho sought the &vour of Lord Kinnoul, jealousy. As such 
could not r^se themselves to any thing near an equality with 
Thomson, they tried to debase him to a level with themselves. 
One divine in particular had an eye to the most lucrative bene- 
fices probably about to become vacant, for himself and a com- 
panion of his theological studies, with whom he was very nearly 
connected. 

^^ To facilitate this scheme it was necessary to remove 
Thomson out of the way. About such a house as Duplin 
toad-eaters' were not wanting. One of tbese^ a female, into 
whom celibacy infused additional asperity, and hardened rig^ 
orthodoxy, was much delighted with the clergymen in quei- 
tion, because, though not very deep, they were evangelical 
preachers. Throug}i this toad-eater these divines suggested to 
Lord Kinnoul, that an opportunity opened for procuring the 
reversion of a good living to their much-respected friend, Mr. 
Thomson : that old Mr. Porteus of Monivaird would be ex- 
tremely thankful for such an assistant oirdained as his suc- 
cessor. Porteus, who had been predisposed by them for this 
arrangement, coincided; and his Lordship agreed. Thomscn 
though he discerned the influence and motives of the secret 
adviserSy and was himself averse to any appointment thai 
would cause his absence from Duplin at a time when his 
presence was necessary to counteract hostile machinations, 
yet would not refuse an ofifer intended, he well knew, by his 
patron, for his benefit. The Earl promised that his new eiD- 
ployment should not impede his exertions in his favour. He 
allowed Thomson fifly pounds a year out of his private purse 
during the life of Mr. Porteus, and obtained twenty pounds 
more from the landholders. 

<^ The presbytery of Auchterarder, to which the paridi of 
Monivaird belonged, was remarkable for religious |^oam and 



DR. THOMSON. 87^ 

fanatical austerity.* If a minister would be popular here, it 
was necessary for him to be rigidly isevere in his manners, as 
well as rigorously adherent ta all the horrors of puritanical 
orthodoxy. Thomson was neither the one nor the other. He 
associated more with the lairds^ who are generally free and 
jovial, than with the ministers and elders ; he amused himself 
with hunting and fishing ; nay, he had even the ungodliness to 
play on the violin. Indeed, in the presbytery, he acquired 
the character of a bon vivant and pleasant companion, rather 
than that of a godly minister. His sermons cost him little 
trouble. By meditating a few minutes on the Sunday mom- 
ing, he was able to deliver a discourse replete with saMC and 
eloquence, while some of his brethren were at hard labour 
through the whole week, to strain out a sufficient quan- 
tity of mystical nonsense. This difference of character and 
talents made Thomson very unpopular with some of his bre- 
thren. Though, on the whole, he was much liked evM in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder. In his own parish he was ex* 
tremely beloved, not only by the ^y Highlanders, but even 
by the grave and somewhat melancholy Lowlanders.-}- Being 
ordained in 1776, the following year he acquired very great 
fame, by a speech which he delivered in the General Assembly, 
and on the following occasion : — A person of the name of 
Lawson, whose father was obnoxious to some of the orthodox 
clergy, had applied for a licentiate's orders. 

^^ Against the young man's character and qualificationa 
there could be no objection. Some of the ministers, however, 
opposed him on account of an extreme uncouthness in his man« 
ners and great ignorance of the world, and particularly of every 
thing approaching to genteel life ; although his family pos- 
sessed no inconsiderable estate in the parish of Au^terarder. 
The real truth was, that Campbell, the minister of Auditer* 
ardcr, entertained a grudge at Mr. Lawson's &ther, for having 

* S«e Newte's Tour through ScocUnd and England, p. 251. 
t The parish of MooWalrd, on the frontier of the Grampians, dtscen<U into the 
vallejr of Stiathcra. 

G 4f 



88 DR. THOMSON. 

opposed hi^ l^pointiiMnt to tke kirk of Auchterarder. Thom- 
son, who wiM chosen, in 1777, one of the deputies oTjrepre^ 
seotatives of the presbytery in the General Assembly, to which 
Mr.Lawson had appealed, supported the appeal that had 
been made by Mr. Lawson, on the ground that students of 
divinity have claims to ordination, having gone through the 
prescribed course of study, if nothing can be urged against 
their literary attainments, or their moral character, altliougb 
they should be deficient in what the French call petites mceurs, 
or manners : ' The churches of , the Reformation,' said Mr. 
Thomson, after a good deal of serious reasoning, * in general, 
but that of Scotland in particular, have been much indebted 
to rustic apostles ; and in the presbjrtery of Auchlerarder, in 
particular, this excessive studiousness of fashion and politeness 
is but a novelty. 

<^ Such an apostle appeared near two thousand years ago on 
the banks of the Jordan, preaching repentance, and announcing* 
the approaching reign of grace and the remission of sins. The 
world confessed his right to preach a doctrine he so weU prac- 
tised, and the united effect of precept and example was pro- 
digious. But had this preacher, in the spirit of Elias, come, 
or should be yet appear oil the banks of the Em, and seek the 
communion of our good presbytery, begirt, as he was, with b 
leathern belt, clothed in the skin of a camel, and chewing the 
while his locusts and sucking his wild honey: ^ Pray Sir,' it 
would be asked, ^ who is your barber? We should be ashamed 
to be seen with you on the tcnxm-lone * of Auchterarder.* 

" At these words the whole assembly was moved with 
laughter, and his Grace the Commissioner himself, (who, in 
the Assembly, represents, the person of the King,) the Earl of 
Dalhousie, relaxing his gravity, . laughed heartily. At hia 
table, a few days thereafter he took much notice of Mr. Thom* 
spn, and said,' ^ We are all indebted to you, Mr. Thomson^ 
you really made us laugh a great deal.' But laughter was -not 
the only emotion excited by Mr. Thomson: he was equally 

* Theitreeu 



DR. THOMSON. 89 

succes&iiil in rousing sympathy with Lawson, and indignation 
against Campbell, as we learn from the Rev. Mr. Macauley^ a 
friend of Lawson% who published Mr. Thomson's speech, or 
the substance of it, in the Caledonian Mercury. 

*^ The decision in Lawson's case was of great importance 
to all students of divinity, to all who might entertain pros- 
pects of settling relations or dependents in church-livings, and 
to the unity and very existence of the Church of Scotland^ as 
Mr. Thomson showed, to the satis&ction and approbation of 
the Assembly. And though^ there was on this question about 
Lawson, as it was treated by Thomson, a great deal of the 
ludicrous, it was considered by Dr. Robertson and his firioids 
as a very serious question. Tlie presbytery of Auchterarder, 
when pushed from the ground of rejection they had taken, 
said, that they had an arbitrary power of receiving or reject- 
ing a candidate for being received on trial, without being ac- 
countable to the General Assembly, or any other court, than 
that of their own conscience. 

<< This presb3rtery was distinguished from all the presby- 
teries in Scotland by puritanical rigour of discipline, though 
not by any means by purity of manners ; by a Pharisucal 
pride, and a spirit of refractiousness against the authority of the 
Church. They were not satisfied with the Confession ofFaith^ 
nor yet even the Solemn League and Covenant^ but framed a 
creed, known for half a century by the name of the Auchter- 
arder Creed. It was distinguished by the highest pitch to 
which Antinomianism could be strained ; by the positicm that 
very few indeed were to be saved though many were called: 
and that hell fire was not a metaphor,, but that the bodies of 
the ungodly would be re-united to their souls, for the purpose 
of being burned^ though not consumed by an intense element-* 
ary fire, to all eternity. 

<< This presbytery pretended, in a word, to be an independent 
church by itself, and in all cases, being best acquainted with 
local circumstances, to set at nought the decisions of the As- 
sembly, even those for the induction of ministers into churck- 
Jivings by the law of patronage, and, in all cases, to do what 



90 DA. THOMSON. 

they themselves conceived to be for the interest of the kirk^ 
and the glory of God and the good of souls. So that the 
question of Lawson was ultimately connected with that system 
of subordination, unity, and alliance between the church and 
the state, for which Dr. Robertson had with so much honour 
and success contended. 

^^ During the few years that Mr. Thomson was minister of 
Mopivaird, he was invited by Dr. Robertson to correspond 
with him, which he did with much pleasure to himself, and as 
much amusement, as we have been well informed, to Dr. 
Robertson, who always spoke of Mr. Thomson with great 
kindjness, and an apparent anxiety for his wel&re. The 
celebrity acquired by Mr. Thomson at the General Assembly 
was very pleasing to his patron, the Earl of KinnouL The 
living^huntersy amounting to three in all, when they went to 
DupUn, where the clergy of all parts were always welcome, 
admitted that Mr. Thomson possessed great talents; and 
lamented that he should not put them to a better use. They 
said every thing against Lawson, whom they represented as 
devoid of common sense. They exaggerated Thomson's con- 
vivial indulgences, and began to make an impression on the 
EarL Indeed, his Lordship might have long seen, that Wil- 
liam Thomson was little fitted for being a clergyman where so 
much rigidness was required. 

^^ Thomson's pleasurable propensities, which he was sap- 
posed not always to confine within the bounds which ascetic 
puritanism prescribes, though no instance was accurately 
ascertained, yet were the subjects of reports, that, pervading 
the country, reached the ear of his patron. Thomson deemed 
it expedient to resign his charge ; and not choosing to seek 
another church living in a less censorious place,* he resolved 
to bid adieu to Scodand, and to try his fortune in London, a 
scene much more suitable to first-rate genius and learning than 
the presbytery of Auchterarder. Mr. Thomson's noble pa- 
tron, in whose breast an a£Pectionate concern for one, whom, 
from, his seventeaith year, he had brought up and educated in 
his own &mily, was not wholly extmguished by a conduct, 



BR. THOMSON. 91 

/ 

certainly not idtogether becoming a minister of the gofipd, 
gave orders to Mr. H^iry Fowkr^ one of the principal clerks 
of the Treasury, ssad who, like Thomson, had been brou^t 
up in his own family, topay him his yearly allowance as usual, 
until he should feel his way in London.* Mr. Thomson did 
not call for it more than two or three years; whether that, in 
so short a time he had wrought himself into tolerably good 
circumstances, or that he was desirous, from vanity or pride^ 
to have it thought, in his native country, that he was so. 

^^ The circumstance of his receiving his pension from the Earl 
of Kinnoul, through a clerk of the Treasury, gave rise to a 
very droll incident. As he came out of the Treasury, the very 
first time he went to draw his 50l., he was met by Professor 
Dunbar of Aberdeen, whose great object it was, by political' 
writing, to make himself of consequence to government. As 
they walked together along Parliament-Street f , Dr. Dunbar 
asked Thomson where he was going ? and whether they might' 
not go some where and dine together? Thomson, without hesi- 
tation told him, that he was going to Mr. Drummond's the 
banker, to get money for a draft from Mr. Fowler, and that 
he would then be in proper circumstances to dine with him. 
He told Dunbar that he might go to ^Drummond's along with 
him. He did so ; he saw the money paid ; and was imme- 
diately convinced that, though he himself had not obtained any 
thing, and scarcely any attention, on account of his essays, this 
fellow had already been taken into the pay of the Treasury. 
After dinner he fairly put the question, whether he was not in 



* Dr. Thomson once ioformed the writer of this note,- that the coantry people lA the 
neighbourhood of the Earl of Kinnoul's seat at Duplin, were neter able to compre* 
hend the real reasons of his lordship's attachment to him. In consequence of this, 
thej were accustomed to attribute his kindness and munificence to selfish and taiitiial 
motives, and they accordingly considered the young man as his illegitimate son. 

"f- The gentleman here mentioned was one of the professors at King's Coll^* Old 
Aberdeen, where he usually passed by the same appellation as the father of the HettheA 
Deities. Happening to be demonstrating an abstruse proposition durmg • UttU tud 
dreary afternoon, to his own class, the members of which seemed to be very drowsy, be 
suddenly resumed his usual energy by exclaiming ; " were I Jove himself thundering 
fnmi the top of 01ymptis,yoa would not hear me !" He is said to ham been of the thftc 
men no the north side of the river Don who objected to the American war. 



9^ DJEU THOMSON. 

the pay of the nunistiy ? Thomson to teaze and vex Dunbar, 
oonfirmed him in the belief that it was so, by slightly denying 
it, or evading die question, and turning the subject." 

We now behold Mr. William Thomson an inhabitant of 
London, an immense capital abounding with riches, misery, 
and temptations; and holding out honours, preferment, and 
advantages of all kinds to successful candidates of every 
denomination. But the fame of our future author had not 
preceded him, from the nortliern to the southern capital ; and 
as yet he had not composed any work calculated to attract 
either the applauses, or the confidence of strangers, so that he 
was destitute of friends. In short he might have remained here 
in obscurity for mimy years, and wasted all his '* sweetness in 
the desert air," had not a circumstance occurred, that at once 
produced for him, both bread and celebrity. Dr. Robert 
Watson, late Principal of the United Collies of St. Andrew's, 
had died in the year 1 780. He had projected a history of 
Philip III. King of Spain, which of course comprehended the 
revolt of the pro\'inces of the Netherlands, (including Holland,) 
fronthis iron yoke; and as this subject was intimately connected 
with the insurrection then actually existing in our Trans- 
Atlantic provinces ; it was expected to become a very popular 
and interesting work. In order to realise this object, the 
author had commenced a correspondence with several of his 
countrymen settled in foreign parts, and particularly with the 
late Dr. Maclean, and some of the ministers of the Church of 
Scotland, resident in the United Provinces. Unfortunately, 
however, this learned divine died at the age of fifly, before he 
had completed his labours, and the sequel of an unfinished 
manuscript, remained to be composed by another hand. This 
became an object of great consideration, both to his fame 
and his family, for he had lefl some orphan daughters but 
scantily provided for, and excited great hopes of gratification 
on the part of his countrymen. It was a hicky circumstance, 
both for Mr. Thomson, and the young ladies, that two of 
their guardians were his friends ; for they consisted of tlie 
Doctors Robertson and Blair ; the venerable Mr. George 



DR. THOMSON. ' 93 

Dempster, £x*M.P. who is the sole survivor of them all; 
and the late Mr. James Shaw *, their uncle, who afterwards, 
became an author himself. These gentlemen selected him to 
revise, correct, and finish the original sketch. This task,, 
delicate^ and difficult as it assuredly proved under the au- 
spices of Mr. Thomson, who was indefatigable both iii his 
labours and researches, advanced' rapidly to a conclusion^ 
and finally obtained the commendation of all his employers; 
while it proved a source of considerable profit and advantage 
to the family of the deceased historian. It was the opinion 
of no contemptible judge — Dr. Adam Smith -^ that the 
latter was the better portion of the work* 

" Dr. Maclean, of the Hague," observes he, ** who was 
writing of those times and affairs, was very much afraid of 
Dr. Watson, and Dr. Watson was very much afraid of Dr. 
Maclean ; but I could have told them, that they had very 
little occasion to be afraid of one another. There was one 
of whom they little thought (Thomson), and who did not 
possess half of their advantages of leisure and libraries, who 
was formidable to both.'' i 

On this occasion, the continuator's multifarious knowledge^ 
proved of great avail ; his generalising habits afforded him 
ample opportunity for compressing and condensing both his ' 
narrative and his arguments ; while the hope of fame mid the 
fear of disaippointment, contributed not a httle to give that 
neatness and precision to his language, which he afterwards 
neglected, partly in consequence of the multipUcity of labours 
assigned to him ; and partly from m^e inattention. 

That the fortunate conclusion of this work, obtained con- 
siderable &me for the present, and abundance of future em- 
ployment to Mr. Thomson .cannot be doubted ; and it * 
ought not to be forgotten, that the share of the profits a»-> 
signed him, proved a considerable encouragement to a 
young man, whose resources were both scanty and pre^* 

• Thii ji^entleinan, the son of ihc late Profestor Shaw oif SI. Andicw^i, wai greatly 
addicted to tbe nuAj of natural hiitorj ; and tmie jean tineo, wrtftt and frablUhedH 
wGtk, en^tWd, ** Skstditt of tbe Netherlandt," which be had lecentlj tiihed. 



9 i <mu TBO^sont. 

carious. Hot ought it here to be omitted^ that his friends, 
of whom he had then many, obtained for him the unsolicited 
degtee of LL.D. from the University of Glasgow; while a 
second o£fer of the doctorate^ arrived soon after from Edinburgh. 
* We are from this moment to consider Dr. Thomson, as a 
tegular London author, not indeed like the literary men of 
Germany, who annually prepare their works for the express 
purpose of being sold at the iair of Frankfort; but one 
always ready and willing to treat for a 4to. 8vo. or 12mo. 
volume, no matter on what subject, with any eminent or 
adventurous booksellers of the day. He was also not un- 
frequently employed either to revise or review the works of 
living authors ; so that he was not inaptly termed by a cele- 
brated lady, i^ose embrio novds he was supposed to fiume, 
train, and render productive^ << a professional critic.^ In short, 
he opened a kind of literary Bazaar, in which ware of all 
sorts and sizes for the library, might be obtained in a finished 
state, and he must be allowed, indeed, to have been eminently 
disthiguished, in respect to the variety of his labours, employ- 
ments, and speculations. In consequence of the wants of an 
encreasing family, he was now obliged literally to write for 
dieir support, and consequoidy, on all possible subjects, con- 
nected with the politics, the history, or the passing occurrences 
of the times in which he lived. 

The next emplojrment of any magnitude, in which we find 
our industrious author employed, was a ^^ Commentary on the 
Bible;" this was published not in his own name, but in one 
su{^)osed to be lent for the occasion ; that of a reverend 
divine, then a popular preacher in London. His booksellers, 
on this Occasion, were Messrs. Fielding and Walker of Pater- 
noster-Row, a part of the city in which he soon became not only 
well known, but eminent and conspicuous in no small degree. 
Business, and that too of a difierent and respectable kind, 
flowed in apace. At the recomihendation of the late Dr. 
X>ouglas, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, who had read, and * 
Improved of his Magnum Opus * ; he was fixed on by Dr. Hol- 

• HUtory of FhUip III. 



DR. THOMSON. 95 

lingberry S to be both translator and and editor of a history 
of Great Britain, during an interesting period. This was 
originally written in Latin, by Alexander Cunningham, bom 
at Ethrick, near Selkirk in Scotland, in 1654, but educated 
in Holland. 

In consequence of this latter circumstance he was induced, 
while a young man, to accompany William III. then Prince of 
Orange to England. After a variety of employments and 
adventures he became English Resident at Venice, in which 
station he continued during five years. He then repaired to 
England, and died in London, in 1737. After a lapse of 
fifty years, in ITS?, appeared his '^ History of Great Britain, 
from the revolution to the accession of George I. in two 
volumes, 8vo. translated from the Latin manuscript by Dr. 
WilUam Thomson." Of the original merits of this production, 
the writer of the present article has often heard him speak with 
applause. 

Sonnetime anterior to this, however, he had written a 
work in which a vigorous fancy was not a little predominant^ 
This was ^< The Man in the Moon,'* a whimucal title, cal- 
culated to excite attention and attract notice. It abounds 
with fancy, combined with criticism and learning* The 
author is at great pains to point out all the objects worthy of 
research, within the circle of' science and philosophy, in this 
sublunary world. His sketch of the metaphysical philoso* 
phers, has been praised by some of his contemporaries ; and 
he is anxious, like Pope, to discriminate between laborious 
dulness, and spontaneous genius. While he employs the 
ridicule of Swift against all lovers of vertii; — superficial 
naturalists, herbalists, and antiquaries, find no favour with hinu. 

In 1782, s^peared Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
which of course was not an original production ; for the work 
was composed in London, from the communications of others. 
This was followed, in 1788, by Memoirs of the War in Asia, 
from 1780 to 1784 ; an interesting period for all those who 
were connected with our settlements in the Blast, cither by 

* Dr. Honittglierrj hid muried Cunninglitm*! gnnd-dtugluer. 



96 DR. THOMSON. 

residence or commerce, and indeed to the whole nation In a 
general point of view. In the course of this work, he pour- 
trays with a considerable degree of ability, the disastrous 
state of our Asiatic possessions, in consequence of our having 
employed all our forces, and nearly exhausted all our finances^ 
by a long, sanguinary, and unprofitable contest with our 
American colonies. He exhibits the imminent danger, aris- 
ing from the power and talents of Hyder Ally, who had 
entered into a formidable league with France, and rendered 
himself renowned by his valour, his victories, and his re- 
sources. He then reverses the medal, and displays the 
talents employed against him, both in the cabinet and the 
field; the means adopted to obtain success, and finally, the 
termination of the contest by a secure and honourable peace. 

Obliged to recur to unceasing labour and continual exer- 
tions, in consequence of the i^es angusta domiy a niunber of 
nameless works were revised, edited, or produced by the 
Doctor, in rapid succession. It was not until 1789, indeed, a 
period when the minds of other men were principally occupied 
in political speculations, that he produced another work of 
fiction, combined with a certain portion of science. His 
<' Mammoth, or Human Nature displayed on a Grand Scale, 
Slc." appeared also, at this important period. In this work, 
he seems desirous to ** justify the ways of God to man," 
by exhibiting in our nature and destination, certain capabi- 
lities, not only of happiness, but also of high intellectual 
attainments, provided they are but properly and solely directed 
towards their respective ends. As on a former occasion, he 
had Swift's ^^ Gulliver" in his ej-e, so he recurs to the same 
production on the present ; but in express opposition to that 
satirist of human nature, he displays mankind in an amiable 
and interesting point of view. 

But Dr. William Thomson did not wholly confine his exer-- 
tions to works connected with history or imagination, wkh 
travels, voyages, or romances. There were no species of lite- 
rature in which he did not participate ; and in which he wav 
not thought at one time also to excel. In newspap«:% maga- 



DR. THOMSON* 97 

Eines, and reviews, he engaged with an ardour, and to a 
degree, scarcely credible. An excellent memory, joined to an 
extensive aiid almost universal knowledge,, rendered him a 
good reporter *, and accordingly, he was sometimes engaged 
for the session, and sometimes for a single evening or two only, 
when debates on great national questions were expected. 

It is well known that the late Mr. William Woodfall waS' 
the first who ventured on details of this kind ; and it was not 
without peril, as he himself was accustomed to assert, that 
he published an account of the proceedings in parliament. 
In point of talent and acquirements, he was far outstrip'ped 
by the subject of this memoir ; who, on the other hand^ niust 
be fairly owned to have found a superior in the person of 
Mr. James Sheridan, an accomplished Irishman, no way con- 
nected however with his celebrated namesake, whose speeches 
he was accustomed to detail, with wonderful accuracy,' p<»nt, 
and precision ; as well as those of Mr. Fox. They have been 
all equalled, if not eclipsed, by some young men of the pilesent 
day, most of whom have received a liberal education ; and in 
point of conduct, character, and talents, rank as gentlemen. 

In the course of this fatiguing and laborious ministry. Dr. 
Thomson exerted himself frequently for the " Oracle," and, if 
we are not misinformed, also occasionally for the " Morning 
Chrooicle," and other daily papers. He was of course, accus- 
tomed to sit up during the whole night, and it was not until 
broad day-light, after the members had retired to their beds, 
that his labours, in respect to penmanship, commenced. ^ It 
was then, that over a bottle of port, or some other requisite 
refreshment, if it could possibly be procured, he would sit 
down and disburthen a mind, fraught with the eloquence of 
other men ; and it was not until near the hour of publication, 



* Thornton is said, by a good judge, to h^ve been rather an inattentive reporter, at 
times ; and to have sometimes supplied any deficiency, arising from this neglecty by 
the resources of his own mind. Qa its being one day observed, that a particular 
speech was not " that actually delivered by the member," he • replied • *' it was a 
footish one, not worth remembering; I therefore made another, and a beuer one 
for him I" 

VOL. II. H 



98 DR. THOHSOK. 

that fat wms permitted to retiie to hie fimily. Iq additioo to 
this species of oompofiitioD, he was accustomed to fumieh 
dinertririffliSj essays, and paragraphs ; and as he was regularly 
paid in ready mooey, this employment, if not more congenial 
to his mind, was at least more suitable to his wants than thoee 
works for which he received a more inadequate consideration, 
and tliat too, by means of iidiat he termed the long-mruled 
notes of booksellers. He also published, for many years, a 
weekly abridgement of politics in the *^ Whitehall Eyening 
Post," which redounded greatly to the credit of that paper. 
As this publication was entirely devoted to the interest of Mn 
Pitt, and the Ministers then in place, it may be readily sup- 
posed, that the principles there favoured and inculcated were 
not.emineQtly hostile to their administration. At length, how- 
ever, in an evil hour, and by the exertion of an ifulependent 
spirit, which deprived him and his &mily of upwards of fifty 
guineas a year, his dismission actually took place in 1 798. 
On this occasion. Dr. Thomson, after perusing, examining', 
and detailing the evidence produced against Aris, the 
Keeper, or ** Governor of the House q[ Correction in Cold* 
Bath-Fields," proclaimed the horrors, cruelties, and injustice, 
that were then and there said to be perpetrated. Mr. Pitt, in 
open Parliament^ had indeed in a manly manner, avowed hip 
sense off and indignation at his miaoonduct Subsequently 
to this period two Grand Juries have made a presentmeat 
against this jail ; and the Magistrates at length, by a tavdy, 
but just sentence^ finally agreed to his dismission. On this <»c- 
casion. Dr. William Thomson, became the victim of his hiuna- 
nily ; and was thus deprived of a considerable sum, easily 
earned by the labours of two or three hours, during the mmm- 
ing of publication. It will be readily supposed, that he was 
not actuated by any political consideration ; for although at 
the commencement of the French Revolution, he suffered his 
mind to be dazzled, for a time, by its splendours; yet it is well 
known to all familiar with him, that he considered politici 
nearly with the same indifference as a game at chess; and 



DR. THOMSON. 99 

nerer disturbed his slumbers, or injured bis interests, by uiy 
feelings or ccmsiderations of this kind. 

In other periodical publications, he was also engaged during 
many years. Not only the review of new works, with an ac- 
count of their Authors, in the ** European Maga^e," was 
conducted through many volumes by him alone; but he was 
also employed in composing other portions of it. In the 
'^ Political Herald" too, a wedcly pamphlet, supposed to be 
conducted on true Whig principles, although wholly and en- 
drdy devoted to the coalition of that day, he took an active 
but subordinate part, under the name of Ignotus ; the chief 
conduct and advantages accruing from it, being reqped by the 
cdebrated author of the " History of Mary Queen of Scots.** 
He also engaged in the ^* Critical Review," until a dispute took 
place with Mr. Hamilton. 

So great now, however, was his fame, that like'Dr. Johnson, he 
was generally applied to for a prebce to many a new bocd;, and 
almost every monthly publicatioD, <m its first appearance^ was 
ushered into the world by his pen. When Mr. WheUe first 
printed the *^ Sportsman's Magadne^'' he actually addressed 
our author; and although no man in the kingdom was so 
little acquainted with the nature and habits of hounds, horses, 
and hares, yet he sat down and instantly composed a 
dissertation on these subjects, for which he received a couple 
of guineas. The technieal part was afterwards added by the 
Editor, who perhaps deemed the introductory essay too fine 
and luminous for the intellects of his readers. 

It has already been stated that the sulgect of this memoir 
lost a small annual subsidy, by his attack of one Governor ; 
and it now remains to be added, that fortune at lengA amply 
indemnified him by rendering his aid necessary to the defence 
of another. The impeachment of Warren Hastings, Esq.^ 
late Grovemor-Oeneral of Bengal, opened an ample field for 
discussion; and the long and cruel protraction of that gentle- 
man's trial, however terrible to him, tended not a little to the 
benefit and advantage of all his advocates, notwithstanding they 
earnestly, loudly, and unanimously protested against it. 

H 2 



100 PIUTHOHSOK. 



In the EngliBh Revienv ^ which he wrote daring many 
years, while it belonged to another, and which afterwards be- 
came his o^ini property, as well as squibs, pamphlets, and 
separate publications, particularly by an ^' Introduction to the 
History of the Trial," Dr. T. sustained the character, sup- 
ported the innocence, and justified the intentions of this sin- 
gular and celebrated man. His humanity was all alive on a 
former occasion, to the distresses of the prisoners, supposed 
to be maltreated in his own country ; but the cries and dis- 
tresses of the Begums and the native princes, never once ap- 
pear to have quivered in his ears ! His zeal on this occasion, 
of course, recommended him to Major Scott, who became ao^ 
qnainted with the Doctor, through Mr. John Murray, an 
eminent bookseller, then residing in Fleet-street. He was 
afterwards introduced'lo the Ex-Governor and his lady, whom 
he was accustomed, in the warmth of his admiration, to com- 
pare to ^^ King Solomon and the queen of Sheba." 

At this period, he resided in Fitzroy-square, and by this 
time had formed an acquaintance with a number of respectable 
men. Among these, was the present Sir James Mackintosh, 
a gentleman much younger than himself the echo of whose 
early reputation had already been heard from the Scottish 
capital; and was about to resound, by means of his VindicitE 
GaUtcay throughout the whole empire. At an earlier period, 
and by means of Dr. Moncrief, his class-fellow, at Edinburgh, 
he had become acquainted with Dr. Gilbert Stuart, the eloquent 
apologist of all those in opposition to the testimony of his 
countryman, Buchanan, whom he respected, and his contem- 
porary and rival. Dr. Robertson, whom he hated and abused. 
^^ Gibby," as he was accustomed familiarly to term him, was 
his senior by four years; and although the son of a Professor, 
and himself a candidate for the same office, after a regular 
education at the University of Edinburgh ; yet we have heard 
liis friend assert, and appeal to their common acquaintance^ 
Dr. Grant, for the truth of the position, tliat although he ex- 
celled in composition, and possessed a variety of other know- 
lege^ that yet he was actually unacquainted with the oonimon 



DR. THOMSON. 101 

divisions of science and philosophy." Under this gentleman, 
as has been ahready observed, he composed several papers for 
the « Political Hehdd," for which the former, as the ostensible 
Editor, was handsomely paid; while the latter recdved but a 
scanty remmieration. But it was as a " boon companion," 
that he was intimately connected with this gentleman, who was 
greatly addicted to conviviality, and that too in a manner, 
and to an excess which can scarcely be credited by one who is 
acquainted with the elegant effusions of his polished mind. 
The " Peacock," in Gray*s-Inn-Lane, was the scene of thehr 
festivities, and it was there that these learned Doctors, in 
rivulets of Burton ale, not unfrequently quaffed Kbations to 
their favourite deity, until the clock informed them of the ap- 
proaching day. 

At length the constitution of Dr. Stuart succumbed ; a 
dropsy began to threaten him with dissolution, and he took a 
sea voyage to the place of his nativity, for the express purpose 
of recovering his health. While in this situation, he was much 
amused by the gambols of the seals at the entrance into the 
Frith of Forth, and on enquiring of the captain of the packet 
on what they subsisted, he was told in reply : ^^ salmon and 
salt water." This seemed to excite his compassion, for he iur 
stantly rejoined : " very good meat but very bad drink !" 

In following the series of his literary labours, we shall en- 
deavour as much as possible to preserve dates. As he excelled 
in summaries and abridgments, and might be allowed to 
have abounded in general knowledge, our author greatly dey 
lighted in narrative and dissertation. For many years he had 
been profitably engaged in composing articles of criticism, 
together with the political and literary appendices to Mmv 
ray^s ** English Review," the latter of which were written 
chiefly, if not solely by his own pen. But in 1794, when he 
became sole proprietor, the sale dropt, and the concern cesJoeA 
to be advantageous, as the work was no longer committed tt> 
the fostering hand of that ^^ nursing father," a London.bckJc- 
seller. At length, after a &ir trial of three or four years, 
under his own exclusive management, he was forced entirely 

H 8 



102 ' DR. THOMSON. 

to reUnqaiBh it. He according qiplied to the late Mr. 
Joseph Johnson, of St. Paul's Church-yard, who, at length, 
incorporated it with the << Analytical Review," to which the 
Doctor transferred, for a considerable time, a continuation of 
the former AppevuUx. 

At the plain but hospitable table of the publisher, he was 
frequently a guest about this period, and among the rest of the 
company, Mrs. Wolstonecroft, who was usually present, occu- 
pied a distinguished place. She was then highly interesting, 
being in the height of her youth, beauty, and literary preten- 
sions ; but her merits seem to have been either utterly unknown 
to, or overlooked by the Doctor ; for happening one afternoon 
to be left tete^cb^ete with her, he soon after fell asleep, and 
snored aloud. The lady was accustomed to laugh heartily when 
she recited this circumstance. 

In 1 7.9S, was published a volume of ^^ Travels in the Western 
Hebrides, from 1782 to 1790." This appeared under the 
name of the ^* Rev. John Lane Buchanan, A.M. Missionary 
Minister to the isles from the Church of Scotland ;" but Dr. 
Thomson ought to be deemed the real author, having con- 
trived, from a few notes of this clergyman ^, to form a small 
8vo. volume. Before this period, the Western .Xbudae were 
but little known to the public, having been scarcely ever men- 
tioned, except by Donald Monro, whose opinions and descrip- 
tions were quoted and implicitly followed by George Buchanan, 
in his history of Scotland. Here was a new field opened, for no 
professed modem traveller had ever entered those secluded jsles, 
of Lewis, Harris, both the Uists, Barray, &c some of which 
are distant no less than 70 miles from the main land, and none 
else but a missionary would ever have peregrinated thither. 
According to the deplorable account here given : << the wig- 
wams of the wild Indians of America are equally good, and 
better ftinushed," than the cottages of the unhappy and op- 
pressed peasantry of .Harris. If the account which now 
lies open before the writer of the present article be true, or 

* The Re?. Miuiooaiy'i real name ia said to have been *< Macgfa^or." 



DR« THOMSON. 103 

even nearly correct, the African Society ought to send travel- 
lers thither, and Mr. \^ilberforce, now that the slave trade has 
been happily abolished, should transfer his attention to tiiose 
miserable shores. According to this narrative, the ancient man- 
erial bondage still exists in all its horrors; the labours of fifty- 
two days in the year are demanded from some of the unhappy 
tenants ; others of them are obliged to foster their ^* master's 
children," without wages ; while the state of the ^' Scallag" is 
assuredly &r inferior to that of the negro in the West Im^es ; 
for they both seem, indeed, to live and labour under the ter- 
rors and torture of the whip ; but with this difference, that 
while the JEbudean dave is heare represented as starving 
during the whole year ; the slave of the torrid zone^ has at 
least the chance of getting sleek and fat, during crop time 1 
Humanity teaches us charitably to hope that the original 
author was imposed upon ; or that the Doctor was induced^ 
by his representations, to tx>lour and varnish an exaggerated 
tale ! But if it beotherwise — andsurely the mbjectis worthy 
of enquiry, by actual inq)ection on the part of the curious, in- 
quisitive, and humane travellers of the present day, — it is to 
be hoped that the public indignation will be aroused, and that 
the Scallags of those remote isles will at length be liberated 
from an ill^al and intolerant bondage. 

A few months before this, a work had appeared, entitled, 
" Tntvels into Norway, Denmark, and Russia," by A. Swin- 
ton, Esq., who is represented as << the near relation" of the cele- 
brated Admiral Greig, who had acted as commander of one of 
the fleets fitted out by Catharine II. This volume has also 
been attributed to Dr. Thomson, who, if not the original 
penman, at least, under the character of an editor, is supposed 
to have made it assume its present shape and form. He was 
intimately acquainted, indeed, about this period, with a gen- 
tleman of some celebrity, who was a native of the north of Eur 
rope ; and we perceive that Professor Thorkelyn of Copoa- 
hagen, has fiimished a curious Appendix, consisting of <* words 
common to the Scotch, Icelanders, and Danes.'' As two 
travellers of some eminence had recently explored the northern 

H 4 



104 ML THOMSON. 

parts of Earope^ and ciwnmnnicBtad their remarkfl to the pub- 
lic* it became neoeMaiy to dispute th»r audiori^, and imder- 
vahe their opioionB; here follows a curious specimen, not 
only of the art of book-making, in England, but also as an 
incident to it, the necessary ability to write down and d^re- 
date all antecedent productions. 

<^ Mr. Wraxal made a tour of 2000 miles around the 
Baltic, in the course of five months. It is impossible either 
to disregard the admirable alacrity of this gentleman's move- 
ments, or to suppose that he had it in his power to draw 
many of his reflections from actual observation. Mr. Coxe 
travelled at a pace somewhat slower, and much more solemn. 
He has given us many accurate and useful details concerning 
manu&ctures, commerce, popidaticxi, public revenue, military 
establishments, and the ceremonials observed in various inter- 
views with which he was honoured by nobles, princes, and 
kings. These, together with historical extracts from a great 
immber of writers, with multiplied experiments on the conge- 
lations of mercury made by different philosophers, at different 
times and places, swell his volumes to a respectable size as well 
as price. 

" It is not, however, long details, bic^graphical, historical, 
or philosophical, that are expected by every reader to fonn 
the principal parts of books of travels. What the traveller 
himself observed, inferred, suffered, or enjoyed — but above 
all, manners, customs, dress, modes of life, domestic economy, 
amusements, arts, whether liberal or mechanical, and in a 
word, whatever tends to illustrate the actual state of societv, 
and that not only among the great, but the body, and evai 
the very lowest of the people : all this, in tlie opinion of those 
who read rather for amusement, than the study of either 
politics or natural philosophy, should enter into those narra- 
tives which are supposed to hold a kind of middle rank between 
the solidity of studied discourse and the freedom of colloquial 
conversation. 

" It is on this humble ground that the author of this voliune, 
notwithstanding what has been pubUshed by the reqiectable 
gentlemen above-mentioned, is induced to offer to the public 



DR. THOMSON. 105 

a variety of observations, which he has been enabled to make 
by frequent voyages to Denmark, and a residence of several 
years in Russia." * 

An endeavour is here very laudably^ made to interest every 
Briton, by describing the '^ Skaw," being the first part of 
Denmark seen by our traveller, and which forms the north 
part of Jutland, ^^ as the ancient Cimbrica Chersonensus, from 
whence issued that race of people called Angles^ who con- 
quered England, and gave their name to our country." The 
author, to familiarise the reader with the views before him^ 
seems to rejoice, and be joyfril amidst scenes which other men 
usuaUy hold in horror: '^ I delight to see nature in her 
winter imiform — to be surrounded with rugged rocks; and 
frozen oceans." " I sit down," continues he, " for the pur- 
pose of writing to you, by a snug fire in the cabin ; but the 
ship rolls in such a manner, that it is with difficulty I can 
either hold my pen or keep my temper. Perhaps it is the 
broken that moves hb huge sides under me ? Where shall I 
find a tub large enough to be thrown out to such a whale; 
whose eyes behold his tail at the distance of three miles ; Surely 
the works of creation are sufficient of themselves to fill and 
expand the human mind, though they should not derive any 
additional grandeur from the affrighted imagination." 

But while the author here aflects to ridicule the dreams <^ 
the good Norwegian Bishop Pontoppidan, yet, lest his own 
narrative should be wholly deficient in the iwnderfvl^ he intro- 
duces to our notice a Norwegian ship-master and his mate^ 
** who in the year 1 786, made oath before the magistrates of 
Dundee, that they had seen a large fish within a few leagues of 
the coast of Scotland, ixihich they judged to be three miles in length,** 
This the editor gravely maintains to have been the sea-wonA 
described by the " sufiragan of Bergen," and boldly asserts, 
that it " drags its slow length of about one hundred yards." 

He tl^en enters into a discussion relative to the supposed 
proportion between the size of animals and the planets they 
inhabit. Some; philosophers we are told, give to the human 
beings in Saturn an altitude of <^ sixty feet ;" and if their conjecv 



106 DB. rarduKsiK. 

tores be li^t,: << the people of Mercaiy will not exeeed seven 
or nine inches in height.^' 

The FVench Revolution, which had begun about this time 
to eshibit a formidable aspect, also furnishes ample scope for 
notice and amplification. Here follows- a passage, however, 
that will be deemed to be prophetic of.some of the events that 
have actually occurred : 

*^ It is unfortunately to be apprehended, from so lively and 
fickle a people as the French, that they will not be satisfied 
with that national degree of freedom which is consistent with 
good government : that they will dream of golden ages before 
the clouds of their mom are removed from the horizon ; and 
request, in cliildish fits of liberty, for the very crown of their 
mooarch to play with. 

^ A3 this nation has long given us the patterns for our 
clothes, they will no doubt now attempt to give us patterns of 
fireedom. 

*^ Alas ! the consequence of such attempts will stir up an 
additional number of enemies to those who will naturally op* 
pose them, even in their just claims to the liberties of men. 
Their foolish efibrt to go beyond the bounds of rational 
liberty, may give just cause to the sovereigns of Europe to 
endeavour to prevent the contagious example from spreading 
among their sufcgects; and in the struggle the French may 
lose a part of their newly redeemed inheritance. If the 
French should abuse what is now in their power to obtain, — a 
free and equitable government and laws, it may rather retard 
than forward the cause of freedom throughout Europe. The 
bloody struggle, both of civil and foreign war, may deter other 
nations from endeavouring to shake off the chains of des- 
potism, when they see these succeeded by anarchy and devas- 
tation." 

This work, consisting of a single volume, is dedicated to 
the Empress Catharine; it contains a spirited print of an 
equestrian statue of Peter I., and on the whole is written in 
such a manner, as either to interest or amuse every reader. 
Recent events, too, have assuredly justified the high opinion 



DR. THOMSOK. 107 

here Gntertained of Norway, in express opposition to travdlen 
of great note, who, after visiting itin person about this period^ 
actually described that country aa an incumbrance to Denmark. 

Nearty at the same time,' we find Dr. Thonunm once more 
in the field; for Dr. Parr about this time introduced him to 
Mr. Windham, and having published a ^^ Sequel to a printed 
Paper lately circulated by the Rev. Charles Curtis *,*' he ad- 
dressed a letter to x his learned fiiend, which abounds with 
many general obsorations, accompanied by a few pertinent 
and pithy sentences relative to the French Revoilatiicm. It is 
pretty plain that our author had not as yet made up his mind 
relative to the part he was to take on this grand question; for 
while all allowed his moderation, neither of the great parties 
in the nation could deem him either an ally or a confederates 
In the first place he appeared under the auspices of a reverend 
sage, who was supposed to think favourably oi the general 
principles by which a neighbouring nation was actuated at 
that precise period) and, in the next, he does not seem to 
have been at all unfiriendly to innovation, when improvement 
was the object; having firankly avowed, that it is now *^ time 
that men, leaving the mere coastings of usage and precedent, 
should steer by the polarity of reason." On the other hanc^ 
both here and in the Elnglish Review, he seems to suppose 
that the French philosophers were too rapid in their move- 
ments; they did not sufficiently, accommodate their changes 
to the gradual variation <^ minds and circumstances; and 
supposed mind to be equally plastic and ductile with matter. 
He ^Iso prefers gradual to sudden and radical alterations in 
systems. 

<^ When shall natural philosophers," he adcs, <^ arrive at 
the art of raising the marble fi'om the solid rock into arches 
and pillars, and other forms of architecture by means of the 
projectile force of gunpowder ? Scarcely is it less difficult for 
the moral philosopher to combine the awakened propensities 
and discordant views of millions in one harmonious and perma* 

UtJEd. 8VO..1701. 



108 DB. THOMSON. 

nent political system. But if the moiiitfiBtefi of those propensities 
and' views be not:calcuIated with due exactness, the powder of 
passioDy instead of raising a goodly political fabric, will cover 
the fair &ce of nature with volcanic ashes. Poets have as- 
cribed certain edifices to the divine power of music, but the 
* concord of sweet sounds' is radically and essentially different 
from the angry passions. Harmony is attractive I Discord 
is destructive !" In another place, our author observes, that 
^^ as the nature of a seed is best discovered by its developement 
into an herb, shrub, or tree, so the principles of government 
are best understood, when they are contemplated in their 
action, effect, and full expansion." 

We wish the subject of this memoir had been always as 
harmlessly or rather as usefully employed : but truth obliges 
us reluctantly to declare, that he was, both before and after 
this period, actively engaged in writing tracts in defence of 
the slave-trade ! A committee formed for the express purpose 
of supporting this infamous traffic, actually met in the city, 
and holding forth goldefi temptations to needy men of letters, 
unfortunately prevailed on multitudes to advocate their cause. 
The res angusta domi can be alone pleaded in mitigation, 
and the author of this biographical sketch, who remon- 
strated with the doctor on the occasion, has reason to think 
that he was at length heartily ashamed of this part of his 
conduct. 

It would be uncandid to dwell on this portion of his Ufe; 
it would be unjust wholly to omit Ihe mention of it ! We 
now recur, with heartfelt satisfaction^ to another production, 
dictated by the purest humanity. An old highland seijeant, 
of the name of Macleod, was accustomed to leave his native 
mountains every year, and, afler traversing a large part of 
Scodand and England, r^ularly appeared in the metropolis 
for the express purpose of receiving his pension at Chelsea 
Hospital in person. His muscular powers, his brawny makc^ 
his broad chest, his Gaelic dress, and his ability of still wielding 
the broad sword both with vigour and address, attracted the 
notice of every beholder, and more especially as he really was, or 



DR. THOMSON. 109 

pretended to be an ociogennariari. To interest the public at 
]arge^ the doctor kindly undertook to write his life; whidi 
was accordingly performed, being accompanied by an engraved 
print of the veteran himself. This,, together with his visits < 
to all Scotchmen of any note, and not a few distinguished 
Englishmen also, procured a considerable sum of money, al- 
tliough it was then generally believed, that he was a much 
younger man than he affected to be. But no one can blame 
thedoctor even if he was imposed upon by his countryman, on.the 
score of seniority. Without reaping any advantage to himself, 
he generously patronised a man confessedly aged, and by a 
few ri^id strokes of his productive pen enabled . *^ auld Do- 
nald," who had actually fought the battles of his country for 
more than half a century, to return to his native glen, enriched, 
contented, and grateful ! 

We have already alluded to the doctor's connection with a 
very respectable bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, some- 
time deceased ; it now remains to be mentioned, that this ex- 
tended further tlutn the coalition between the. English and 
Analytical Review, as will be perceived from the following 
narrative. John Gabriel Stcdman, a native of Scotland, 
where he was bom in 1745, had entered, as it was formerly 
the custom with many of his countrymen, into the military 
service of the states of Holland. Having been dispatched to 
one of the Dutch colonies, on the continent of America, he 
acted for some time as captain in a detachment employed 
against the revolted negroes, with a Swiss for his commanding 
officer. After undergoing an infinite number of hardships 
and &tigues, he repaired to England, either with the acquired 
or assumed brevet rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, which he had 
assuredly merited, by long and desperate service. He was 
accustomed, like Othello, to talk of his numerous adventures 
by ^' flood and field;" to produce the astonishment of his 
listening auditors, by his many "hair-breadth 'scapes;" while 
he excited a temporary horror by describing a new game of 
nine-pins, in which the bowls consisted of the bleeding heads 
of insurgent Africans, newly severed from their bodies by the 



110 JOB. THOMSON. 

cutfaunai of hii Ibllowien I Being deriroas to publiih li book 
on diis gubject, under his own name, accompanied with prints 
firom some admirable drawings in his possession, made and 
coloured on the spot; it became necessary to furnish him with 
assistance. And we have been told, that Mr. Johnson applied 
for that purpose to the doctor, who on this occainon acted the 
important part of literary dry-^nurze to the American bantling. 
Accordingly, with a celerity unequalled, perhaps, on the part 
of any other man, appeared a ^^ Narrative of an Expedition 
against the revolted Negroes of Surinam,'' in 2 vols. 4to. with 
jdates. This work, containing a variety of military trans* 
actions, on a narrow and confined scale indeed, but accontl- 
panied by a number of circumstances tending to render it in- 
teresting, Was read with great avidity at the time, and passed 
through a second, and perhaps a third edition. It was ere* 
ditable to the editor ; and must have been profitable to all 
parties. With this respectable publisher, who, under a serious, 
and even severe countenance and deportment, concealed an 
excellent heart, we never heard that he had any dispute ; but 
he was not unfrequently engaged in altercations of this kind ; 
for a coolness took place between him and Mr. Murray, in 
consequence of the transfer of the English Review ; he waged 
an immortal war with Mr. Hamilton, the printer, about the 
Critical ; while he commenced a lawsuit with Mr. Robinson 
of Paternoster-row concerning copyright, &c. &c. Mr. Mur- 
ray, who had been originally an ofiicer of Marines, was accus- 
tomed, like Dilly and Johnson, to give weekly dinners to 
literary men ; and, although become a tradesman, was not 
wholly guided by interest on these occasions ; for he loved 
society, was capable of a generous action, and greatly delighted 
in the compmiy of his countrymen, the Drs. Gilbert Stuartj 
Orant, and William Thomson. Mr. Hamilton was accustomed 
to make ludicrous charges against the subject of this memoir ; 
viz. ** that he sometimes wrote books in his own name^ but 
oftener in that of other men." This might produce a laugh, 
but it contained no serious accusation ; and it must be recol- 
lected that Dr. Johnson, with all his literary pride and moral 



DR. THOMSON. Ill 

feelings, did not disdain to do the same. Mr. Robinson wa» 
a shrewd, able man, who was then at the head of a most re* 
spectable house in Patemoster-Row, and the largest publisher 
at that time^ perhaps in Great Britain. 

Of school-books, now so firuitfiil and pn^table as a com- 
mercial speculation, we cannot recollect the name of one at- 
tributed to the Doctor, unless *^ the continuation of Gold- 
smith's History of Greece^ fircmi Alexander the Great to die 
sacking of Constantinople by the Turks,'' nmy be included 
within this description. As a translator, on the other hand^ 
he often appeared before the public, and was on these, as well 
as many other occagions^ constantly noticed, aldiougfa, at majr 
be easily guessed, not severely animadverted upon, by his own 
periodical journals, which proved an admirable vehicle for the 
dissemination as well as review of his works. With the French 
language he was pretty well acquainted, and transposed the 
text into his own vernacular tougue, with considerable ease and 
&cility. But such was his zeal and eagerness, thathe would 
have undertaken a version from the Hebrew or Persian ; and 
had he but become master of a few leading facts, so great was 
his ability, at one period of his life, that he would have used 
these as his texts, for very able and animated disquisitions, 
either in or after the style, manner, and sentiments of the ori- 
ginal author. 

He translated Acerbi's travels to the North Pole, during 
that gendeman's residence in Ejigland ; and it can scarcdy be 
doubted, such was his desire of emplojmient, that he eidi^ 
learned Italian expressly for the purpose, or recurred to 
die dictionary, not only during every p«ige, but almost every 
line. 

Towards the latter end of his life, the Doctor was chiefly em- 
ployed in bringing up the long arrear of Dodsle/s Annual 
Raster. Of this emplojonent he was not a little proud, as he 
now considered himself the legitimate successor of Edmund 
Burke. We understand that he compiled the historical part, 
from 1790 to 1800, inclusive; and if paid as liberally as the 
Right Honourable gendeman just alluded to^ his remuneraticm 

11 



112 OR.TH0MSPK. 

would have exactly amoanted to SOOOL for ten volumes ; we 
have raason to think however, that eleven or twelve were un* 
dertaken and completed by him. 

On this occasion he was lucky enougli to obtain the pa- 
tronage, and if we mistake not, access to the library of Sir 
John Macpherson, late Governor- General of Bengal; from 
whose extensive collection of papers, as well as personal com- 
munications, he was enabled to derive much useful and in- 
teresting information relative to British India. 

Meanwhile, his family was now growing up towards matu- 
rity, and it became necessary to endeavour to obtain some per- 
manent provision for them. William, his second son, being a 
boy of an adventurous spirit, at an early p>eriod of life^ embraced 
the nautical profession, and repaired to the East Thither 
also two daughters were sent, one to Bombay, and the other 
to Bengal, where they both married well, and one most ad- 
vantageously. On this occasion the worthy and munificent 
baronet just alluded to, interposed with his wonted generosity ; 
he recommended both of these young ladies in the kindest 
and most affectionate manner, the elder to his friend the late 
Governor Duncan, the younger to several of his correspon- 
dents in India. In consequence of this respectable intro- 
duction, their reception was favourable, and their success 
complete. A third daughter a little before this had settled 
in Scotland. 

Towards the conclusion of his life. Dr. Thomson had but 
little to do with the English press. He had written upon aD 
subjects, and seemed to be fairly exhausted; in short he re- 
sembled a field, which the necessities of the farmer obliges him 
constantly to crop with wheat; and the consequence may be 
easily and readily foreseen, in respect fo both. Perhaps too, 
it was improvident in him to retire to such a distance from 
the centre of action ; for he had taken a house at Kensington 
Gravel Pits, which although in the immediate vicinity of the 
metropolis, is far too distant either to be included within the 
circuit of a Printer's Devil, or to keep up a r^rular aad 
constant commumcation with Patemoster^Row. 



DR. THOMSON. 113 

Notwithstanding these manifold disadvantages wlule thdre^ 
he undertook and executed a work, which tends to confinn 
what has been abready said, as to the variety of- his powers; 
and the extent of his acquisitions. About the year 1805) he 
commenced, and in 1806 completed, Memoirs relative to 
Military Tactics, admirably adapted to the warlike genius of 
that day. It was dedicated, with great propriety, to His 
Royal Highness the Duke of York, then, as now, Commander 
in Chief of the Forces ; and if we are not gready misinformed; 
has been used as a text book -at HSgh Wycombe^ the senior 
department of. the Military College. On this occasion he 
recurred to .the ancient, mode of warfiure; and the hcfro of 
Carthage occupied a respectable place in his dissertations, 
on account of the science displayed in his various engage* 
ments. A preface was added by the late Mr. Glennie, F.R.S; 
who had studied divinity along with him at St. Andrew's, and is 
said to have been one of the ablest mathematicians<^the present 
age ; in which he ably demonstrated the mistakes that had>bedi 
made, rdative to the battles of Hannibal. We believe^ that 
this was the last woiic of any eminence achieved by our au- 
thor; although there is reason to suppose that he has left 
several manuscripts, chiefly dedicated to metaphysical - dl- 
quiries. It was in the calm and obscure retreat alluded to 
above, that Dr. William Thomson passed the evening of his 
days, provided indeed with but a slender and inadequate in- 
come; yet exempt from want, and luckily devoid of- care. 
With a mind no longer distracted by proo&, revises, con- 
tracts, sales, or calculations, equaUy at ease from the clattioui' 
of Printers, the remonstrances of Booksellers, and the threats 
of Lawyers, he concentrated all his happiness within the bo- 
som of his &mily. After lamenting the loss of his two lovely 
daughters* who had died in the East, his last days were ho- 
nourably, usefully, and gratefully employed, in the education 
of his grandchildren, until overtaken by Death, on the 16th 
of March, 1817. 

Thus died. in the 71st year of his age^ William Thomson, 
LL. D., . the, most active, laborious, and inde&tigable man 

VOL. II. I 



114 DB. THOtfSOK. 

of letteito that has appeared in the present ragn, 4Uid who, if he 
could not say like Magliabepchi, '^ that he had composed seven 
volomes in folio with a single pen/' yet might boast that he 
had written on a greater variety of subjects than any of his 
own contemporaries. As a tourist, he had travelled over 
England, Scotland and Ireland ; as a novellist, he had ascended 
to the moon, and pierced to the wilds of Africa; while as a 
warrior, he had fought at Saguntum, and Cannae. Both Asia 
and America had come within the wide grasp of his studies 
and reflections. Memoirs and biography were for some years 
his daily occupation; while the criticism of his own and 
other men's labours^ produced more perhaps, than the fiee- 
simple of his original works. So fftTnilmr was he in respect 
to the events of the times in which he lived, that he was con- 
stantly employed in detailing the speeches, or arranging the 
transactions, or writing eulogiums for, or sounding the death- 
knell of the reputation of his friends, contemporaries, rivals^ 
and enemies. 

Jn respect to his person, altihough not tall, he was strongs 
muscular, and athletic His complexion was dark ; his manner 
energetic ; and when young he must have been very powerfuL 
At a former period, his personal intrepidity exposed him to 
many dangers, both by night and day. Like Hercules of cdd^ 
he wished to dear the woiid o( monsters ; and he would attadi 
any one when he deemed himself aggrieved. At midnight 
he was accustomed to return through a long and dreary road 
to his little mansion at the back of Kensington Gardens, and 
when nearly at the age of seventy he was seen by the author 
of this narrative to brandish his large oaken stick at a noble- 
man's coachman, who, through negligence, endangered his 
life at Hyde-Park comer, while walking towards the gravel- 
pits. 

In his nature he was rather irrascible, and not altogether 
forgetful of either real or supposed ofiences : it was at one time 
in his power indeed, from a thousand unexpected sources to 
assail and perhaps overwhelm a literary character; and one gen- 
tleman who had declined his acquaintance, during fifteen yeuns 
felt the smarts of bis vengeance. But instead of resentiDg diis 



■'V 

DR. THOMSON. lis . *%: 

conduct^ no sooner did he hear that the Doctor's finances wetpe 
deranged, than by means of a respectable dergyman of the 
church of England, who concealed his interposition, he pro- 
cured him an offer of assistance on the part of that most exr 
cellent institution, the Literary Fund. His manly answer on 
that occasion merits to be recorded: ^^I am only in some 
temporary difficulties ; and will accept of no relief." 

Notwithstanding his manners, like his dress, were rather 
rough, original, and unpolished, yet Doctor Thomson is said 
to have understood, and frequently exhibited a great delight 
in and attachment to music. His hospitality was so great 
as not uh&equently to exceed his means: he was fond otcoWf 
pany indeed ; and at one period of his life, accustomed to in- 
dulge in late hours and the jollity of tavern suppers. In 
respect to religion, he constantly inculcated and asserted the 
Christian code to be a most powerful, useful, and advantageous 
instrument, both in respect to states and individuals. In his 
social hours he was gay, noisy, and argumentative ; and pos- 
sessed a fund of broad humour that not unfirequently set the 
^^ table in a roar," more especially on the part of his country- 
men who alone fiilly comprehended him ; for his accent, pro- 
nunciation, and dialect, not seldom rendered him obscure to 
strangers. 

As an author, it has been justly said of him, ** that he united 
great vigour of invention, great depth of observation, and 
great eloquence of expression, with remarkable n^rUgence 
of composition ;" and it is happily added, *' that he could be 
romantic without extravagance, and eccentric without absur- 
dity." 

The Doctor was twice married, and had children on both 
occasions. His first wife, Diana Miltone^ was a Scotchwoman ; 
his second, who still survives, educated her family with exem- 
plary prudence and propriety: like her husband too she 
proved an author ; and her novels* may be read without fisar 

* Th« foUowing have bten attributed to the pen of this Lady. 
1. The Labyrioth of Life; 3. ExceMive Sensibility ; a. Fatal Follici; and 4. The 
Pride of Aaceatiy. 

I 2 



116 DB. THOMSON. 

on the (Nut of jouiig women, wliidi is no imall oommeiidation 
daring the present age. 

List rf the Works written^ edited by^ or attributed to the late 

Dr. WHUam Thomson. 

History. 

1. Continuation and conclusion of Dr. Watson's History of 
Philip III. 

2. Translation from the Latin of ** Cunningham's History 
of Great Britain, from the Revolution to the accession of «the 
House of Brunswick, in the person of George I." 

S. New Edition and Continuation of Goldsmith^s History 
of ancient Greece, the whole concluded in 2 vols. 8yo. 

Biography. 

4. Life of Serjeant Madeod. 

. Voyagesy TravelSf and Memoirs. 

5. Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 8vo. 1 782. 
6.Newte'8 Traveb through Scotland, 8vo. 

7. Travels into Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, 8vo. 1792. 

8. Buchanan's Travels in the Hebrides. 8vo. 1793. 

9. Memoirs of the war in Asia, from 1780 to 1784. 

10. Stedman's Narrative relative to Surinam, 4ta with 
plates. 

1 1 . Acerbi's Travels to the North Cape, translated from the 
Italian. 

12. Military Memoirs, 2d Edition, 8vo. 1806. 

Miscellaneous. 

13. Commentary on the Bible, by the lleverend Mr. 
Harrison. 



DR. THOMSON. 117 

14. Appeal to the People of England, in Behalf of Warren 
Hastings, Esq., late Govemor-Greneral of India. 
#15. Introduction to the Trial of Mr. Hastings. 

Novels and Romances. 

16. Man in the Moon, 2 yols. 12mo. 1782. 

17. Mammoth, or Human Nature displayed on a grand 
scale, in a Tour, with the Tinkers or Gypsies, to the central 
parts of Africa, 2 vols. 8va 1789. 

Pamphlets and Perittdical PvbUcations. 

1 8. Several Tracts in Defence of the Slave Trade. 

19. English, Critical, and Analytical Reviews. 

20. Annual R^bters. 

21 . The weekly summary <^ Nem for the Whitdudl Even- 
ing Post, for several years. 

22. Reports ofDebates for, and Dissertations, &c, in several 
of the daily Newspapers. 

23. Papers in the Political Herald, under the rignature of 
Ignotus. 



I 3 



( "« ) 




HUGH Duke and Eabl of NORTHUMBERLAND. 

LORD LIxnTVKAWT, AMD CDSTOS BOTULOSUM OF THE COUNTY OT 
HOBTHDMSKHLAKD, VICE ADMIRAL OF TUB SAME; ONE OF THE 
LORDS OF HtS majesty's MOST HOKOURABLK PRIVY OOVVCthl 
K.G. F.B.B- rS-A.; A CENERAX. IN THE ARMY, AND CONSTABLE 
OE LAUNCESTOH CASTLE. 

" E8PERANCE EN DIEU," Mot, 

It would be equally vain and ridiculous, to enter into a 
laboured detail of the genealogy of this good, anuable, and 
illiutriouB nobleman. By the paternal ude, his Grace derives 
fail origin from the Smithsons, or Sm^hsons, a family bo 
ancient, aa to possess a lordship of the same name, in the 
county of York, at the time of the Xomian conquest. Indeed, 
according to the testinuHiy of <Hie of our most reqMCtable 
haalds, who had access to the bmily pq>en, he claima the ume 



DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND* 119 

lineage as the Veres, Earls of Oxford ; the Beauchamps, Earls 
of Wai-wick ; the Mortimers, Earls of March ; and is also de- 
scended from the great families of Percy and Neville ; and 
even from the blood royal, through the princdy House of 
York. * As to the maternal stock, the Perdes are readily 
traced from the ancient kings of France and England, and 
the Seymours, from Mary Queen Dowager of France, younger 
daughter of Henry VII. by his Queen Elizabeth, daughter 
and heir of King Edward IV, in whom were united the two 
royal Houses of York and Lancaster. 

Hugh, the elder son of the first Duke of Northumberland^ 
by his consort Elizabeth, only daiughter of the great Duke of 
Somerset; was born, August 14, 1742, in the parish of St. 
George, Hanover Square. After receiving a suitable edu- 
cation, he was introduced to the world as Earl Percy ; and as 
his early inclinations pointed towards a military life, his lord- 
ship was at length gratified, even in this wish, although doubt- 
less with much reluctance on the part of his parents. He ac- 
cordingly obtained a commission in the army, while yet a boy, 
and actually served with great credit, for a whole campaign in 
Germany, during the seven years' war, under the auspices of 
Prince Ferdinand, then supposed to be one of the ablest com- 
manders of his age. 

Nor did this young nobleman fail to display his spirit and 
indignation at home, when the honour of his family appeared 
to be called in question. The government of Tynmouth fort . 
had been usually disposed of in a manner agreeably to the 
wishes of the Duke of Northumberland, in return for the 
very handsome manner in which a portion of the adjacent 
ground had been transferred, for the accommodation of the 
garrison. On an expected vacancy, his Grace applied to His 
Majesty in person^ to confer this appointment on his eldest 
son ; and the royal promise was supposed to have been given 
on that occasion. On the death of Sir Andrew Agnew, in 
1771, an application was accordingly made to Lord North, 

• 

• Sm ColliM' Pcenge, vcd. ii. p. 476. 

I 4 



120 DUKE OF NORTHUMBBRLAND. 

intimatinj^ in the most' ddicate manner, the promise that 
had bee^,' made V but that minister replied, in a- very laccmic 
qiistle^ ^^ that it wds totally unnecessary to remind him of any 
previous engagement, as the government of Tynmouth fort was 
already disposed of to the Hon. Major-General Alexander 
Mackay." Such an afiront was not likely to pass with impu- 
nity on the part of a Percy ; and the earl accordingly trans- 
mitted a spirited rejoinder, purporting, ^^ that he had received 
his lordship's letter with an equal degree of concern and indig- 
nation ; for whatever his opinion of the present ministers might 
be, he had always looked upon the great Person's own word to 
^ be sacred, until that moment," 
. But notwithstanding this insult^ Lord Percy never failed for 
a single moment, to exhibit both his accustomed loyalty to the 
King, and his warm attachment to what he deemed, the best 
interests of his. native country. Accordingly, at the com- 
mencement of the war with America, in the course of which 
the Trans- Atlantic colonies successfully resisted all claims of 
taxation on the part of the parent state, his lordship made a 
tender of his services to government. These being readily and 
joyfully accepted, he instantly repaired to the scene of action, 
and took an active part in most of the military operations of 
that day. 

At the battle of Lexington, fought on the 19th of April 
1775, his lordship, with a body of British troops, came very 
opportunely to the succour of a detachment under Colonel 
Smith, who had not only advanced further than was expected, 
but had actually expended all his ammunition. Greneral 
Gage, in his official dispatch, afterwards published in the 
London Gazette, observes, " that too much praise cannot be 
given to Lord Percy, for his remarkable activity, during the 
whole day." This nobleman was also present at the spirited 
action at Bunker's Hill, and distinguished himself, not only 
then, but afterwards essentially contributed to the reduction of 
Fort Washington : the column headed by him, was the first 
that entered the enemjr^s lines. 
Meanwhile his illustrious mother, who had 



DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. ISl 

herselfy not only by a princely den!keanour suitable to her ex- 
alted rank, but also by a munificent encouragement of litara- 
ture and the fine arts, died on her birth day, December 5th, 
1776, precisely at the time her Grace had completed the 70th 
year of her age. On this, the subject of the present memoir, 
who was still abroad in the service of his country, succeeded 
to the baronies of Percy, Lucy, Poynings, Fitz-Poyne, Bryan, 
and Latimer. His lordship did not, ^owever, take his seat in 
the House of Lords, until November 20, 1777, on his arrival 
firom America, which he had quitted at the end of the cam- 
paign of that year. 

Earl Percy was rcNceived with op^i arms by all the ministers. 
So much promptitude and gallantry on the part of a distin- 
guished nobleman had excited their admiration ; and accord- 
ingly, we find him soon after appointed Colonel of the fifth 
regiment of foot, with the rank of Lieutenant-General in the 
army. . . 

But by this time all the airy ^peculations about subjugation^ 
conquest, and unconditional submission had evaporated, and 
the more sober part of the cabinet, began to talk.of.peace and 
conciliation. On that occasion. Earl Percy was considered, 
from the moderation of his principles, his knowl^e of 
America, and his high rank, as well as high character, to be 
emin«[itly calculated for the office of chief Commissioner, or 
' rather Ambassador Plenipotentiary, now proposed to be sent 
to the insurgent colonies. His fiunily and firiends, on this pro- 
posal, disavowed all ideas of emolument, but they wished to 
stipulate for the Garter^ as a necessary qppendage to the em- 
bassy, more especially as there were no fewer than three blue 
ribbands vacant at that very moment.* To this proposition, it 
was replied, ^^ that bis lordship might depend upon it, on hi& 
return." But his lordship had not as yet forgotten the fledge 
given him in respect to the government of Sir Andrew Agnew ; 
and he is said to have stated, ^* that being too well acquainted 
with courts, to trust to promises ; if he could not h^ve the 
garter before ^nbarkation, he must decline going.'' 

* Bj the ditth of tin PuIr of Kingnon, and the Evh of Albefmaile tiid Choter. 



199 DUKE 07 NOBTHUMBSBJLAND* 

The preBcnt Earl of Carlisle^ thea a very young man, was 
afterwar^ placed at the head of a conunissioii for the same pur- 
pose. He was honoured on that occasion, we believe, with 
the garter, as he doubtless deemed it indispensable, and pre* 
^ ferred the possession to the prospect ! with the result of that 
embassy, the public is well acquainted. 

Devoid of ambition, and anxious only to be useful. Earl 
Percy now addicted himself to the pleasures of domestic so- 
ciety, and the cares incident* to his station. At the age of 
twenty-one, July 2, 1764, his lordship had been persuaded to 
form an alliance with one of the noblest and most ancient fa* 
milies in the United Kingdom, having married Lady Anne 
Stuart, third daughter of John Earl of Bute, then the fa- 
vourite and prime minister of his present Majesty. But this 
ccmnexion, however desirable it might have been in other re- 
spects, proved unfortunate ; and it was at length finally dis- 
solved by act of parliament, in March, 1779. Soon after, 
and under far more propitious auspices, this nobleman formed 
a new alliance with Miss Frances- Julia Burrel, sister to Sir Peter 
Burrel, Bart now Lord Gwydir, and o£Bciating Great Cham- 
berlain of England, in consequence of his fnarriage with 
Priscilla^BarbararElizabeth Lindsey, Baroness d'Eresby, 
eldest daughter of Peregrine, third Duke of Ancaster. The 
leading motive to this union was of no vulgar kind : it origin- 
ated in that species of attachment from a child to a parent, 
which the Romans honoured with the name of Piety. In the 
year 1773, the &ther of the present Duchess Dowager, of 
Northumbeirland, was advised to repair to Spa, for the benefit 
of his health. His affectionate daughters, dreading to trust the 
life of one so justly dear to them all, to mercenary hands, 
resolved to accompany him thither; and carefully secluding 
themselves from the society of the gay and fasdnating company 
who had assembled there, devoted the whole of their time and 
attention to the pleasing task of fanning the last vital spark 
of a life so highly prized ! Their exemplary attention to the 
honour of our age and country, produced a general admiration 
and esteem; and finally led to three of the noblest 



OUKE'^OV NOBTHUMBERLAND. 1S9 

connexions that either England or Scotland could produce: 
for the one became the Countess ot Percy; a second, after 
being for some time Duchess of Hamilton) was afterwards 
more happy as Marchicmess of Exeter ; while the third was 
selected for the wife of the Earl of Beverley. May similar 
conduct be ever rewarded with equal success ! 

In the year 1785 Lord Percy was greeted with a son and 
heir who afterwards inherited aU his honours ; and on June 
the 6th, 1786, he succeeded his father as Duke of Northum- 
berland. In due time, he assumed his seat in the House of 
Lords : and afterwards obtained the Garter. Until this period 
he had represented, without intrigue and without solicitation, 
the city of Westminster in Parliament. 

The first Duke had generally voted with the Court : and in- 
deed held a variety of splendid offices both in England and Ire- 
land. * The second intermeddled but little in politics: he however 
had surveyed America with the eye of a statesman as well 
as of a soldier, and could not heartily approve either of that 
war, or of Lord North's administration, although he had been 
induced by a nice sense of honour to draw his sword in behalf 
of the one, and thus in some measure, incidentally contributed 
to support and countenance the other. 

Nor was his Grace disposed to yield a servile obedience to 
all the measures sanctioned and enforced by the splendid elo- 
quence of Mr. Pitt. We accordingly find both him and his 
friends firequently joining in opposition to the Ministers. 

Retired within the bosom of a happy family, the Duke now 
occupied his leisure for the benefit of his children and pos- 
terity. As his noble £ither had been unable perhaps to extend 
his cares to every portion of such an immense property, the 
fiurm-houses on the great northern estate^ were immediately 
repaired and rendered comfortable. Alnwick Castle, which the 
former had restored was now beautified and improved. Nor- 



• Hit Gthct waf tome time Victroy in one Mlamf, and M««t«r of the hone to Uit 
King, Sic Sw. in anoilier. 



124 DUKE OF NORTHUMBSUAKD. 

thumbedand-house^ a residence superior to any hotel in Paris, 
in point of size, arrangement, and magnificence, was rendered 
fiir more convenient and noble ; while Sion, the most enchant- 
ing villa in oar island, finely situate on the banks of its noblest 
river, and connected with our history by so many interesting 
recollections, was kept up in a style worthy of its owner. The 
writer of this article beheld the scaffolding fi:)r a new and 
capital repair, still standing at the time of his Grace's lamented 
demise. 

Nor were meliorations of another kind forgotten. In an 
age, happily devoted to the advancement of agriculture, Hugh 
Duke of Northumberland, was not wanting in his duties. The 
rural economy of his estates was greatly facilitated, improved, 
and enoouraged, under such auspices; and the.&nner, in. con- 
sequence of a moderate rental and a secure tenure, was now 
taught to consider the interests of the lord intimately con- 
nected with those of the occupier of the soil. Such parts of 
his domain as seemed interdicted by nature firom the labours 
of the plough, were planted with trees of various kinds, pro- 
perly protected and fenced The desert b^gan to snule under 
such fostering care ; and the heath-clad hills, studded with 
large and numerous enclosures of evergreens, and deciduous 
plants, slowly improved both the climate and the soil ; while 
it rendered the scenery at once more beautiful and romantic* 

Nor were minor objects forgotten ; — those that connect man 
in his last stage of dependence, to society, and render the 
latter days of the labourer happier and more comfortable — 
for his Grace set a noble example of this kind, by the introduc- 
tion of a most admirable, humane, and beneficial custom : that 
of making a provision for the men servants on such of his 
large &rms as had merited it by their industry and fidelity.. 
To these who are distinguished by the appellation of hinds in 
the north, provided their conduct had been meritorious,, his 
Grace was pleased to allow a cottage and ten acres cilaaid. 
This operated as a premium to virtue : for it proved an allure- 
ment to labour during youth, while it served as a security 

II 



DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. ' 195 

against want, when the period of old age and infirmities 
arrived.. 

Unfortuiiately» the Duke of Northumberland was himself 
subjected, and that too firom an early age, to many of the ills 
to which frail mortality is heir. But the complaint that 
chiefly annoyed, was the gout, a disease that had long aiiecte^ 
the extremities. In consequence of ill health, his Grace was 
obliged to repair to the continent, more than once; in order 
to seek for rdief in the milder atmosphere of Lisbon. While 
there, he is said to have been treated with marked distinction^ 
by the reigning &mily ; imd when a httle re-established, he 
appears to have constantly returned to his native country with 
renewed delight. 

At Alnwick, the Duke lived with baronial magnificence ; 
and the feudal times, under his castellated roo^ seemed to be 
revived, in all their noble and more congenial accompani- 
ments. It is true, men at arms no longer strutted in his hall; 
the revelry of a host of noisome retainers waff unknown; tiie 
herald, with the emblazoned coat, no longer paraded the 
courts and proclaimed the tournament, where gallant knights 
contrived to wound each otjier, to please their gentle dames ; 
or the well-appointed champion entered the listed field finally 
to decide the cause of the widow and the orphan, by the cun- 
ning and strength, or the weakness and unskilfiilness of his 
recreant arm. 

But here were to be seen far more gratifying objects : public 
days, on which uninvited guests were received with hospitality 
and splendour; a banquet over which order, regularity, and 
grandeur at once presided. To these were occasionally added 
two sights, truly noble : thousands of the inhabitants of the 
county of Northumberland voluntarily meeting their good and 
noble landlord, to congratulate him on his return ; while a 
formidable body of " Percy tenantry," commanded by his son 
and successor, consisting of infantry, cavalry, and horse-artil- 
lery, all accoutred, caparisoned, and paid fi*om the treasury of 
Alnwick castle, presented a spectacle that could not be paralleled 
^n the part of any other subject in Europe. 



126 DUKJL or irOBTHUMBSELAHO. 

At length the infinnities of the Duke of Nocdnmiba-land, 
aided and increased by the advance of age, enfeeblecl a fimine 
abeady shattered by long and successive attacks, and his 
Grace at last resigned all share in this mortal world, at 
Northumberland House, amidst the tears of his surrounding 
.^unily, the sighs of his sorrowing domestics, the regret of his 
numerous tenantry, and the respect of all mankind. 

Although the second, like the first Duke, had lived with 
splendour and magnificence, yet by good management, order, 
and discretion, considerable wealth was accumulated from the 
surplus of princely revenues for the benefit of his ofispring. 
No one knew how to be more generous when occasion ofiered : 
His Grace presented a very large sum of money to Mr. Kemble, 
at the moment of deep distress, when his whole and entire 
property seemed to have been ingulphed in the amddng ruins 
of Drury-lane Theatre; and on the demise of the late Mr. Jo- 
seph Richardson, M.P., a man endeared to thousands by his 
wit and companionable qualities, the head of the Percies, with 
equal ddicacy and promptitnde^ nobly interposed to shield the 
widow and the orphan firom misery and distress. 

The burial was at once grand, solemn, and magnificent in 
the extreme. 

Order of Precession. 

Eight Bannerols, carried by Horsemen. 
Horsemen uncovered, bearing a Ducal Coronet on a Crimson 
Velvet Cushion, led by two persons uncovered on foot. 
Standard of Grreat Britain, borne by a man on horseback. 

Guidon. 

Two Horsemen. 

Large Banner of the Family Arms and Quarterings, six feet 

square, borne by a Horseman. 

Horsemen. 

Helmet and Crest. 

Horsemen. 

Target and Sword. 

Horsemen. 



' DUKE OF NORTHUMBBRLAND. 127 

Surcoat. 
Horsemen. 
THE BODY 
In Hearse» fiill dressed. 
The inside coffin was lined with rich white satin, and the 
dress of the same, trimmed with fine point lace, &c. The 
outside case made of English oak, covered with rich crimson 
Genoa velvet, and finished in the handsomest manner, with 
stars of the Order of the.Grarter, coronets, and every appro- 
priate decoration. On the plate are engraved the arms and 
supporters, with the following inscription: 

The Most W^ PoiMant and Most Noble 
Prince Hu^ Percy, 
Duke and Earl of Northumberland, Earl and Baron Percy, 
Baron Lucy, Poynings, Fitz-Poyne, Bryan, Latimer, and 
Warkworth, and Baronet, Lord Lieutenant and Gustos 
Rotulorum of the county of Northumberland, and town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vice- Admiral of the same and the 
Maritime Parts thereof, and Knight of the Most NoUe 
Order of the Garter. 

Died on the 10th day qf July, 1817, 
In the 75th year of his age. 



.( 1«8 ) 



No. VL 




GEORGE SPENCER, Duke of MARLBOROUGH, 

D.CI- F.R.S. 
MAUaUK or BLAMDrORD, SAKL OP SUNDBBLAMD AKD MABL- 

■orouoh; basok or wormlxiqhton, and churcbiix or 

SAMDKIDOB ; KHrOBT OP THE MOST NOBLE ORDZR OF THK OAK- 
TERI LOKD LIEUTENANT, AND GUSTOS ROTULOHUM OR THI 
COUHTT OF OXFORD : RANGIR OF WHICHWOOD FOREST ; HIGH 
STEWARD OF OXFORD AND WOODSTOCK ; GOVERNOR OF TBI 
CHARTER HOUSE; AND A SENIOR BROTHER OF THE TRIHITV 
HOUSE. 

" DIEU DEFENCE LE DROIT." Mot, 

1m point of descent, this family is ancient, and in respect 
to military merit, eminently illustrious. Nor is it deficient as 
to talents of another kind: for that accomplished poet <tf 
the Mxteenth century, who was the friend of Sir Philip ^dney» 
at well as tlie favourite of Elizabeth, lays claim to be reck- 
oned among its kindred. ^Gibbon the histoiiaD emreaaei 



DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. ISQ 

himself with his usual force and elegance, while treating on 
this subject : '^ the nobility of the Spencers has been illus- 
trated and enriched by the trophies of Marlborough ; but I 
exhort diem to consider the Fairy Qtieerij as the most noble 
jewel of their coronet. 

This house, according to the genealogical tables of Ander- 
son, may be traced to Gitto de Leon, who flourished at the 
commencement of the eleventh century ; and from the testi- 
mony of Edmonds«n, we are taught to believe that Robert Le 
Despencer, was the progenitor of Sir Robert Spencer, who 
received the honour of knighthood, from the sword of the 
maiden Queen. On the aeoeMion of her successor, James L 
he was ennobled and admitted into favour. 

Sir Winstone Churchill, the historian, who for a time lost 
his estate, on account of his loyalty and adherence to Charles 
I. was the father of the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough^ 
whose talents are attested by nineteen campaigns ; who never 
fought a battle in which he was defeated, and who never sat 
down before a town which he did not take. The fame of the 
British army under his auspices, resounded for the first time 
on the banks of the Danube, and the Rhine. Notwithstand- 
standing he was the ornament both of the court, and the reign 
of Queen Anne, yet his Grace was taught to feel the caprice 
of fortune; and indeed he Would have withdrawn in 1710, 
but for a letter signed by Lord Chancellor Cowper, and all 
the whig lords of that day, soliciting his stay, and depre- 
cating his resignation, which, however, finally took place at 
a less auspicious period. 

By his consort, a daughter and coheir of Richard Jennings, 
of Sundridge in the county of Herts, this distinguished wai*- 
rior had one son and four daughters, the former of whom 
died in his thirteenth year. All the females were matched 
into noble families. One married Francis Earl of Godolphin, 
and became afterwards Duchess of Marlborough ; another was 
Che wife of the Earl of Sunderland ; a third united her fistte to 
Scroop, first Duke of Bridgewater, while the youngest became 
Duchess of Montague. 

VOJL. II. K 



13S DUKE OF MARLBOBOUGH. 

and having a range of river, near two miles in extent, imme- 
diately after this he built a beautiful little cottage^ the ball of 
which has its ceiling omamented,at this day, with monkeys iu 
the various characters of fishermen, boatmen, &c. These 
am'mals, whence the place was ever after denominated Monkey- 
Island, were painted with considerable skill and taste by an 
Italian artist, who according to tradition, on this occasion found 
means to caricature all'the principal servants appertaining to the 
household. A banquetting-room was added; but the latter 
was afterwards disfigured by a Sheriff* of London, of the name 
of Fludyer, who being perhaps a member of the Fishmongers' 
Company, disgraced the purity and simplicity of the original 
style by his bad taste ; for, with his golden dolphins, and a 
variety of gaudy ornaments, he contrived to give a ludicrous 
air to the whole. In fine, he daubed over a charming apart- 
ment with so much leaf gdid as to produce an exact imitation 
of English gingerbread, covered with Dutch copper, at a 
country fair. Let those who doubt, examine : for the edifice 
still remains. 

The Duke at length began to arrange and augment the col- 
lection of gems and intaglios^ which he himself had in part 
selected during his travels. To these he now added the 
cameos and intaglios of the Arundelian collection. The taste- 
fiii and judicious Horace Walpole, afterwards EarJ <rf Orfiird^ 
pronounces the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, to be ** the 
finest remain of antique sculpture of that kind." His Grace also 
moved by a noble and munificent taste, determined on this oe« 
casion to invoke the assistance of one branch of the fine arts, 
to embellish and enrich another. When Bartolozzi was em- 
ployed on this occasion, all agreed on the fitness of the choice; 
nor was expence spared* to render the letter-press, as well as 
the engravings of these two volumes truly unique. Dr. William 
Cole, chaplain to his Grace, and tutor to two of his children, 
composed the Latin expositions, in an elegant and appropriate 
manner. This work was never published ; a limited number 
of copies only was printed ; and presented with great libersr 
lity to the royal library, a few of the great institutions throngh* 



DUCE of MARLBOROUGH. 133 

out HxLTcpef and some of the most distinguished virtuosi — Mr, 
Jemungs, the gmtleman already alluded to, and to whose 
fioher, Sarah Duchess of Mariborougli had bequeathed 
20,000L in one of her many wills, was not forgotten on tlie 
occasion. Indeed he himself has been a zealous collector, 
during a long and eventful life ; and has parted with many 
fine acres to gratify his taste in shells, pictures, and statues! 

Another and a different but laudable pursuit somewhat be- 
fore this period, had engaged the attention, and for a time oc- 
cupied a large portion of his wealth. Blenheim, once a royal 
residence ; and whose modem name recalls the memory of the 
splendid and unrivalled victory gained by Jdin Duke of Marl- 
borough, hkd been granted by. Queen Anne, as a reward for 
his unparalleled services. The mansion itself was rapidly 
falling into a state of dilapidation ; and the grounds around it 
were become rude and uncultivated. 

The genius of capability — Browne, was now invoked, and a 
new world speedily created. A noble wall, that cost lOOO/L 
a m}le^ and could not now be built for double that sum, was 
erected to secure the boundaries of an extensive park ; which 
was speedily converted into an ornamented farm, producing 
not only grass but com ; while deer and cattle of all sorts and 
descriptions, either calculated to convey an idea of grandeur, 
or utility, were seen wandering about its pastures. The gar- 
dens too, were laid out anew ; and both these and the adjacent 
country rendered accessible by the finest walks, kept in the 
neatest order that ever my eyes have beheld. The home view 
had hitherto been grossly deficient in point of water, without 
zh ther grandeur nor true beauty can possibly exist ; 
if magic and the hand of a great master, may lay 
4 to something approximating to enchantment — the 

was Idenly changed, and the bridge of the Rialto, 
^< hitherto crossed a dry ditch, now beheld a river 
teath its lofty arch. The valley was also fldoded» 
|f taught to pour forth its living waters into a 
I two or three hundred acres. Bays and 
mrbours, now MumrA to termimite 
^ 3 



132 DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. 

and having a range of river, near two miles in extent, iname- 
diately after this he built a beautiful little cottage, the hall of 
which has its ceiling ornamented,at this day, with monkeys in 
the various characters of fishermen, boatmen, &c. These 
animals, whence the place was ever after denominated Monkey- 
Island, were painted with considerable skill and taste by an 
Italian artist, who according to tradition, on this occasion found 
means to caricature all'the principal servants appertaining to the 
household. A banquetting-room was added; but the latter 
was afterwards disfigured by a Sheriff of London, of the name 
of Fludyer, who being perhaps a memba: of the Fishmongers' 
Company, disgraced the purity and simpUcity of the original 
style by his bad taste ; for, with his golden dolphins, and a 
variety of gaudy ornaments, he contrived to give a ludicrous 
air to the whole. In fine, he daubed over a charming apart- 
ment with so much leaf gold as to produce an exact imitation 
of English gingerbread, covered with Dutch copper, at a 
country fair. Let those who doubt, examine : for the edifice 
still remains. 

The Duke at length began to arrange and augment the col- 
lection of gems and intaglios, which he himself had in part 
selected during his travels. To these he now added the 
cameos and intaglios of the Arundelian collection. The taste- 
fiil and judicious Horace Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orfordf 
pronounces the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, to be ^ the 
finest remain of antique sculpture of that kind." His Grace also 
moved by a noble and munificent taste, determined on this oc- 
casion to invoke the assistance of one branch of the fine arts, 
to embellish and enrich another. When Bartolozzi was em- 
ployed on this occasion, all agreed on the fitness of the choice; 
nor was expence spared' to render the letter-press, as well as 
the engravings of these two volumes truly unique. Dr. William 
Cole, chaplain to his Grace, and tutor to two of his children, 
composed the Latin expositions, in an elegant and appropriate 
manner. This work was never published ; a limited nnmber 
of copies only was printed ; and presented with great Ubora* 
lity to the royal library, a few of the great institutioiis iixtoafjtt^ 



DUt£ OF MARLBOROUGH. 133 

out Europe, and some of the most distinguished virtuosi — Mr. 
Jenmngs, the gentleman abready alluded to, and to whose 
father, Sarah Duchess of Marlborough had bequeathed 
20,000/. in one of her many wills, was not forgotten on^ the 
occasion* Indeed \^e himself has been a zealous collector, 
during a long and eventful life; and has parted with many 
fine acres to gratify his taste in shells, pictures, and statues! 

Another and a different but laudable pursuit somewhat be- 
fore this period, had engaged the attention, and for a time oc- 
cupied a large poition of his wealth. Blenheim, once a royal 
residence ; and whose modem name recalls the memory of the 
splendid and unrivalled victory gained by idtm Duke of Marl- 
borough, hkd been granted by. Queen Anne, as a reward for 
his unparalleled services. The mansion itself was rapidly 
falling into a state of dilapidation ; and the grounds around it 
were become rude and uncultivated. 

The genius o( capability — Browne, was now invoked, and a 
new world speedily created. A noble wall, that cost lOOO/L 
a m}le^ and could not now be built for double that sum, was 
erected to secure the boundaries of an extensive park ; which 
was speedily converted into an ornamented farm, producing 
not only grass but com ; while deer and cattle of all sorts and 
descriptions, either calculated to convey an idea of grandeur, 
or utility, were seen wandering about its pastures. The gar- 
dens too, were laid out anew ; and both these and the adjacent 
country rendered accessible by the finest walks, kept in the 
neatest order that ever my eyes have beheld. The home view 
had hitherto been grossly deficient in point of water, without 
which neither grandeur nor true beauty can possibly exist ; 
bil^t as if by magic and the hand of a great master, may lay 
daim to something approximating to enchantment — the 
scene was suddenly changed, and the bridge of the Rialto, 
which had hitherto crossed a dry ditch, now beheld a river 
flowing beneath its lofly arch. The valley was also flooded, 
and the Glyme taught to pour forth its living waters into a 
lake extending over two or three hundred acres. Bays and 
ports, and roadsteads and harbours, now seemed to terminate 

K 3 



134 DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. 

the curves of this noble etpanse; while a little< fleet masted^ 
rigged, and fitted out, so as to resemble a navy, floated on its 
glassy bosom. It was thus, that the late Duke of Marlborou^ 
for many years employed both his wealth and his leisure. Nor 
ought it to be forgotten, that Blenheim itself, under his 
auspices, assumed an aspect at once more magnificent and 
more comfortable. The principal apartments were new hung 
and new furnished; the noble hall was re-embellished; the beau- 
tiful little chapel was rendered more worthy of the Deity there 
worshipped ; while the grand and extensive library was adorned 
with an invaluable unique bust, still in high preservation. 
The present Duke, who is said to possess a line taste for books, 
will not fail to keep up and augment this princely collection. 

It has already been stated, that his Grace's father, to whose 
tutor, the leam^ Jacob Bryant, he presented a handsome 
annuity, always evinced a decided taste for mathematics ; and 
the son, from early youth exhibited a predilection for a noble 
science, which is intimately connected, and indeed regulated 
by the former. He accordingly ordered an observatory to be 
, constructed and fitted up at Blenheim, which he furnished vol 
a manner worthy of his skill and munificence. Nor were bis 
studies of a selfish kind, for he extended his love of astroncnny 
so as to prove beneficial to the most distinguished of pur 
English youth. Accordingly the Duke presented one of the 
finest and largest telescopes that could be produced by the 
most accurate mechanics in Europe — those of the British 
. capital — to the University of Oxford. The grand curtains 
in the picture gallery are also a donation from him. 

Nor was he deficient in respect to the wants of those around 
him. On the contrary, the Duke extended his bounty 
to all; and his largesses were commensurate with the 
wants of the peasantry in that county. He was also a gener- 
ous contributor to every public charity within the shire, and 
the inhabitants of the adjacent city, in particular, frequently 
tasted of his bounty in a variety of ways. 

In 1811, the Duchess of Marlborough was snatched from 
hint, after a painful illness of some duration. It was thus 



DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. 135 

that he lost a consort, ^th whom he had been united during 
a period of near forty years. His Grace had purchased a charm- 
ing house situate on the Steine, at Brighton, chiefly on her 
account : and they were accustomed, for many years, to repair 
thither during the autumnal months. Soon after the death 
of his lady, he parted with that property, which has since 
become annexed to the Pavilion at Brighton^ 

Age and infirmities at length b^an to press heavify ; but 
he still continued to ride out in his carriage, and even on the 
day antecedent to his demise, the.customary exercise was not 
forgotten; while no symptoms, whatever of an approaching 
dissolution were exhibited. Ifis Grace, however, was found 
dead next morning in his be^ by the servant accustomed to ^ 
attend him I 

Thus died at the princely mansion of Blenheim^ George, 
third Duke of Marlborough, leaving behind him a high cha- 
racter for the domestic virtues. His Grace was also a sound 
scholar, and a man of science ; in finc^ without the aid either of 
exalted rank or extensive fortune, he would have bqen re- 
spected as a most amiable and accomplished gentleman. 

His remains were interred with due funeral honours, amidst 
those of his ancestors, in the vault below the chapel at Blen- 
.heim ; on which occasion the present Duke, his eldest son and 
successor to his honours and estates, attended by Lord Charles 
and Lord Robert Spencer, Lord Churchill, together with the 
young Marquis of Blandford, and the Mayor and Corporation 
of Woodstock, of which he was High Steward, were all 
present. His Grace, George, the present and fourth Duke of 
Marlborough, has lately obtained the Prince Brent's permis- 
sion to adopt the original mptto and coat of arms of Churchill; 
and the House of Churchill now follows that of Spencer. 



K 4 



No. VH. 




Sir JOHK THOMAS DUCKWORTH. 

:. or THB WHITE, KNIGHT -GRAND-CROSS OF THE nATH | 
LATB NAVAt COMMAHDBR-IB -CHIEF ON THE PLYMOUTH STATION ; 
AND A BUROBBS FOR THB BOROUGH OF NEW ROHMEy, IN TUB 
IMFERIAI. PARLIAMENT. 

1 HS subject of this memoir, like a Hood, a Nelson, and 
B Bridport, claimed a clergyDian of the Church of England 
for his father, being one of the five sons of the late Rev. 
Henry Duckworth, Rector of Fulmer in Buckinghamshire. 
He was bom at Leatherhead, in the county of Surrey, on the 
28th of February, 1747-8, and his father having four boys 
besides, and but rather an inadequate provision for so lai^ 
a liunily, determined to educate him for the sea-service. Ac- 
cordingly, early in 1759, when he did not exceed the age of 
devra years, young Duckworth found himself strutting ftUuw 



ADMIRAL DUCKWOaiTH. 1S7 

die quarter-deck of a man of war, with his little square bits of 
white facings on the cufis and collar of his coat ; together with 
a sword, or rather Sifaulchion, as the fashion then was, nearly 
as long as himself. 

The precise name of his first ship is now forgotten ; but 
certain it is, that he served in the Diamond, then commanded 
by the Honourable Captain Fielding, at a very early period : 
yet as preferment was not very rapid at that time, he did not 
rise to the rank of lieutenant until June 1770 ; a space of full 
eleven years. On receiving his commission, he again went 
to sea, cruised on board of several frigates, and at length 
deemed himself particularly happy in being appointed to the 
Princess Royal of 98 guns, on board of which, the celebrated 
Admiral Byron's flag was then flying. In her, he sailed for 
the West Indies, with a view of threatening the French islands, 
and interrupting the supplies, by means of which, that nation 
was then supporting the insurgent Colonies of America, 
against the mother country. 

At length after a very boisterous and stonny passage, they 
fell in with the fleet, commanded by the Count D'Estaigne, and 
the heart of every officer on board the English squadron beat 
high with tlie expectation of victory and advancement. 
During this action, which did not prove so decisive as those 
of modern times, several persons happened to be either killed 
or wounded in the immediate vicinity of Lieutenant Duck- 
worth's station ; and part of the skull and brains of a black 
man, called Peter Allen, was actually forced against his 
breast ; so that his clothes were bespattered with the blood, 
and he himself was thought for a while to have been slain. 

Notwithstanding the capture of Grenada, and the escape 
of D'Estaigne, this proved a very fortunate battle for the 
subject of this narrative, for within a few months after, 
he was appointed to the Rover sloop of war, with the rank 
of what was then termed " Master and Commander," and 
is now called " Commander** only : which latter appellation 
is certainly not only an improvement, but a more honour- 
able as wdl as appropriate term. This event, however, did 
not take place, until the 16th of July, 1779. 



138 ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 

Being ordered to cruise off Martinico, partly for the pur- 
pose of intercepting all supplies, and partly for obtaining intel- 
ligence, he " looked" into the harbour of Port Royal daily, 
and conducted himself in every respect like a faithful, persever- 
ing, and intelligent officer. Having obtained the envied rank of 
Post-Captiiin on the 16th of June 1780, he returned to the 
Princess Royal soon after, and in that capacity conducted his 
old ship to Port Royal in the island of Jamaica, and after 
remaining there imtil the month of February 1781, he repaired 
to England in the Grafton of 74 guns, being charged with a 
valuable convoy, chiefly laden with sugar. 

Having before distinguished himself for his valour against 
the enemy. Captain Duckworth now obtained a high reputa- 
tion by his humanity towards his own crew. During the 
homeward passage, which was both difficult and tempestuous, 
with a sickly ship, and many invalids on board, he determined 
to make every possible sacrifice for their recovery. Accord- 
ingly, he was accustomed to send all his fresh meat and wine 
to those on the sick list, while his own table was supplied with 
salt provisions, of exactly the same kind and quality as those 
served to the men. If any thing of a different description 
was introduced, he reftised to partake of it, until those pointed 
out by the surgeon's return, had been first suppUed. A simi- 
lar conduct ought to be earnestly recommended to all young 
officers ; as for the veterans of the British navy, such an ex- 
ample is doubtless unnecessary. 

Meanwhile the subject of this memoir had become a mar- 
ried man, and the father of a family. During the summer of 
1770, he chose for his wife, Anne, only child and heir of 
John Wallis, Esq., of Camelford, in Cornwall ; and by this 
lady he soon had a son and daughter, both of whom will be 
mentioned hereafter. 

After his ship had been paid off. Captain Duckworth re- 
mained during a considerable time with his family, without 
much prospect of employment, as the American contest had 
now ceased. A long and dreary interval of peace, for such it ' 
was deemed by both naval and military men, ensued. A very 



ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 139 

considerable number of half-pay officers found it prudent, 
either to search for cheap quarters at home, or go abroad for the 
purposes of economy. They began to be terrified at the pros- 
pect of the cessation of hostiUties for many a-day to come, 
and almost thought themselves injured by the declarations of 
some, equally high in the confidence of his Majesty and the 
public, who had taken on themselves to pronounce ^^ that they 
had never seen a fairer prospect of continued tranquillity." 

After the hipse of a few short years, however, the prepara^ 
tions in the various harbours, dock-yards^ and arsenals, through- 
out the kingdom, plainly indicated a sudden change. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1793, a long, sanguinary, and expensive war 
with France took place, in the course of which, notwithstand- 
ing the late decisive victory under Rodney, our naval superio- 
rity became infinitely more apparent to all Europe, than dur- 
ing that contest which had the enfranchisement and independ- 
ence of the American Colonies on one hand, and their subjec- 
tion and punishment on the other, for their sole and avowed 
object. 

On this occasion, no one meritorious person, educated for 
the naval service, was forgotten; and Captain Duckworth 
among the rest, was immediately selected for emplojTnent. 
This gallant and humane officer was accordingly appointed, 
first to the Orion of 74- guns, and then to the Queen, the 
latter of which formed part of the Channel fleet. 

Lord Jtlowe being determined to bring the enemy as soon 
as possible to action, cruised in the Channel during the re- 
mainder of the summer, in vain ; but the French did not 
deem it prudent to leave their ports; and it was not until 1794, 
that the Brest fleet put to sea, and that only for the express 
purpose of protecting a fleet laden with corn ; the pressure of 
want throughout France being so great, that the party then 
in power, determined rather to risk a defeat than to be ex-* 
posed to a famine. v 

The spirited veteran just alluded to, issued orders to leave 
St. Helen's, on the 2d of May; and the naval campaign of 
1 794, was opened by a very brilliant and glorious action. On 



140 ADMIRAL DUCKWORTHb 

reaching the Lizard, Rear-Admiral Montague was detached 
with his flag-ship, and a stnal] squadron to escort the India 
convoy ; and the rival fleets, at length, came in full view of 
each other at eight o'clock in the morning of May 28, 1794. 
During the first and second days' action, nothing decisive oc- 
curred ; but on the third, a great and eventful victory was 
achieved, highly honourable to the British arms. 

The Orion, of 74 guns, commanded by Captain Duckworth, 
happened to be the third ship on the larboard division, and 
acquired, at least, her own due portion of renown. On per- 
ceiving that the Valiant, of 74 guns, under Captain Pringlc, 
was raked by two of the enemy's ships, the commander of the 
former gallantly interposed to cover her from their fire, in con- 
sequence of which she not only lost her maintop-mast, but 
suffered considerably in her rigging. But the paragraph 
from Lord Howe's official dispatch *, pointing out the eighteen 
officers who chiefly distinguished themselves on that day, will 
prove the best eulogium that can be paid to the memory of 
the subject of this memoir. He was indeed one of the eighteen 
who, in consequence of this report, were decorated with gold 
chains and medals. Afler this he repaired to the West Indies, 
and had a broad pennant for some time at St. Domingo. 

But it was not only by Earl Howe, but also by Earl St. 
Vincent, that Capt. Duckworth was honoured, confided in, 
and esteemed. In 1798, while in the Mediterranean, on 
board the Leviathan, of 74 guns, he was selected for a sepa- 
rate command by the second of these Admirals, and was em- 
ployed in a very hazardous and important undertaking. The 
expedition to which we here allude, was an attack on the 
island of Minorca, on which occasion his broad pennant was 



• « 



To discharge this ptrt of ray public daty/' says Lord Howe, in his suppleoien* 
Hry letter to a former account given by him of the action, *' reports were called for 
from flag-officers of the fleet, for supplying the defects of my observance, under the 
limited circumstances above mentioned. 

« Those officers, therefore, who have such particular claim to my attention are, the 
Admirals Graves and Sir Alexander Hood ; the Rear-Admirals Bowyer, Gaidner, and 
Paisley ; Captains Lord Hugh Srymour, Pakenham, Berkeley, Gambier, J. Harvey, 
Payne, Pkikcr, Henry Hanrtfi Pringle, Duckworth, and ElfliiiMtraey*' &c. 



ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH* 141 

again flying on board his old ship, with a small but weUU 
chosen squadron under his command. The land forces de»» 
tined to accomplish this conquest, were confided to the care of 
the gallant General Sir Charles Stewart, brother to the first 
Marquis of Bate. 

A small detachment of these, to the amount of 800, was ac- 
cordingly landed under the directions of the Commodore ; who 
not only placed the Ai^ frigate in such a judicious position 
as to secure its flank and ke^ a large body of Spaniards at 
bay ; but also efiected the debarkation of a reinforcement from 
his transports, which immediately produced the desired effect. 
Soon after this, Fort Charles was seized, and the city or town 
of Mahon summoned ; wliile the boom which obstructed the 
entrance of the harbour was removed ; on which two frigates 
immediately sailed in*, and hopes now began to be entertained, 
for the first time, that this important settlement might actually 
be taken by a handful of English troops, landed and led on 
under the auspices of two able and gallant commanders. Ac* 
cordingly, although grossly deficient in the very essential 
article of a battering train, by means of three 12^>ounders and 
S five and a half-inch howitasers, the enemy was at length in* 
timidated into a surrender. After a capitulation bad been 
agreed upon, on the part of the Ungiish Commanders-in-Chie^ 
by sea and land, on one hand, and the Spanish Governor 4m 
the other, the British flag was immediately boii^ted, and 
Minorca was thus added to the list of British conqiiesto* As 
this occurred nearly at the same period, that we were obliged 
to evacuate the fertile and floaridiing inland of Sc Domingo, 
this acquisition proved both flattering and consolatory. 

At the conunenoemeot of the year 1 799, the gallant sub- 
ject of this memoir was promoted to the rank of Rear -Admiral, 
and imjnediately received orders to repair to the West Indies, 
as successor to Lord Hugh Seymomr. In the mean timc^ 
he was fortunate enough to encrease his fortune greatly by the 
capture of a rich Spanish convoy, eonststing of eleven sail of 

* IVe f I wnriiit and Aaron. 



142 ADMIRAL' DUCKWORTH. 

inerchantmeH. His share of the prize-money must have been 
very considerable*. 

After remaining some time on the Leeward Island station, 
the Rear- Admiral was employed in a pleasant, rather than 
dangerous expedition, against the colonies of certain of the 
northern powers, who had entered into a new armed neutrality 
against England. On this occasion the success was complete, 
as will be seen by the annexed official letter, addressed through 
Evan Nepean, Esq., their Secretary, to the Lords of the 
Admiralty. 

" Leviathan, at Sea, March 27, 1801. 
« Sir, 

" Having consulted with Lieutenant-General Trigge, on 
the subject of: the orders of the Lords Commissioners of tlie 
Admiralty, we determined not to wait for the expected rein- 
forcements, but collected the troops that the General thought 
might be employed with dispatch ; and we sailed on the 16th 
with about fifteen hundred troops, for the purpose of attacking 
the various islands specified in our orders, the Greneral and 
myself considering it most judicious to commence with the 
weathermost one, St Bartliolomew, though by calms and very 
variable winds we were prevented from getting to Grand 
Saline Bay (our intended place of landing) till the morning of 
the 20th; when, having prepared every thing for that purpose, 
and placed the Andromeda, L' Unite, and Drake brig, to 
cover it, the General and myself deemed it expedient to pre- 
vent delay, by sending Brigadier-General Fuller, and Captain 
King, of the Leviathan, with a summons, which after some 
little hesitation, was accepted, and the capitulation I transmit 
entered into. 

" I then detached the Andromeda with the Alexandria ten- 
der to assist in watching St. Thomas's, when every exertion 
wi^ used to land a garrison, and form such temporary arrao^e^ 
iQents as the urgency of the service would admit; all of whicU 
were e&cted b^ the morning of the 22di 



ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 143 

V «« We found here two Swedish ships nearly laden with pro- 
duce of this country, a Danish ship in ballast, besides a variety 
of small craft, Swedish, and three small French vessels ; and 
I left Captain Thomas Harvey, in L' Unite, to co-operate with 
the Commandant of that island; and at ten o'clock A.M. was 
in the act of weighing, when ten sail were seen from the mast- 
head; I therefore ordered the Drake brig and L'Ex:lair 
schooner to reconnoitre, keeping the wind myself, concluding 
they were our troops from England, which the General and 
myself had sent orders to Barbadoes to follow us after landing 
their sick, with women, and children : this, &om light airs, 
was not ascertwied till t^i o'clock at night, when they proved 
as conjectured ; and the Proselyte joined in the afternoon of 
the 24th. 

^^ Upon this accumulation of force, the General and myself^ 
after some deliberation, judged it would be highly injurious to 
his Majesty's service, and render St. Bartholomew very unsafe, 
if we omitted attacking the island of St. Martin ; we therefore 
(though it was not mentioned in our instructions), prompted 
by the rectitude of our intentions, decided upon endeavouring 
to reduce it, and at midnight of the 22d bore away for that 
purpose; but the unprecedented Tariableness of the winds pre- 
vented our getting there till day-light of the 24th ; and on the 
afternoon of the 2Sd the Coromandel joined with the seccmd 
West India regiment, wh^i, having plaoed Cf^itoin Fowke in 
the Proselyte, with the Drake brig, in Ccde's Bay, to cover 
the landing, under the direction of Captain. Ekins of the Am- 
phitrite (who had been sick at Barbadoei^ but joined me in the 
Proselyte, and handsomely volunteered thb service), which 
commenced at half-past eight o'clock; and with his judicious 
arrangements, the second brigade, of near fifteen hundred 
men, under Brigadier-General Maitland, were on shore with 
their field-pieces, and one hundred seamen, by eleven o'clock^ 
as was the first brigade of eighteen hundred, under BrigBdier« 
General Fuller, by two o'clock, with their fidd-piecesy and 
one hundred seamen. The second brigade directly proceeded 



144 ADMIRAI* mJCKWOBTH. 

on to take the heights in the approach to the town of Philips- 
.bargti» which was quickly effected,' though not without some 
smart skirmishings which afterwards brought on a short action^ 
in which some companies of the 64th, under Lieutenant* 
Colonel Pakenham, and two companies oCthe 8th West Indik 
rq;iment, displayed great gallantry, and took two field-pieces. 
At this time Brigadier-General Fuller, with the first brigade, 
marched on to take the heights above Fort Chesterfield, or 
Maregot, where we had reason to expect the greatest resist- 
ance; but the former check (in which the enemy lost from 
fifty to sixty killed and wounded) evinced that opposition could 
only lead to destruction, and they embraced a verbal summons 
(sent in by Brigadier-General Maitland, at five o'clo<;Jc), to 
pnqxMe their terms at nine ; when Lieutenant-General Trigge 
and self being on the spot, the capitulation was signed and ex- 
changed by midnight, of the 24th, of which I transmit a copy 
for their Lordship's information. 

" At the commencement of the attack we observed in Great 
Bay, two privateer brigs, of 12 guns each, and a schooner of 
the same force, with a merchant ship, brig, and nine or ten small 
craft ; and as I considered them likely to attempt getting off in 
the course of the night, if it was found necessary to surrender, I 
ordered the Hornet and Fanny armed brig to work up to Great 
Bay, to prevent such attempt from succeeding; and at sun-set 
sent the Drake to aid on that service ; but, unfortunately, die 
two first did not get far enough to windward to fulfil my inten- 
tion, by which means one of the brigs and the schooner got ^ 
out, with a few small vessels, five of which were taken ; but I 
am to lament the brig and schooner getting away, after a chase 
of twenty-four hours, by the Hornet and Fanny. We found 
remaining in the bay, one brig privateer of twelve guns, an 
English captured ship, a merchant-brig, four small schooners, 
and a sloop ; the particulars of which my time would not allow 
me to collect, as I b^an to embark the troops, ordnance, &G. 
&C. the next morning, the 25th, and sailed for St. Thomas's the 
af^moon of the 26th, leaving the Proselyte, Hom^ and 



ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 145 

Drake, to assist in the arrangements necessary for the securi^ 
of the island, and two transports to embark the garrison in, 
which consisted of between three and four hundred, besides 
nearly a similar number which got away in the brig, &c. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, &c. 

« J, T. Duckworth.'* 

In consequence of his judicious conduct on this. occasion, 
the Rear- Admiral was created a Knight of the Bath, by his 
Majesty; and to this was afterwards added, a pension of 
lOOOk per annum* 

On the conclusion of hostilities, Sir John Duckworth re- 
turned once more to the bosom of his family. A long peace 
seemed now about to ensue, and all the endearing ties of friend- 
ship, kindred, and connexion, appeared ready to replace those of 
a public nature. The bosom of the husband and the fiither, was 
destined to expand at the sight of a beloved wifis^ and abeautifiil 
ofibpring ; while they in their turn were gratified by the r^ 
appearance, and, as it was hoped, the constant residence with 
them, of the dearest of all earthly objects. But these halcyon 
presages were of short duration, and &llacious in the extreme. 
A new war, after the lapse of a very few months, ensued, and 
Admirals and Generals gladly left the sports of the field, the 
hospitalities of the table, and the duties attached to a rural 
life, in order once more to fight the battles of their country. 

On this occasion. Sir John Duckworth was instantly 
selected by the Admiralty for the Jamaica station ; and in the 
spring of 1804, ne was included in the new promotions, by 
means of which he became Vice- Admiral of the Blue, . In 
1806, we find him cruising off Cadiz; and on learning that the 
French government had sent a fleet to the West Indies, with a 
view of succouring the very important colony of St. Domingo, he 
immediately collected his squadron, and sailed in pursuit of the 
enemy. After effecting a junction with Rear- Admiral Coch- 
rane, the Englisli fleet steered for St. Domingo. On perceiving 
the French line, the Superb led die way, with a portrait of tlie 

VOL. II. L 



146 ADMIRAL DUCKWOBTH. 

gallant Admiral Lord Nelson suspended to the mizen-stayy and 
the tiand piaying the tune of ^' Nelson and the Nile^^ while 
the crew cheered loudly and repeatedly, until ordered to their 
guns. 

This small squadron, conscious of the fate that awaited it, 
endeavoured to efiect its escape; and one small part of it was 
actually lucky enough to get ofi^ while another, and a larger, 
consiidng of a first rate, with a Rear- Admiral's flag flying 
one dgfaty, and three seventy-four gun ships, fell into the 
hands of the English. The following official letter, published 
on this occasion, appeared soon after in the London Gazette: 

^^ Superb, to the leeward of the town of St Donungue, 
** Sir, about twelve leagues, Feb. 7, 1806. 

^ As I fed it highly momentous for his Majestjr's service, 
that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty should have 
the earliest information of the movements of the squadron 
under my command ; and as I have no other vessel than the 
Kingsfisher, that I feel justified in dispatching, I hope neither 
tlieir lordships, or Vice- Admiral Collingwood, will deem me 
defective in my duty toward his lordship, by addressing yoa 
on' the happy event of yestonday ; and as you will receive my 
letter of the 3d instant herewith, I shall only say, I lost not 
a moment in getting through the M ona Passage ; and on the 
5th, in the afternoon, was joined by the Magicienne^ with t 
further corroboration from various vessels spoken, of a fi>rce 
of te^ sail of the line, with as many frigates and corvettes be- 
ing in these seas; I therefore continued under easy aaS tbf 
the night, in my approach ofi^ the town of St. Domingne^ hav- 
ing ^ving orders to Captain Dunn, of the Acasto, whose zeal 
and activity I have experienced for a series of years, to make 
sail with the Maf^cienne, Captain Mackenzie, two hoon be^ 
fore day -light, to reconnoitre, when, at six o'clock, the Acaato, 
to our great joy, made the signal for two of the enemy's 
frigates ; and before seven for nine sail at anchor : at half past, 
that they were getting under weigh : the squadron under my 
command then in close order, with all sail set, and the Snpefb^ 



ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 147 

« 

bearing my flag, leading, and approaching &st, so as to dis* 
cover before eight that the enemy were in a compact line, 
under all sail, going before, the wind for Cape Nisao, to 
windward of Ocoa Bay; |and as diey consisted of only five sail 
of the line, two frigates, and a corvette (which hereafter will 
be named), I concluded, from the information I was in pos- 
session off that they were endeavouring to form adjunction 
with their remaining force ; and in consequence shaped my 
course to render abortive such intention, which was com- 
pletely effected by a little after nine, so as to make an action 
certain. I therefore telegraphed the squadron, that the prin- 
cipal object of attack would be the Admiral and his seccmds^ 
and at three quarters past nine for the ships to take stations 
for their mutual support, and engage the enemy as they got 
up, and a few Minutes after to engage as close as possible, 
when, at a short period after ten, the Superb closed upon the 
bow of the Alexander, the leading ship, and commenced the 
action; but after three broadsides she sheered off: the signal 
was now made for closer action, and we were enabled to attack 
the Admiral in the Imperial (finrmerly Le Vengeur), the fire 
of which had been heavy on the Northumberland, bearing the 
Honourable Rear- Admiral Cochrane's flag. By this time the 
movement of the Alexander had thrown her among the lee 
division, which Rear-Admiral Louis happily availed himself 
of, and the action became gaieral, and continued with great 
severity till half past eleven ; wh^i the French Admiral much 
shattered, and completely beat, hauled directly for the land, 
and not being a mile off, at twenty minutes before noon ran on 
shore ; his foremast then only standing, which fell directly on 
striking : at which time the Superb being only in seven fathom 
water, was forced to haul off to avoid the same evil; but not 
long after the Diomede, of eighty-four guns, pushed on shore 
near his Admiral, when all his masts went : and I think it a 
duty I owe to character and my country, to add, from the 
information of Sir E. Berry, after she had struck, and* the 
Agamemnon desisted from firing into her, from the Captain 
taking off his hat, and making every t<^keu of surrender ; and 

L 2 



148 ADMIRAI. DUCKWOBTH. 

Oaptftin Dunn aMiries me both eniign' and pendant were 
down: to oomment on which I leave to the world. About 
fi^ minutes after eleven the firing ceased; and on the smoke 
clearing away I found Le Brave, bearing a Commodore's pen« 
dant, the Alexand^, and Le Jupitre, in our possession. 

** When I contemplate on the result of this action, when 
five sail of the line had surrendered, or were apparently de- 
stroyed in less than two hours, I cannot, though bound to pay 
every tribute to the noble and gallant efforts of the Honour- 
able Rear -Admiral Cochrane, Rear- Admiral Louis^ the Cap- 
tains, Officers, seamen, and marines, under my command, be 
vain enough to suppose, that without the aiding hand of 
Providence such result could have been effected, and ^th a 
loss so comparatively small; and though I shall ever sym- 
pathise with the connections of those that fell, the reflection 
on the cause wiU, I hope, afibrd much consolation* 

*^ To speak individually to the conduct of any one^ would be 
injurious to all, for all were equally animated with the same 
zealous ardour in support of their King and country. Yet, 
possessed of these feelings, I cannot be silent without injustice 
to the firm and manly support for which I was indebted to 
Captain Keats, and the effect that the system of discipline and 
good order in which I found the Superb must ever produce; 
and the pre-eminence of British seamen could never be more 
highly conspicuous than in this contest. 

^^ AAer the action, the water being too deep to anchor in 
the bay of St. Domingue, it was requisite to bring-to with the 
prizes to repair damages, put the ships in a manageable state, 
and shift the prisoners, which took me till this afi^moon: 
when I detached the Honourable Captain Stopford in Che 
Spencer, with the Donnegal and Atlas, which latter had lost 
her bowsprit, with her prizes to Jamaica ; and being anxious 
with Rear-Admiral Cochrane, that he should return to his 
' command, where his services must be wanted, a juiy main- 
mast is fitting to the Northumberland, under this island, to 
enable her to get to windward, when I shall order the Aga- 
mcmnon, which b staying by her, to accompany the Rear* 



' ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 149 

Admiral to his station; and I am now proceeding with the 
Canopus, Rear Admiral Louis, Acasto, and Magicienne^ off 
St. Domingue, to make certain of the Imperial and Diomede 
being completely wrecked, after which I shall repair to 
Jamaica. 

'* Having recited the transactions of this glorious combat, 
which will &irly add another sprig of laurel to our naval his- 
tory, and assist in promoting our country's good, 

<< I am. Sir, &c. 

r 

" J. T. Duckworth." 

Finding it absolutely necessary to destroy two, out dS iBve * 
sail of the line, the Admiral, by the aid of the trade wind, 
fell down to leeward with his prizes, and anchored in his old 
station at Port Royal. His reception at Jamaica was brilliant 
in the extreme, and the Assembly, which happened to be then 
sitting, with its accustomed promptitude voted thanks to this . 
gallant commander for the effectual protection afforded to its 
commerce and coasts; and at the same time, with its accus- 
tomed munificence, ordered the sum of one thousand guineas 
to be exf^nded in the purchase of a rich sword, with appro- 
priate emblems. 

On the arrival of the important intelligence in England, the 
tower guns were fired, and an unanimous vote of thanks passed 
both Houses of Parliament. The corporation of London, also, 
decreed Sir J. Duckworth the fireedom of the city, to which 
was added a sword of the value of 200 guineas. 

Having become a Vice- Admiral of the White, in conse- 
quence of a new promotion of flag-officers, he was soon after 
nominated to the command of the Royal George, of 110 guns. 
In 1807, be was detached to the Mediterranean, where he 
had before served, during some time, under Admiral Lord 
Collingwood. On this occasion, notwithstanding the narrow- 
ness of the strait and the vaunted size of the Turkish guns, 
he passed the Dardanelles without damage ; but a variety of 

L 3 



150 ADMIRAL DUCKWORTH. 

circumstances interposed so as to prevail any thing of conse- 
quence being effected, 

• Having returned to England, in 1810, Sir John was nomi- 
nated to the Newfoundland station, which he retained during 
three years. At the end of that period he was appointed to 
the Plymouth station, and died on the 1 ^th of April, 1817, 
in the 70th year of his age, leaving behind him the name and 
reputation of a great, humane, and experienced commander. 
The last years of his life, were doubtless embittered, by the 
painful recollection of losing an only son, who had obtained 
the rank of Colonel in the army, while fighting gallantly under 
the Duke of Wellington, in Spain. A daughter, some years 
since, became the wife of Adn}iral Sir Richard King. 

-Sir John Duckworth sat in Parliament, for some time, as 
one of the members for the borpu^ of New Romney, and at 
the period of his demise, was Conunander-in-Chief on the Ply- 
mouth station. 



( wi ) 




Right Honourable JOHN PHILPOT CURRAN, 



1 HAT rare and extraordin&ry talent called eloqoence, hns 
in all ages excited the admiration, and been accompanied by 
the applause of mankind. In both andent and modem times, 
it hag produced &me, as well as fortune, to mch as have ex- 
celled in it; but it is only in free countries, that it is ever 
cultivated with success, 

We are well acquainted with the names of the orators of 
Greece, of Rome, and of Engltuid; but whoever heard of 
th^se of Russia, Persia, or Hindostan ? And how many ages 
must elapse, before the banks of the Danube, and the Dwin% 
the borders of the Arabian gulf, or the shores of' the Helles- 
pont shall produce a Cicero, a Demosthenes, or a Chatham? 

John Philpot Curran, who is indebted for his rise in 

life, and all bis subsequent celebiity, to eloquencs altMie, was 

L 4 



152 ME. CUBRAN. 

a native of Ireland. Indeed, his country appears to have been 
indelibly engraved on his tongue, as well as in his heart, for 
it is not a little remarkable, that a peculiar, but not disagree*- 
able cadence^ was easily distinguishable in his pronunciation, 
even in the latter part of his life. 

Some difficulties occur, in respect to the history of his early 
years, for his infancy was involved in a gloom of poverty, and 
obscurity, which a youthful spirit of enterprise luckily con- 
trived to burst through. It is certain, however, that he is 
indebted for his birth to the province of Munstcr ; and the 
little obscure town of INewmarket in the county of Cork, lays 
claim to the honour of having produced him. It appears 
from the inscription on his coffin, that he was born in 1 7 50, 
but the occupation of his father *, and the precise situation 
of his &mily remains unknown. 

There is reason, however, to suppose, that his parents 
were protestants ; and that his ancestors were emigrants from 
the north of England, who had been long settled in Ire- 
land. To the former circumstance, perhaps, he owes his 
education ; any claims or pretensions in respect to the latter, 
he was wholly ignorant of, or too modest ever to disclose. 
In Scotland, the parochial schools bring instruction home to 
the door of evexy cottager ; but this is not, and never was the 
case in Ireland : it is indeed, but of late years, that a sys- 
tem so intimately connected with religion, morals, and general 
information, has begun to diffiise the blessings of instruc- 
tion over fkigland. And this too has been attained, not as 
in the northern portion of the British dominions, by a 
positive law, and a permanent specific revenue arising out of 
land ; but by voluntary and liberal subscriptions on the part 
of all olders and denominations of men. 

In the sister kingdom, an attempt was made upwards 
of a century since, by means of Protestant Free-schools, 
to convey the seeds of instruction to a certain number of the 
inhabitants, but as this blessing was partial and exclusive^ 

* It has since been disrovered, tliat the elder Mr. Cumn, was ocoasioDally cnplo]f9il 
Ia coUectii^ the renta for • geDtleman of amaU fortune in that neighbooibodd. 



MR. CURRAN. 153 

being oonfined to a specific denomination of Christians only, 
the Catholics were of course prohibited from all iu benefits. 
That very circumstance^ perhaps, will account for the present 
unhappy and uncivilized state of Ireland: for in what con- 
sists the difierence between barbarous and polished nations, 
but in mind and manners? and both these are closely and 
evidently connected with instruction. 

But be this as it may, the probability is, that as the Cur- 
rans were poor Protestants, actuated by the commendable 
ambition of advancing their scm John, they contrive4 to 
obtain for him all the advantages that could be derived from 
an institution of thin kind. Had he been, what is there 
termed a Papist, in cons'equence of a superstitious vmeration 
for the successors of those very orthodox Popes, Julius II. 
and Alexander VI. the probability is, that as his parents were 
utterly unable to have afforded the expences of a foreign edu- 
cation, and were denied the advantage of one in their own 
country, he would have been a little lively peasant, renting 
half an acre of potatoe-ground, from an avaricious and hard- 
hearted extortioner, commonly called a middle man ; ,and if 
his constitution, which was always feeble, had not been de- 
stroyed by intense labour, and his mind rendered dull and 
dismal, by servitude, his lively fancy might have made him a 
^^ Munster poet,'* and in this capacity be would, perhaps, have 
attempted to write verses in the vernacular language of his 
native province. 

Fortunately, however, a better fate awaited young Curran, 
for he had certainly acquired the rudiments at least of a clas- 
sical education, before he attempted to obtain an introduction 
into the University of his native country; and it was in the 
humble station of a Stzer *, that our aspiring candidate first 
procured admission to the College of the Holy Trinity. 

* This b Mid to be a situation in which the emoliunents are trivial, while it it ac* 
cQQipaiued with the moat mortifying mark of inferiority. The Sixers have their edu- 
cation, however, free of expenre, but they are obliged to keep the w/rekly rolls of the 
tutors, while on them devoives the arduous task of soperintendia^ the weekly distribntioii 
^ JaeSf Mid pMiahinwiia, At tbM perkid they bad their Oommomgrmtu* 



154 MB. CURRAK. 

Here he is said to bare ranained daring the space of two 
years, not only undistinguished and unknown, but almost in u 
state of want* Whether the distresses of that period have 
been since magnified, in order to form a more direct contrast 
with his future prosperity, is not exactly known ; but certain 
it is that at the conclusion of two years he obtained a scholar- 
ship. This was a fortunate circumstance^ as it raised him a 
little above actual distress ; and enabled him to look forward 
with hope and expectation. 

The means by which this youth effected a journey to Eng- 
land, and kept his commons at one of our Inns of Court, arc 
merely conjectural ; it has been indeed asserted, that at this 
early and trying period of his life, he maintained himself by 
the labours of his pen : but we suspect that he was indebted 
to some source^ both more certain and more bounteous. 

After a few terms spent in London, he was called to the 
bar, and was accustomed to travel one of the Irish circiiits 
in search of briefs and business. It was during an excursion 
of this kind, that he first saw, and formed an acquaintance 
^th Miss Crea^ who soon after became his wife. With that 
lady, he is not supposed to have received any great acquisition, 
in point of fortune ; but in consequence of this connection, he 
soon beheld himself the father of a family of many children. 

Immediately after their marriage they took up their resi- 
dence in Dublin, and there waited for more prosperous times. 
It was then, and perhaps still is, the practice in Ireland, for 
a female to relinquish all the maternal duties ; to entrust her 
offi»pring to mercenary hands ; and to banish firom hw houses 
and firom her presence, the unhappy being to whom she bad 
given life. This unnatural habit prevailed also in France^ until 
Kousseau, in the name of reason and of sensibility, invoking 
all the fine feelings of the human heart on the side of nature 
and hiunanity, thus for ever banished a custom which barbar- 
ous nations have always held in just abhorrence. Whether it 
arose from a due share of affection, or that the means of fol- 
lowing, this &shionable and prevalent mode were actually 
wanting, is now difficult to decide ; but certain it Im, that Mrs. 

lO 



Mil. CURRAK. 165 

Curran, greatly to her credit, discharged all the duties of a 
nurse ^d mother herself. It is painful here to add, that 
some family misunderstanding afterwards occurred ; that a 
court of justice was appealed to ; and that a &[ial separation 
<m8ued! 

We have just alluded to the penury of his means ; but it 
may be proper here to observe, that there was a certain elasti- 
city in Mr. Curran's mind that enabled it to rise and rebound 
from every shock on the part of adversity. Instead of suc- 
cumbing to misfortunes, he prepared himself for happier days 
and more auspicious events. Nor did the playfulness of his 
imagination^ a certain hilarity of mind, and a disposition ad- 
mirably adapted to social intercourse, even then forsake him. 
Accordingly about tliis period we find him a permanent mem- 
ber of a convivial society, formed chiefly of young expectants 
and unfeed barristers, like himself. To convey an idea of 
bacchanalian gentility to the institution, the members adopted 
the fanciful appellation of " Monks of the Screw ;** but if re- 
port be true, the implement in question was equally unneces- 
sary and unknown at their board : for libations from the purple 
grape were never offered up on the altars in Cavan-Street, 
where a spacious apartment, on the second floor, supplied the 
place of a temple. But if tlie rosy god, did not preside over 
their festivals ; Ceres was worshipped by them with due solem- 
nity ; and the wholesome, yet humble beverage, extracted by 
our ancestors from the precious juices of haps and malt, was 
eagerly quaffed by her thirsty worshippers. But the strictest 
temperance is said to have presided at these banquets ; no mid- 
night orgies there took place; no expensive entertainments 
were heard of; legal questions were debated with due solem- 
nity, and even during the precious moments of convivial re- 
laxation, wit flowed in more copious streams than either ak 
or porter. 

Yet at this undignified board, were now met, although uncon- 
scious of their future destiny, men afterwards decorated with silk 
and ermine. Here some of those ^ho entered the lists with 
a few striplings, equally unknown and unpatronised with them- 



156 MR. CURBAN. 

selves, were afterwards destined to adorn, first the bar, and 
afterwards the bench of a CJourt of Justice ; to make the 
senate of their native country resound with their impassioned 
oratory; and to pour out torrents of eloquence that awakened 
the zeal, aroused the patriotism, and called forth the dormant 
energies of their applauding country. In short, it was here that 
Curran first fitted on his armour and prepared himself to enter 
into the fiiture combat in a more profitable and advantageous 
field of action* It was from this humble forum also, that 
Barry, Lord Yelverton"^ emerged, after a long eclipse^ and 



• This nobleman, like hb early and untitled friend, Mr. Corrau, was the immediate 
architect of his own prosperity; and indeed there exists a considersble degree of aimila^ 
rity in their binh, educaUon, and fortunes. 

Mr. Barry Telverton, is also said to have been bora of parentt equally poor and 
«bse«r«. They wen both natifcs of the pronoceofMuoster ; having been both bora at 
Newmarket, in the county of Cork, where the father of one was a weaver, and that 
of the other, in circumsunees exactly similar. 

Both Barry, and John Philpot, were educated in a little country school ; thej vera 
both sixers in the University of Dublin ; and each obuined a scholarship there. Thtj 
also both studied in England ; both married women of little or no fortune ; and the 
one was called to the Irish bar, in 1764, and the other in 1775. Both were poor» 
and both patriots ; and both remained during many years in obscurity. Some time after 
they had rendered themselves known and distinguished, each stoutly advocmled the 
cause of Ireland ; having both individually contended for an increase of legislative 
privileges ; and an entirety of legishtive independence on the part of their native 
coiwtry. 

But here ends their collateral and equal course. Mr. Yelverton, who first obtained 
a lAt in the Irish Parliament, in 1776, became Auomey-General during the Portland 
administration, in 17BS { at a time wlien his brother " Knight of the Screw," was 
only fitting on his new silk gown. During Lord Temple's rule the latter ahrank 
firom notice ; he detested the principles by means of which it was intended to rale 
Ireland ; and hazarded, more than once, to be reduced to his original poverty, by the 
manly boldness and uuifurmiiy of his opposition. 

On the other hand, Mr. Yelverton, who to his honour, constantly preserved his 
andent friendship unbroken, at length assumed a ceruin pliability of character 
that seen led the way to greater and more permanent advancement. He now oppose d 
all reform in parliament ; was totally silent on the subject of national grievanoos, end 
became a violent and declared enemy to the volunteers of Ireland ; who assuredly had 
extorted from England fiur more than she had ever intended to concede. Nor did 
the administration of that day prove ungrateful; for in 1784, Barry Yelverton was 
nominated a Privy Counsellor, and raised to the Irish Bench, having long presided in e 
high and honourable sution in the Court of Exchequer, at a time when Mr* Ounn 
was still an obscure advocate in tlie King's Bench. 

The Chief Bason had now attained one of the two objects of his ambition; end 
from this momtnt his xeil became less fiery ; and his devotion to MinistMi kii coo^- 



MR. CURRAN* 167 

having attained some of the highest professional honours in 
succession, at length closed his career with a peerage ! Unlike 
Corxan, he occasionally veered about in his political career, 
and thus by trimming his sail to the prevailing gale, found 
means to steer a more direct course : but to his credit be it re- 
collected, that he continued to respect a friend whose gentle, 
but undeviating progress presaged a less fortunate conclusion 
to hi3 labours* 

It has been said, indeed, that it was to Chief Baron Yelver- 
ton, that the subject of this memoir was wholly indebted for 
his rise; that it was he who rescued him from unmerited ob- 
sGuri^; and first brought him into notice. But in 1783, af):er 
he had attained a stet in the House of Commons, Mr. Cur- 
ran publicly denied this assertion, which has indeed been fre- 
quently repeated both in England and Ireland.* 



cvous. In truth, an arma was now wanting, even if these qualities had atiU existed 
in all their original fervour ; for by his new office he was now excluded from one Hoose 
of Parliament, while lilce his contemporary, Scott Baron Earlsfort^ he had not boesy jt 
yet, admitted to another. 

In this situation of allain, he wis all at once aroused from his political apathy. In 
17S9, by a great event ; and became one of those who asserted that Irelaiid possessed 
a right to chouse her own << Regent." On* this occasion, iie once more thought and 
actad with his old friend Mr. Curran. This unexpected opposition to Ministers ap- 
peal! to have acnially obtained for him the peerage a few years after : for an union 
being now in contemplation, it was deemed necessary to neutralise a man of such ao 
knowUged influence and talents. Accordingly on June 16, 1795, he was raised to 
the Irish Peerage by the style and title of Baron Yelverton, of Avtmmore, in the 
couat/ of Cork. 

• On Tuesdi^, Dec. 16« 1763, during the debate on the qneation, whether ^ the 
House of Commons of Ireland had a fight to originate Money Bills.?*' Mr. Cnrraa 
spoke as follows : 

^ I lament that a learned and right honourable member (Mr. Yelverton) with whon 
I once had the happiness of living on terms of friendship is now absent; because I 
think I might rely upon his supporting the resolution I intend to propose ; that support 
would perhaps renew the intercourse of our fri«uiship, which has lately been int^f 
nipted. And I must beg the indulgence of the House to say, that this Jtiendship tMi$ 
<m the footing qf perfect equality, not imposed by obligation on one aide, or bound bf 
gratitude on the other ; for I thank God,, when that friendship commenced I was abovw 
receiving obligation from any man, and therefore our friendship as it was more pure 
and disinteiested, — for it depended on a sympathy of minds, and a congeniality of 
eentimenis. — I trusted would have endured the loiiger. 



158 MB. CUJUUN. 

As it is now beooine diflScoIty after sach a lapi6 of time^ fo 
account for the manner in which Mr. Curran was brought for-' 
WBtdf recourse must be had to the suggestions of his cotempo- 
rariesy one of whom has been pleased to express himself in 
the following manner : 

^* When he first came to the bar, this celebrated Insfaman 
is known to have been extremely poor, and to have remained 
a long while unnoticed and unknown. The attention of the 
public was first attracted to him, firom the following drciun- 
stance:--^ 

" He had been engaged as agent by one of the candidates 
at a contested election, and in the course of the poll it became 
nccessarj' for him to make objections to a vote proffered by the 
adverse party, which he did in that strong and sarcastic man- 
ner for which he is remarkable. His antagonist, a man of 
rude and overbearing manners, Jelt the pungency of his wit ; 
and not immediately recognising the barrister under a shabln- 
coat and a mean appearance, (for nature had not been very 
favourable in external decorations,) he applied to him some very 
gross epithets with more spirit, perhaps, than decorum. Mr. 
Curran leaped from his scat, seized him by the collar, and was 
prevented only by the interposition of the bye-standers from 
chastising him on the spot. 

*^ He, however, was not precluded from asserting his in- 
dependence in that way which could alone be tolerate in the 
presence of a magistrate : he therefore, in a few pithy sen- 
tences, disclosed his mind and his character; his antagonist 
had generosity enough to acknowlege his error, and apo- 
logised to Mr. Curran, for the consequences of his mistake; 
nay, instead of resenting the violence with which he had re-: 



'* I think myself bound to make this public declaration, as it has gone rortli to the 
world, that I am a man of ingraiitude, and to declare, that for any difference of otnnion 
with mj Learned and ^ight Honourable Friviid, I cannot be taxed with ingratitude * 
for I never received any obligation from him, but lived ou a footing ,nf perfect equality, 
aave only as far as hit great talents and condition outwent mine." — See priiUed speeches. 



MR. CURRAN. 159 

pelled the insult, he granted him his friendship, and l^ his 
recommendation and patronage, very essentially promoted his 
future interests. 

<< From that period he began to rise rapidly, and in a few 
yewrs took his seat in the House of Commons, where he 
seconded every effinrt of the popular party for the emanci- 
pation of the country, and the establishment of its commercial 
freedom and political indepoidence. In his parliamentary 
conduct, he has always been attached to the popular cause* 
He first represented a borough of Mr. Longford's." 

Whether this statement be strictly and literally correct, is 
near diflUndt to determine. Certain it is, however, that. Mr* 
Curran and his &mily remained in great dbscuritjr, witil the 
whigs came into power in England, at the close of the American 
war ; on which occasion, the late Duke of Portland was s&it 
over to Ireland, for the purpose of exercising the Vice-rega} 
authority there. It was then his good fortune to attract notice 
and attention ; and he was accordingly gratified in 1782, with 
a silk gown. 

Neariy at the- same time, he was nominated to a seat in tlie 
Irish parliament. But a sudden diange of admiaistradon 
having taken place, on the arrival of the late Marquis^ of 
Buckingham, his patron, who was eager to be ennobled,' in- 
stantly took the alarm, and not only turned round suddenly 
himself, but actually expected his friend to follow his example* 
But the new member having proved inflexible^ it was speedily 
intimated to him, that he ought to resign ; and deeming his 
honour implicated on thb occasion, he accordijogly compSed, 
and withdrew. * But he soon after resumed his post in that 
house, under different and more auspiciousf.xircumstances. 

Mr. Curran's practice at the bar, was not for many years 

• • ■ •• - 

* Mr. Curran b Mid to have first taken his teat in the^ Irish House of CoraB>onfl> aa 
M. P. for Doneraile. He represented the borough of Kilheggin> in the year i7S3y 
with Mr. Flood for his colleague; at the next general election in 1790^ he #aa re- 
turned with the late Henry Duquery, Esq., for Rathdormuck'in.the conmy €$ Coik, and 
aat until the dissolution in 1797* He was not a member of that parliament, which met 
in 1798, and sanctioned the grand measure of an union with England { nor was be ever 
returned to the Imperial Parliament. 



160 MB. CUlUtAK. 

conspicuoiis ; bnt at length it'encreafled to such.adcgre^ a» 
iiuenaihiy to laid both to &me and fortune* On all great oc- 
cauons, he was usually one of the counsel retained, and hav- 
ing rendered himself celebrated at Nisi Priusj in consequence 
of his witty, artful, and able appeals to a jury, he was for the 
most part employed to conduct trials of this kind. Accord- 
ingly, on a variety of occasions, he obtained exemplary 
damages ; and gave ample satisfaction to all his clients. • Nor 
was it only in causes when he led the attack, that the talents 
of this risincr barrister were invoked ; for when the affiurs of 
Irdand unhappily assumed a terrible, and menacing aspect, 
he was constantly retained as the defender of all those who 
were accused of sedition, or tried for treason. It is greatly- 
to be lamented, that many of his speeches on these occasions^ 
have been so inaccurately reported, while others have been 
wholly omitted, and are now lost, perhaps for ever. 

The first of his printed addresses was delivered in 17^0, 
when he presented himself before the Lord Lieutenant and 
privy council of Ireland, in behalf of Mr. Alderman Howison, 
who had been elected Lord Mayor of Dublin. The question 
then under discussion, was, whether the commons had not a 
right to participate with the court of aldermen, in the election 
of that officer ? On this occasion,, the tribunal to whom the 
appeal had been made^ confirmed the election of his client, 
and thus the ancient privileges of the citizens of Dublin, so 
long usurped by a corporation of twenty-five persons, were 
instantly restored and recognised. 

The subject of this memoir, appears to have generously 
come forward without a fee, " an unhired voluntary advocate." 
On the other hand, the celebrated Dr. Duigenan *, was re^ 
tamed as counsel fi^r the lioard of aldermen, and being a ir.an 
of strong powers, but coarse, rough, and vulgar in his man- 
ners, he indulged as usual in much personal abuse. Mr. 
Curran, alluding to this circumstance, observed : *^ as to the 
invectlTCs so liberally bestowed, it might be best to pass them 

* See vul. i. of AnuutI Obituary. 



MR. CURRAN. l6l 

over without remark — I feel for my clients," continued he, 
** too high a respect either to defend tlian by panegyric, or 
avenge them by slander. I shall therefore treat those sallies 
of the learned gentleman's imagination, exactly in the same 
manner I would do one of my neighbour's pigeons — they 
merely fly abroad animo revertendi ; and ought to be suffered 
to returti unmolested to their lawful owner !" 

In 1794, Mr. Curran obtained great credit for his defence 
of Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Esq., who was tried for a libel 
contained in an address from " the Society of Unked Irish- 
men at Dublin, to the volunteers of Ireland," signed by 
" WiUiam Drennan chairman," and '^ Archibald Hamiltoii 
Rowan, secretary." This flaming circular, published in 1792, 
and commencing with " Citizens, soldiers," states, that as they 
formerly took up arms to protect their country from foreign 
enemies, and domestic disturbance ; it now became proper to 
resume them, for the same purpose. To their formation, wa9 
owing the peace and protection of that island ; to their relax- 
ation has been owing its relapse into impotence and insignia 
ficance, &c. &c. 

*' Citizens — soldiers, to arms ! Take up the shield of free- 
dom, .and the pledge of peace — peace the existence and end of 
your virtuous institution — war, an occasional duty, ought 
never to be made an occupation. We address you, without 
any authority, save that of reason; and if we obtain the coin- 
cidence of public opinion, it is neither by force nor stratagem ; 
for we have no power to terrify, nor artifice to cajole, nor fimd 
to seduce; here we sit without mace or beadle^ neither a 
mystery, nor a crafl, nor a corporation ; in four words lies all 
our power — universal emancipation, and representative l^is- 
lature; we insist for Catholic emancipation without any 
modification, but still we consider this necessary enfranchise- 
ment as merely the portal to national freedom ; wide as thii 
entrance is, wide enough to admit three millions, it is nar- 
row when compared to the capacity and compr^ensicm of 
our beloved principle, which takes in every indivi^oal of the 
Irish nadon, casts w equal ^e over the wbde Island, om- 

VOL. IT. M 



162 UK. CUBBAM. 

braces all that think, and fieels for all that snficr: the Catholic 
cause 18 sabordinate to our cause, and included in it ; for as 
United Irishmen we adhere to no sect, but to society — to no 
eanse but Christianity — to no party, but the whole people." 
This extraordinary paper recommends the election of deputies 
from all Ireland to meet at Dungannon, and maintains^ that 
this *^ civil assembly ought to daim the attendance of the 
military associations." 

It is not a little remarkable, tliat at this trial, a guard cf 
soldiers was introduced by order of the sheriflF into the court- 
house, a few moments before the defence of Mr. Rowan. Mr. 
Curran, who undertook that arduous task, commenced bj 
animadverting on this circumstance; and he also stated, that 
the present prosecution was ex^ffido ; for the Attomey-Gene> 
tal had not thou^t proper to submit the bill to the cognizance 
of a grand jury. He then added, that the first information was 
withdrawn, and a new one filed, which had produced a long 
and protracted prosecution: it was therefore their dtitj to 
enquire whether this gentleman ^^ was pursued as a criminal, 
or hunted down as a victim ?' 

After an animated eulogium on the British consdtutioiiy to 
uriiich Ireland had an undoubted right, however, distant she 
might be from the enjoyment of it, he maintained, ** that the 
only professed object of this noble code, is the general good; 
and its only foundation, the general will. It is the right of the 
people," continued he, ^^ to keep an eternal watch upon the 
conduct of their nilers ; and in order to that, the freedom of 
the press has been carefully cherished by the law of England. 
In private defamation let it never be tolerated ; in wicked and 
wanton aspersions upon a good and hone^ administraticm, let 
it never be supported. Not that a good government can be 
exposed to danger by groundless accusation, but because a 
bad government is sure to find in the detected falsehoods of a 
licentious press, a seairity and a credit, which it otherwise 
never could obtain." 

The orator then proceeds to define a good gonrammentf 
which is said to consist <^ in the protedkin and* *r 14 1 11 11111 of 



MR* CURRAN. l63 

the people ;" and he puts it to the jury an their oatk^ to de* 
dare whether tbia be the case m respect to Ireland ? He next 
contends, that for the paper in qnestioii to be deserving of 
punishment, it is necessary to prove three things, viz* 

1. That it is a libel : 

2. That it was published witli a malicious intention ; and 

3. That it was published by Mr. Hamilton Rowan. 

In the course of this address, he invited the court to recol- 
lect, that one of the witnesses had not sworn: to the &cts, and 
tliat another was declared on the testimony of an indifferent 
person, to be unworthy of credit. He at the same time paid 
many high compliments to ^< an iUastrions» an adoredt and 
abused body of men, who stood forth at an aw&l period^ and 
assumed the title, which he trusted the ingratitude of their 
country will never blot from its history : the Volunteers of 
Ireland." 

After this, he maintamed, that to associate for a worthy 
purpose, such as a reform in parliament, is no crime; a^d duit 
the emancipation of the Catholics of Ireland, is highly praise* 
worthy. 

" I put it to your oaths," adds he, " do you think that a 
blessing of this kind, that a victory obtained over bigotry and 
oppression, should have a stigma cast upon it by an igno- 
minious sentence upon men, bold and honest enough to pro- 
pose such a measure? To propose the redeeming religion 
from the abuses of the Church, the reclaiming of three 
millions of men from bondage^ and giving liberty to all who 
had a right to demand it ; giving I say, in the so much cen- 
sured words of this paper, giving universd emancipation I 

^' I speak in the spirit of the British law, which makes liberty 
commensurate with, and inseparable from British scnl ; which 
proclaims even to the stranger and scyoumer the nunnent he 
sets his foot on British earth, that the gromid <m which he 
treads is hdy^ and consecrated by the g^us of Universal 
emancipation. No matter in what language his doom may 
have been prcmounced ; — - no matter what complexion is com- 
patiUe vrith fiieedoBi, an liadian, or aa AfirkaB «on may have 

M 2 



I6i AOUCU&RANr 

■ 

burnt upon bim;-^no matter in what disaatroos battle hi0 
liber^ may have been cloven down;— -no matter with what 
solemnities he may have been devoted on the altar of slavery : 
die first moment he sets foot on the sacred soil of Britain, the 
altar and the god sink together in the dust ; his soul walks 
abroad in her own majesty; his body swells beyond the 
measure of his chains, that burst around him, and he stands 
redeemed, regenerated, and disenthralled by the irresistible 
genius of universal emancipation !" 

After this apostrophe to the genius of English freedom, 
which called forth a sudden and involuntary burst of applause, 
he proceeded to state, that they now resided in a country, 
which is bound by an indissoluble union, with British liberty. 

<^ Una solus ambobus erit^ commune pericuhm!* 

^^ But to accomplish this union," adds the pleader, ^^ you 
must learn to become like the English people. It is in vain 
to say you will protect their liberty, if you abandon your own. 
England is marked by a natural avarice of freedom, which 
she is studious to engross and accumulate^ but most unwilling 
to impart; whether from any necessity of her policy, or from 
her weakness, or from her pride, I will not presume to say; 
but so is the &ct; you need not look to the east, nor to the 
west, you need only look to yourselves* 

^^ If it required additional confirmation, I should state the 
case of the invaded American, and the subjugated Indian, to 
prove that the policy of England, has ever been to govern her 
<x>nnexions more as colonies than as allies, and it must be 
owing to the great spirit indeed of Ireland, if she continues 
free. Rely upon it, she will ever have to hold her course 
agidnst an adverse current; rely upon it if the popular spring 
does lUot continue strong and elastic, a short interval of debi- 
litated nature and broken force, will send you down the 
stream again, and re-consign you to the condition of a pro- 
vinde." 

Mr. Curran &iled on this occasion; but in 1798, he proved 
90iie finrtunate^ in ivqpect to his dient, Mr. Ftarick Ffaooiey, 



MR. CURRAN* 169 

who was indicted for high treason. The charge was chiefly 
supported by the testimony of a witness, who asserted that he 
had been forced to become an United Irishman in order to 
save his life; that he was made drunk two nights running, 
which prevented him from giving information, that there were 
111,000 men in one province, added to 10,000 inhabitants 
of the metropolis, ready to assist in the project of an in- 
vasion, &c. Mr. Curran, after severely animadverting on his 
testimony, continued as follows : 

^^ Whether all the whiskey that he has heexi forced to drink, 
has produced this e£fect I know not, but Mr. O'Brien's loyalty 
is better than his memory. In the spirit of loyal^ he became 
prophetic, and told to Lord Portarlington the circumstances 
relative to the intended attack on the ordnance stores, full 
three weeks before he had obtained the information through 
moral agency — Oh ! honest James O'Brien ! honest James 
O'Brien ! 

<^ Let others vainly argue on logical truth, and ethical &lse» 
hood, but if I can once fasten him to the ring of peijury, I 
will bait him at it until his testimony shall fail of producing a 
verdict, although human nature were as vile and monstrous 
' in you, as she is in him ! He says, he has made a bit of a 
mistake I but surely no man's life is safe, if such evidence were 
admissible ; what arguments can be founded on his testimony, 
when he swears he has perjured himself, and therefore, any 
thing he says must be false; I must not believe him at all, for 
it is impossible by a paradoxical conclusion to suppose, against 
the damnation of his own testimony, that he is an honest man. 

** What did the simple evidence of John Clarke, of Blue- 
bell, amount to against this O'Brien ? It attached the double 
crime of artifice and perjury, and added robbery to the per- 
sonification. There are now living in Dublin, there are at this 
moment thousands, and ten thousands of your fellow-citizeiis^ 
anxiously waiting to know if you will convict the priscmer on 
the evidence of a wilful and corrupt perjurer? Whether 
they are^ each in his turn, to feel the fetal effects of his con* 

MS 



166 UK. cimBAN; ' 

demnation ? or whetber thejr are to find protection in the laws 
fit>m die machinations of siich a base informer ? ' 

". Do you feel, gentlemen, that I have been wantonly aspers- 
iii^ this man's character ? Is he not a perjurer ? A swindler ? 
And that he is not a murderer will depend on you. He assumes 
the character of a king's officer to rob the king^s people of 
their money, and afterwards, when their property fails him, 
to rob them of their lives ! 

" What say you to his habitual fellowship with baseness and 
fraud? He gives a recipe instructive of the art of felony, and 
counterfeiting the king's coin ; and when questioned about it, 
what is his answer ? — Why truly, that it was * only a light 
easy way of getting money ! — Onfy a little bit of a humbfig* 

<* Good God ! I ask you, has it ever come across you to 
meet with such a constellation of infamy ?" 

Mr. Curcan's first printed speech, as a member of the House 
of Commons, appears to have been delivered on Tuesday, 
Dec. 16, 1783; it is extremely short, and concludes with a 
motion in the following words : viz. ^^ That it is the sole, and 
undoubted privilege of the House of Commons of Ireland, to 
originate all bills of supply and grants of public money, in 
audi a ^manner, and with such clauses as they shall think 
proper,** 

He spoke also on the question of ^' attachments," in 1785. 
On this occasion, he desired the House to look up to England 
as a model by which they ought to be guided : *' She was the 
parent, the archetype of liberty, which she had preserved in* 
violate in its grand points; while among them it hod been 
both violated and debased." 

On perceiving the Attorney-General, Mr. Fitzgibbon, 
asleep, he immediately alluded to that circumstance as fol- 
lows : •— 

'' I hope that on this occasion, I shall not disturb the 
slumbers of any Right Hon. Gentleman ; and yet," adds he, 
'^ perhaps I ought rather to envy than blame the tranquillity 
of the learned member. I do not, however, fed myielf so 
happily tempered by nature, as to be lulled to repose by the 



MR. CURRAN. l67 

storms that now shake the land !" He then proceeded to 
attack his conduct respecting the application and extension of 
the doctrine of attachments. ^^ If an English Attorney- 
General,^ said he, ^^ had attempted such a daring outrage on 
public liberty and law, he must have found some iriend to 
warn him not to debise the court, and make it appear to all 
mankind the odious engine of arbitrary power; not to put it 
into so unnatural a situation, as that of standing between the 
people and the crown, or between the people and their repre-» 
sentatives. 

<< I would warn him not to bring public hatred on the 
government by the adoption of illegal prosecutions; jbr if he 
showed himself afraid of proceeding against ofienders in the 
ordinary mode, then offenders would be exalted by the arbitrary 
prosecution of them; they would be deemed 'suffering patriots; 
their crimes would become popular ! 

<^ I could wish, I own, that the liberties of Ireland should 
be supported by her own children ; but if she is scorned and 
rejected by them, when her all is at stake, I must implore the 
assistance even of strangers. — I will call on the Right Hon. 
Secretary to support the principles of the British Constitu- 
tion. Let him not render his administration odious to the 
people of Ireland, by applying his influence in this House, to 
produce the ruin of our personal freedom. Let him not give 
a pretence to the enemies of his friend in a sister kingdom, 
to say that the son of the illustrious Chatham is disgracing the 
memory of his great father ; that the trophies of his Irish ad- 
ministration, arc the introduction of an inquisition among us^ 
and the extinction of a trial by jury ; let them not say that 
the pulse of the constitution beats only in the heart of the 
empire, but that it is dead in the extremities." 

Mr. Fitzgibbon, having severely and grossly attacked the 
last speaker, whom he called " a babbler," the latter in reply, 
animadverted on the conduct of an Attorney-General, whoy 
" with great liberality, and no small share of parliamentary 
decency, had answered his arguments with personality !" He 
then I'ecapitidated-and exposed the -positions laid down by hi» 

M 4 



168 MiU CURAAN* 

adversary, purporting that the House of Comxnons had no 
right to investigate the conduct of the judges; that any inters 
position would be to declare them guilty, &c. &c. 

" As for ntyself," adds he, " I find it diflScult to reply, not 
being accustomed to pronounce my own panegyric. But 
although I cannot tell this House, what I am, I may be per- 
mitted to tell what I am not. I am not then, a man, who can 
claim respect both as to perspn and character, from office 
alone ; I am not then a young man, who thrusts himself into 
the fore ground of a picture which ought to be occupied by a 
better figure; I am not then a man who replies with invective, 
when sinking under the weight of argument ; I am not then a 
man, who denied the necessity of a parliamentary reform, at 
the time I myself had proved the necessity of it by reviling 
my own constituents, the parish d^k, the sexton, and grave- 
digger : and if there be any man here present, who can i^ply 
what I am noty to himself, I leave him to think of it in the 
committee, and to ruminate on it, when he returns home.^ 

When Mr. Orde introduced his famous propositions to the 
Irish Parliament, he found a powerful opponent in Mr. Cur- 
ran, who ludicrously compared them to the &mou8 horse, 
Johannes Caballtis, mentioned by Rabelais, which animal had 
obtained the d^ee of Doctor of Medicine from the Collie 
of Rheims I 

After they had been withdrawn, he congratulated the House 
of Commons, and the country at large, on the result : 

^< The cloud that has been collecting so long, and threaten- 
ing to break in tempest and ruin on our heads, has passed 
harmless away. The siege that had been undertaken against 
the constitution was raised, and the enemy is gone. They 
might then walk abroad without fear, and brave the dangers 
they had escaped. On this side was drawn the line of circum- 
vallation that cut them off from tlie eastern world ; and on that 
the corresponding one, that enclosed them from the west. Nor 
let us forget, in our exultation, to whom we are. indebted for 
our deliverance. Here stood the trusty mariner (Mr. Conolly) 
at his old station, the mast«head, and gave the sigiial. Here 



MR. CURRAN. l69 

(pointing to Mr. Flood) all the wisdom of the state was col- 
lected, exploring your weakness and, your strength, detect- 
ing every ambuscade, and pointing to the hidden battery that 
was brought to bear on the shrine of freedom. And there 
(Mr* Grattan) was exerted an eloquence more than human, 
inspiring, forming, directing, animating, to the great pur- 
poses of your salvation. But I feel that I am leaving the 
question, and the bounds of moderation: for there is an ebul- 
lition in greatness of joy, that almost borders on insanity. I 
own indeed that I feel something like it, in the profiiseness 
with which I share in the general triumph." 

On the debate about the reduction of the Pension BiUy in 
1786, Sir Boyle Roche opposed all change: ^^ he would not 
stop the fountain of royal favour, but let it flow freely, spon- 
taneously, and abundantly, like Holywell, in Wales, that turns 
so many mills." Mr. Curran, on this occasion, sarcastically 
replied, ^^ that, instead of privilege setting up his back to oppose 
prerogative, it now saddled its back, and invited prerogative 
to ride on it, and thus tried how comfortably they might both 
jog along ! I am delighted," added he, ** to hear the advo- 
cates for the royal bounty, wishing it to flow as freely and 
spontaneously as Holywell ! If the crown grants were to 
^double the amount of the revenue in pensions, such worthy 
and considerate advisers, would readily approve of the bounty 
of their royal master : for he is the breath of their nostrils!" 

'^ This polyglot of wealth, this museum of curiosities, the 
pension list, embraces every link in the human chain, every 
description of men, women, and children, from the lofty 
excellence of a Hawke, or a Rodney, to the debased situation 
of the lady who humbleth herself that she may be exalted. 
But the lesson it inculcates, forms its greatest perfection: —it 
teacheth that sloth and vice are to eat our bread ; while virtue 
and honesty may starve after they have earned it. It teaches 
the idle and dissolute to look up for that support, which they 
are too proud to stoop for, in order to earn ! Those saints 
on the pension list are like the liUies of the field — they toil 
noif neither do they spin^ and yet are arrayed like Solomon 

10 



170 Miu cuRaAK/ 

in all his gloiy. Their fkte teaches us a leBsan, which might 
have been learned firom Epictetus — that it is spmetimes good 
nottol)e over Tirtuons: it shows, that in proportion as our 
distresses encrease, the munificence of the crown encreases 
ako — * in proportion as our clothes are rent, the royal mantle 
is extended over us ! 

'^ But notwithstanding the pension list, like charity, coven 
a multitude of sins, give me leave to say, that the crown in 
extending its charity, its liberality, its profusion, is laying a 
foundation for an independence of parliament ; for hereafter, 
instead of orators or patriots accounting for their conduct to 
such mean and unworthy persons as freeholders and burgesses, 
they will learn to despise them, and look up to the first man in 
the state : for by so doing, they will have this security for their 
independence, that while any man in the kingdom has a shil- 
ling, they will not want one ! 

^^ Supposing that at any future time, the boroughs of Ife* 
land should decline from their pres^it flourishing andproqwr- 
ous state — supposing they should fall into the hands of moi 
who would Hfish to drive a profitable commerce, by having 
Members of Parliament to hire or let ; in such a case^ a Secre- 
tary would find great difficulty if the proprietors of members 
should enter into a combination to form a monopoly; to prevent 
which in time, the wisest way is to purchase up the rem mate' 
rial, young Members of Parliament, just rough firom grass, 
and when they are once bitted, and he has got a pretty good 
stud — perhaps of seventy — he may laugh, in his turn, at 
the slave merchant ! 

^' Some of them he may teach to sound through the nose^ 
like a barrel organ; some of them might be taught, in the 
course of a few months, to cry hear ! hear !, — chair ! chair ! 
Again, he might have some so trained that he need only pull 
a string, and up gets a repeating member; and if any of them 
grows so dilll, that they could neither speak nor makemotioiis^ 
he might have them taught to dance, pedihus ira in iententia. 
This improvement indeed might be extended; he might 
have them dressed in coats and shirts all of one ooloiiry and of 



MR. CURRAN/ ITl" 

a Sunday, he coidd march them to church, two by two, to the 
great edification of the people, and the honour of the Chris- 
dan religion — jafterwards, like ancient Spartans, or the 
fraternity of Kilmainham, they might dine all together in a 
large halL Grood heaven ! what a sight to see them feeding 
in public upon public viands, and talking on ^ptiblic subjects 
^ for the benefit of the public. It is a pity they are not im- 
mortal — but I hope they will floiurish as a corporation, and 
that pensioners will beget pensioners to the end of the 
chapter!" 

It may be readily supposed, that Mr. Curran joined hid 
two fiienfds, Mr. Orattan, and the late Mr. Pontonby, on the 
grand question relative to Catholic emancipation. Indeed^' 
during the winter of 1 796, when the former of these moved 
" that the admissibility of persons professing the Catholic 
religion, to seats in parliament, was consistent with the safety 
of the crown, and the connexitm of Ireland with Great 
Britain," we find him warmly supporting that position. > -Hd 
began by expressing his indignation at the despicable attenipi 
to skulk from the discussion of so important and so necessary ^ 
question, by the affectation of an appeal to dUcretion. If the 
enemies of Ireland, felt any inclination to become acquainted 
with their discussions, it might as well be proposed to concetti 
from them the course of the Danube, or the Rhine, as the 
course of a debate in that assembly, << which wa§ as winding, 
and as muddy as either of these rivers." "So frightfully 
disunited and divided are we," adds this member " that we 
could not venture to trust ourselves with the possession of our 
own fi'eedom ; for we are all animated as one man, against 
redressing our grievances." 

He then entered into a detail of the Popery laws ; these 
were somewhat relaxed in 1778, and the consequences 
even of a partial union with their countrymen, was, that 
the united efibrts of the two bodies, restored that constitution 
which had been lost by their separation ; " in 1 782, you be- 
came free ; your Catholic brethren shared the dangers of the 

II 



17^ MA. CURRAN. 

conflict, but you had not justice or gratitude to let them share 
the fruits of the victory. 

<• I now call upon the House to consider of the necessity of 

acting with a social and conciliatory spirit. A disunited 

nation cannot long subsist. With infinite regret must any 

man look forward to the alienation of three millions of our 

people; and to an unexampled degree of subserviency and 

corruption in the fourth ; and I am sorry to think, that in case 

of such an event, the inevitable consequence would be an union 

with Great Britain. And if any one desires to know what 

that would be, I will tell him : it would be the emigration of 

every man of consequence from Ireland ; it would be the 

participation of British taxes without British trade ; it would 

be the extinction of the Irish name as a people. We should 

become a wretched colony, perhaps leased out to a company 

of Jews, as was formerly in opntemplation, and governed by 

a few tax-gatherers, and excisemen, imless possibly you may 

add fifteen or twenty couples of Irish members, who might 

be found every session sleeping in their collars under the 

manger of the British minister. 

^ I cannot foresee future events," adds he, towards the con- 
clusion ; ^< I cannot be appalled by the fiiture, for I cannot 
see it, but the present I can see, and it is big with danger. It 
may be the crisis of political life, or political extinction ; and 
now is the time, fairly to state to the country, whether 
they had any thing, and what, to fight for ; whether they were 
to struggle for a connection of tyranny, or of privil^re; whe- 
ther the administration of England will condescend to for- 
give the insolence of her happier days; or whether as the 
beams of her prosperity have wasted and consumed us, so the 
very frost of her adversary shall perform the deleterious eflfects 
of fire, and burn up our privileges and our hopes for ever.** 

The speech of Mr. Curran at the bar of the House of Com- 
mons of Ireland, in behalf of Lady Pamela Fit^rald and 
her children, has been generally deemed one of his most 
brilliant effusions ; but we lament, that it is too long for inser- 
tion in this place. 



MR. CURRAN. 173 

It is not a little singular, that of all, or nearly all the Irish 
•lawyers of his day, with a splendid exception on the part of 
the late Mr. Ponsonby — Mr. Ciuran alone, seems to have 
remained firm and unmoved in his political principles and at- 
tachments. This Abdiel-like uniformity, subjected him to 
many mortifications, and rendered many celebrated men his 
enemies. He himself, however, lx)ldly and fearlessly perse- 
vered in 'the path which be had first chosen, and in spite of 
every opposition, moved on in a career equally brilliant and 
singular. His frequent dilutes with Mr. Fitzgibbo% at 
length ended in a duel, in which no blood was indeed shed ; 
but on the other hand, no concessions on dthear side took 
place. Yet it was supposed, that all former animosities were 
from this moment buried in oblivion; and there is, indeed, 
reason to imagine, that after this, no altercation actually took 
place either in the course of law, or the House of Commons. 
This gentleman, however, was soon after promoted to the 
seals, and became a peer of parliament by the title of Lord 
Clare.* In this new capacity, they. again met, but in very 
difierent positions ; the one being Lord Chancellor, and the 
other a leading counsel at the Chancery bar, with a silk gown 
and a blue bag full of briefs to the' very top. But Mr. Cur- 
ran soon found, that he was not received with the same atten** 
tion and politeness, as during the days of Lord Lifibrd, when he 
was but a young practitioner, or at the period when the seals 
were in commission, and the office filled for a time by the 
Archbishop of Dublin, and the Chief Justices, Carlton and 
Bradstreet. On the contrary, he experienced nothing but 
firowns ; his motions were discountenanced, his arguments were 
always questioned, his law was constantly doubted; and so 
marked and personal is said to have been the opposition on 
the part of the court, that not a single client was left him at 
the end of term. A little before his death he was known to 
have estimated his actual loss at the sum of forty thousand 

* Lord Fitigibbon, VUeount Fitigibboa, tod Earl of Ckre, wis nominated Lord 
ChtMtllorof Iielud, June 30, 1789. 



174 MR* CURRAN. 

pounds *, and this perhaps will account for the smallness of 
his fortune, which at his demise, proved to be fiir inferior to* 
what his nearest relatives had supposed. 

The unhappy insurrection that afterwards took place in 
Ireland, indeed, brought him a number of new clients ; for 
after it had been happily quelled, neai*ly all those tried either for * 
sedition or treason, endeavoured to retain him as an advocate. 

He accordingly became their official defender; and in that 
capacity exerted himself with a degree of vigour, doquence, 
and success, that had not been often equalled. But it is to 
be recollected, " that of some he was the voluntary unfeed de- 
fender; while the distressed situation and fiillen fortunes of 
others, prevented the possibility of an adequate reward." 

Mr. Curran, however, contrived to live like a gentbman, 
and both at his coujitry-seat, as well as in Dublin^ continued to 
exercise the rites of hospitaUty, with a spirit peculiar to his 
countrymen. His table was constantly open to all sncH as 
lived in intimacy with him ; and every Englishman, properly 
recommended, was sure to find a hearty welcome under his 
roo£ 

At length a new, fortunate^ and doubtless unexpected epoch 
occurred in his life, which if it did not raise him to the 
bench or decorate him with a title^ at least secured a mpect- 
eble and honourable retreat for his old age. The event to 
which we now allude, was the sudden advancement of Mr. 
Fox, in 1806, to the post of Secretary of State, in conjunc- 
tioo with Lord Grenville, with whom he had just formed a 
coalition. In consequence of this change in England, a cor- 
respondent one of course took place in Ireland, and Mr. Pon- 
sonby was immediately invested with the seals. The new 
Lord Chancellor could not endure to see his former col- 
kagu^ in retiremait, and almost in disgrace, while he now 
occupied so high a station in that country, for the r^[fats, 
liberties, and prosperity of which, they had both c o ntended 

t He. ipccificfl this precise tuxn • little before his Hemite, to Uie writer of thb 
trticle. 



MR. CURRAN. 175 

side by side in the House of Commons during so many yean. 
But many difficulties existed, as to the precise situation which 
Mr. Curran ought to occupy. Like other veterans at the bar, 
he doubtleBs looked towards the bench for an asylum, during 
the remainder of his days: for he had now attained the 
fifiy-sixth year of his life : and had spent no* fewer than thirty- 
five of these at the bar. But as it was necessary to fill some 
intermediate station for a short time, and as the new ministers 
were not disposed to remove a very able and uteftil Attorney* 
General entirely fbr his sake; another expedient was recurred 
to. - : . 

Accordingly, the Right Honourable Sir Midiael; 



then Master of the Rolls, was prevailed upon to retire ovt a 
pension ; and Mr. Curran was immediately nominated his suc- 
cessor, with the usual appointment to a seat at the .Council 
Board. That this negotiation should be thus speedily closed, 
was on the whole a very fortunate circumstance^ considqripg 
the events that speedily ensued ; for had not the appointpi^t 
then taken place, it could never have been efiected, as the new 
administration was not suffered to remain more than, a few' 
inonths in ofiice. 

Unhappily, however, during the n^otiation alluded to 
above, Mr. Pcmsonby, by way of facilitating the exchange, 
consented to grant an annuity to one of the subordinate 
officers^ who had iretired along with his chief; but the, new 
Master of the Rcdls, who does not appear to have h^n 
privy to this transaction, resisted its 'completion, and defended 
bis conduct in a letter to the Right Honourable Henry Qrat- 
tan, M. P., a common friend to both parties, . 

This unfortunately produced an immediate and irr^iarable 
bi^each ; after which, Mc» Ponsonby, actuated by a high sense 
of honour, paid the annuity for some years, out of his owb 
private fortune. 

Meanwhile Mr. Curran exerted himself in discharging the 
duties of his new office, which had hitherto b^ .generally 
oonndered as a sinecure: while that of the same. ^description 
in England, «• appears by tlie conduct c£the. distinguished 



176 .ma; curoan. 

lawyer who lately exercised its fttactiQiis, is one of the meet 
laborious, as well as respectable legal departments under the 
crown. 

The subject of this memoir seems actually to have rendered 
it efiective in Ireland also, for we find that in one instance, 
which has been fortunately recorded, he made a most exem- 
plary decision. This was in the case of Merry versus ^^ one 
John Power a Popish priest," who proved to be the Right 
Reverend John Power, D. D. titular Bishop of Wateribrd. 
The heir at law hoped, in strict conformity to ancient practice, 
to annul a few inconsiderable legacies to some poor old women, 
under pretext of their being bequests for Popish and super- 
siitious uses;'* but his " Honour," after strongly condemning 
the principle, actually dismissed the cause with fiill costs, 
lliis judgment was in strict accordance with his own notions, 
in respect to ^^ Catholic emancipation ;" and it must be al- 
lowed that it would have been in direct violation of both law 
and equity, had he made any distinction, merely proceeding 
from religious prejudices. 

Mr. Ciu:i*an held the ofiice of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, 
during the space of about seven years. At the end of that period, 
finding his health on the decline, he was prevailed on to 
resign ; and a previous treaty having accordingly taken place. 
the Right Hon. Sir William M'Mahon, Bart., was promoted 
to the vacant oflSce in 1814. He now found himseli^ for the 
first time in his life, exempt from care, free, independent, and 
without controul, with " all the world before him:" thediQ- 
cu%, perhaps, was where to " choose." Being determined, 
however, to leave Ireland, he repaired to this country ; whence 
he soon after took a journey to France. Having crossed the 
Straits of Dover, in company with a respectable friend *, he 
landed at Calais, and thence proceeded to Boulogne. Hav- 
ing always exhibited a taste for poetry, while contemplating 
the bases of the pillar intended to have been erected in hcmour 
to Buonaparte, by the French army, he penned an epigram in 
his chaise, on the sudden rise and fidl of that celebrated man. 

* Mr. Wtbbe, • gcntlenrao, bow on a vttit to Pteis. 



MK. CURRAN. I77 

** To the Ex'Emperar of France, 

^ When Ambition attains her detire, 
** How Fortune must smile at the joke ; 
** You rose in a [Hilar of fire» 
*^ Tou sink in a pillar of smoke !" 

After this he visited Paris a second time^ for he had been there 
before, in 1802, and on this occasion exhibited a considerable 
degree of familiarity with die language of the country. The 
palace of the Louvre still contained all that was rare or 
estimable in respect to the fine arts. The grand collecticm of 
statues then occupied the basem^it story ; while the galkfy 
above exhibited the greatest and noblest collection of pieturei 
that the human eye had ever at one time beheld. The h ano n 
taken from Venice, yet occupied their pedestals in frcmt of the 
Thuilleries ; and the lion of St. Mark seemed to wonder at 
being transferred to the front of the Hospital of the Invalids. 

Highly pleased and gratified with every thing that he beo 
heldy Mr. Curran returned once more to England, i^^iere he 
speat the succeeding winter. In the course of the next year, 
he again passed over to his native country, and remained 
some time at his seat near Dublin. But he now found him- 
sielf attacked by a variety of complaints ; and in the autumn 
deemed it necessary to return for the purpose of spend* 
ing the winter, in the vicinity of London. Shunning the 
crowded streets and noxious air of the metropolis, he now 
took up his abode in Amelia Place, Brompton, being actuated 
with the hope that an asthmatic affection with which he was 
troubled, might be there alleviated; and he accordingly ap- 
peared to obtain some relief. 

Notwithstanding every precaution, however, his fittal hour 
rapidly approached. From two seizures of a paralytic kind 
he recovered, and that to such a degree that he walked out and 
saw his fiiends, occasionally, as before. But a third proved 
fatal; and he died after a short illness oh the evening of the 
13th of November, 1817. 

Thus ceased to exist, in the 67th year of his age, the Right 
Hon. John Curran, a man of high attainments and no incon* 

VOIi. II. N 



178 MSU^VRBAN* 

uderable degree of cdebrity : a patriot, a poet» a man of wit, 
alaiTfrer, and a legislator. 

In the first of these capacities, he always evinced a heartj 
attachment to the interests of Ireland : her commerce, her 
rights, her privileges, and her independence, anterior to tlie 
union, were warmly and zealously advocated by him. But these 
daims'were never made or supported in opposition to her con- 
nection with England ; s>n the contrary, he deemed the attai 
ment of them expressly necessary for the prosperity and advan- 
tage of both countries. As to the grand question of " Catholic 
emancipation," he was then in a small minority ; but Mr. Pitt^ 
previously to his demise, and Lord Castlereagh, as well as Mr. 
Canning, subsequently to that event, have both inclined to the 
game opioipn. 

As a poet, it has already been observed, that Mr. Curran 
possessed a strong inclination to cultivate the muses ; and he 
did not offer up his vows at their shrine in vain. Of his com- 
positions, which, as may be conceived by every one acquakited 
with his character, were chiefly of a gay and lively nature, 
the writer of this article possesses a considerable collection. 
The first intended to be mentioned here, is entitled the 
" Plate Warmer," which is unhappily too long for inser- 
tion. The aubject consists of the family quarrels of Jupiter 
and JunOf and as the ^* father of gods and men" was often 
reduced to eat a cold meal after being heartily scolded ; and 
Venus, out of pure compassion, determined to solicit Vulcan 
for the aid of his skill at tliose unhappy moments, when : 

'* His knife and fork, unused were cross'd, 
His temper and bis dinner lost; 
For ere the vesper peal was done, 
The viands were as cold as stone. 

** This Venus saw, and grieved to seey 
For though she thought Jove rather free, 
Yet ^t his idle pranks she smiled, 
As wanderings of a heart beguiled ; 



MR. CUBRAN. 179 

*' Nor wondered, if astray he ruD» 
For well she knew her scape-grace son ; 
And who can hope his way to find. 
When blind, and guided by the blind? 
Her finger to her brow she brought, 
And gently touched the source of thought; 
The unseen fountain of the brain 
Where fancy breeds her shadowy train." 

On application to the celestial blacksmith, to whose' arsenal 
le now repairs in great state, he exclaims : 

** And could'st thou vainly hope to find 
A power the female tongue to bind ? 

' Sweet friend ! 'twere easier far to drain 

The waters from th* unruly main, 
Or quench the stars, or bid the sun 
No more his destined courses run. 

" Thine other wish, some mystic charm ^ 

To keep the sufferer's viands warm, 
I know no interdict of fate. 
Which says that art mayn't warm a plate !-^ 

•* The model too, I've got for that : 
I take it from thy gipsy-hat ; 
I saw thee thinking o'er the past ; 
I saw thine eye-beam upward cast ; 
I saw the concave catch the ray 
And turn its course another way; 
Reflected back upon thy cheek. 
It glow'd upon the dimpled skek /" 

The two following sonnets are of a plaintive cast. 

I. 

" Thou Emblem op Faith. 

** Written on returning d Ring. 

** Thou emblem of faith, thou sw^et pledge of a passion * 
That heav'n has ordain'd for a happier than me, 
On the hand of the fiiify go resume thy lov'd station, 
And bask in the beam that is lavidied on thee. 

N 2 



180 JCB.CUARAK: 

And when some past scene thy remembrance recalling, 
Her bofom shall rise to the tear that is falling. 
With the transport of love may no anguish combine. 
Bat the bliss be all her's, and the suffering all mine. 

** But ah ! had the ringlet thou lov*st to surround, 

Had it e*er kiss'd the rose on the cheek of my dear, 
What ransom to buy thee could ever be found? 

Or what force from my heart thy possession CQuld tear ? 
A mourner, a sufF'rer, a wand'rer, a stranger. 
In sickness, in sadness, in pain, or in danger, 
Next that heart would I wear thee till its last pang was oVr, 
Then together we'd sink, and I'd part thee no more.'* * 



II. 

^< Lines written at Richmond. 

'' On the same spot where weeping Thom^fm paid 
The last sad tribute to his Talbot's shade ; 
An humble muse, by fond remembrance led, 
Bewails the absent where he mourn'd the dead. 

^^ Nor differs much the subject of the strain^ 
.Whether of deaih or absence we complain ; 
Whether we're sunder'd by the final scene. 
Or envious seas disjoining roll between. 

<' Absence, the dire effect, is still the same, 
And death and distance differ but in name. 
Yet sure they're different if the peaceful grave 
From haunting thoughts its low laid tenant save! 

** Alas ! my friend, were Providence inclin'd, 
In unrelenting wrath to human kind, 
To take back every blessing that she gave, 
From the wide ruin she would memory save ; 

_ • 

• This hu been Mt to mutic, tnd u inserted in the « Iroh MtlodiM/' 



• CURRAK* 181 

'< For memory ttill,' with mote than £gypf^ art^ 
Embalming every grief that wounds the heart 
Sits at the altar she had rais'd to woe> 
And feeds the source whence tears must ever flow.^ 

« 

As a lawyer, Mr. Curran had read suflkient^ perhaps, for 
his own purposes and those of his clients. It is not here 
meant to insinuate that he possessed the depth and research of 
a Coke, in one age, or .the erudition and patience of a Har- 
grave, in another; but it ought to be recollected that his 
practice, more especially of late years, was chiefly conhected 
with the criminal law and Nisi Prius cases. The qualification 
alluded to seems, indeed, to be less attended to in the sister 
kingdom, than with us. We not unfrequently find a judge 
there, condescending to crack a joke on the bench ; or uttering 
a pun on an occasion that would have produced additional ' 
gloom and gravity on the brows of our ermined sages. Indeed 
we have been told, that a certain vein of humour; frequent 
and apposite quotations from the classics; with a disposition 
to diverge and declaim, are often tolerated in the gravest 
speeches at the Irish bar. 

In cross-questioning an unwilling evidence ; in detecting the 
sinister motives of the informer ; in discovering the character 
of a peijured witness ; no one is allowed to have exhibited su- 
perior acttteness ; while in his eloquent appeals both to the heart 
and understanding, he was frequently enabled to display the 
ascendency of powerful talents, so as to appal guilt and render 
innocence triumphant, with unutterable force and efiect* 
Thus if the opinion of his countrymen and contemporaries be 
correct, he must have occupied an exalted station on these occa« 
sions in the eyes of the people of Ireland. He could be no 
common man, indeed, who, uniting two great and distinct 
qualities, usually disjoined in others, in his own person, could at 
one and the same time display the technical skill of a Garrow, 
and the persuasive and overpowering eloquence of an Erskine 

In respect to his person, ]Vf r. Curran was defici^t in one of 
the qualifications which Cicero has considered as indispensable 
in an orator. In point of stature he was diminutive; in re^ 



182 HBU CUBKAK. 

spect to oomplexioii^ swarthy; hisliair wag black and short; 
and he was. wholly inattentive in regard to every article of 
dress. He was but little indebted indeed to the aid of the 
tailor, hatter, and shoemaker, for he did not study fashion in 
his clothes, and never appears to have aspired at elegance. 

In private life, he was both amiable and entertaining. His 
voice was soft; his manners engaging; his wit occasionally 
sparkled like his Ghampaigne ; and while he constantly ex- 
hibited an uninterrupted strain of good humour, he could 
bear with the infirmities of others, to a degree scarcely credible 
in one of his spirit and temperament. 

^ In respect to his family, one event of a disagreeable nature 
has already been mentioned, and it is not intended to dwell 
upon it here. Three sons and two daughters survive him ; of 
the former of these, two were bred to the bar; and a third is 
a Captain in the navy; while of the latter, one remains single, 
and the other is married to the Rev. Mr. Taylor, a clergyman 
of the Church of England. 

The fortune he left behind him is but small, being estimated 
at somewhat less than 18,000/. To those acquainted with his 
ordinary habits, which were far from being expensive, this sura 
did not equal their expectations ; for his income was supposed 
to have amounted to about 4000/. per ann. while his establish- 
ment, of late, was small and unostentatious. 

The corpse of Mr. Curran, inclosed in an outward coffin of 
lead, was kept above ground, at his apartments, No. 7, Amelia- 
place, Brompton, during a period of full three weeks. This 
circumstance, doubtless, proceeded from the absence of his 
will, which had been left in Ireland; for it was supposed by 
some of his family, that it contained a clause enjoining that his 
remains should be buried near to those of a dearly beloved 
mother*, in the church-yard of Newmarket, in the coun^ 
of Cork. 

* Her maiden name wu Philpot ; and afier the death of her hu»band» the lived fW 
a considerable period under the roof of her loti, who always treated her with a dcgrat of 
attention truly filial. 



* MR.CURRAN. ^ 183 

At lengthy on the morning of the 4tb of November, they 
were deposited in the church of St. Pancras, in the county 
of Middlesex. To one so distinguished, the Abbey of West* 
minster, where his bones might have reposed among those 
of the great men of England, was considered as the most ap- 
propriate place by many of his admirers ; but it is said, they 
will be speedily transferred to the country that gave him birth, 
where a monument, worthy of his talents and celebrity, is in- 
tended to be erected to his memory. 

The funeral was conducted in a modest aqd simply; but- r^ 
spectable manner ; and what is not a little remarkable, with ah 
exception of the members of his own family, consisted chiefly, 
if not wholly, of men of letters. 



N 4> 



( I«* ) 



No. IX. 
JAMES GLENIE, Esg. M.A. and F.R.& 

OF LONDON AMD EDINBURGH ; FORMERLY AN OFFICER BOTH IN TKI 
ROYAL ARTILLERY AND CORPS OF ROYAL EK6IMEERS. 

1 o the names of a Stewai*t» a Simpson, and a Maclaurio, 
all distinguished geometricians and natives of Scotland, may 
how be iairly added that of the subject of the present memoir. 
His life more varied by incident and adventure, than that of 
anyone of his countrymen, who have been just named, afford^ 
of course, a wider scope for reflection, and a larger range fiH* 
biography. It is connected, indeed, with the history of the 
times in which we live. 

James Gienie^ a man of singular endowments, was bom in 
1750; in that fertile tract of country, happily situate on the 
shores of the Forth, and the German Ocean, formerly called 
the " kingdom,** and now the shire of Fife. The precise spot 
was designated by him, with topographical exactitude : for li# 
always boasted during tl^ whole course of his life, *< that he 
first saw the light of heaven, in that very parish which had the 
honour to produce one of the most illustrious, and unfortunate 
of the sons of Caledonia." By this he plainly indicated that 
extraordinary man, whose early talents and rare endowments 
have readily obtained for him the appellation of the " admir- 
able Crichton." 

His father had been an officer of the army, a sturdy veteran 
who haid fought, and perhaps, bled for his country, daring 
many hard campaigns. He is said to have been present both 
in the field of Dettingen, and at the siege of Belleide; events 



MR. GLBNXE. 185 

which he was accustoioed to mention with an honest pride. 
It appears from an authaitic document, that the Captain, and 
a daughter were both living in 1777, at which period, they 
resided in the parish of Leslie^ about dlght mfles from the town 
of Kircaldy. 

Young Glenie, as is usual in the northern portion of this 
island, received the rudiments of his education at a parochial 
school. At a proper age, however, he repaired to the Uni- 
versity of St Andrew, where both Knox and Buchanan 
had been students. 

Here he certainly either displayed, or attained such a skill 
in the Greek and Latin languages, as would have entitled him 
to respect, even if he had not disclosed an early taste for 
the sciences. But the bent and structure of his mind, 
admirably fitted him for geometry. Such was his pro- 
ficiency, that in 1769, whoi in the mathematical class, he 
obtained a prize for the second time, on account of his ex- 
cell^ce in that department This consisted of a work, still 
in high repute, entitled, *^ Elements of Geometry, by Thomas 
Simpson, F. R. S., 2d edit. 1760." It was a present firom 
Thomas the eighth Earl of Kinnoul, then Chancellor of his 
College, and who conducted himself with such liberality to 
men of tidents, as to be considered a northern Mecasnas. 
Here follows the Latin address, printed from the original 
manuscript version, prefixed to the work in question : 

^* Ingenuo magnseq. spei Adolescenti 
JACOBO GLENIE 
Propter insignes in Artibus humanioribus Progressus in Classe 
Mathematica secundo, Praemium hoc literarium, exsententia 
PHtepositi et Professorum Collegii St. Salvatoris 

et Sti. Leonardi : 
DEBIT 
Nobilissimus D. Comes de Kinnoull Academiae ad Fanum 
Andrese Cancellarius pridie Idus Aprilis A.D. 1769. 

Quod Testor. Joannes Young, p. p. 



186 . mu CHUBNS. 

Notwithstanding- his early and. eminent attainments in 
mathematice^ Mr.. Glenie, was originfi|]}y destined for holy 
orders. He accordingly attended the divinity class *, and ap- 
pears to have paid great attention to his studies ; for in ad- 
dition to his other acquirements he was a keen polemic and 
a theologian, well versed in all the niceties and distinctions 
of his art. No one was better acquainted, with the tenets of 
the various churches that are dther established or tolerated 
throughout Europe, than himself. He was accustomed to argue 
most learnedly, acutely, and metaphysically, on the doctrines 
of transubstantiation, and consubstantiation ; and like men in 
general, appeared finally, to lean towards the creed of that sect^ 
for the ministry of which he was expressly educated. Had he 
proceeded, there can be little doubt, but that like Dr. Ma^ 
thew Stewart, fitther of Mr.Dugald S. who was one c^its omi^ 
ments, he would have so distinguished himself by bis geome- 
trical talents, as to have been invited to the mathematical 
chair of one of the five Universities of his native country. 
Like that same professor too, he would doubtless have left a 
great name behind him. ' - 

A &vourite pursuit necessarily becomes a ruling one, and 
that in which a young and ambitious individual exods^ is 
most likely to tincture the future character of his life. This 
was precisely the case in the instance now before us: fi>r 
whether it was, that a presentation to a Ktrki did not readily 
occur, or that the memory of the exploits of his father^ in 
conjunction with his own excellence in a science intimatdy 
connected with the art of war, occupied and inflamed his 
youthful imagination; certain it is, that he was at length 
smitten with a passion for distinguishing himself as a military 
man. 

Here again, that early reputation for talents which afterwards 
proved so serviceable to his country, readily paved the way fiwr 

* Hie letrned and Reverend Doctor PienoDi of Chelsea, formerly Miniater of cbt 
Engluh Church at Amsterdam; and the late Dr. William Tbomton, of 
^we among the number of his fellow-studeots. 



MR. GLENIE. 187 

htfl advancement The Professors of St.> Andrew's, proud of a 
student, than whonir few, perhaps, had more distinguished 
themselvesi aince the epoch of Buchanan, determined if pos- 
sible, to gratify his wishes ; and on this occasion they were 
doubtless joined by their worthy and accomplished Chancel- 
lor. An application was accordingly made to the late 
General Lord Adam Gordon, uncle to the present Duke of 
Gordon, and at that period Commander-in-Chief of the forces 
in Scotland. This noblooittn.inmiediately acceded to their 
wishes ; and in the course of a few months more^' we actually 
find Mr. Glenie a candidate for the artillery at Woolwich. 

To a mind so gifted, nothing could be more facile than the 
application of geometry to fortification, and the doctrine of 
projectiles. Accordingly, after a short course, and a satis- 
&ctory examination, he was - declared fully qualified for a 
commission ; and he actually obtained one soon after without 
any difiiculty. 

A contest between the mother-country, and her American 
colonies, unhappily took place in the year 1775. On this 
occasion, it was deemed necessary to send a large body of 
both native and foreign troops across the Atlantic, and these 
were accompanied by formidable detachments of artillery, an 
arm, in which Great Britain at that period, greatly excelled 
the insurgents ; as she undoubtedly surpasses all Europe at the 
present moment. 

Mr. Glenie, arrived in the harbour of New York, at a time 
when every thing assumed a most prosperous and imposing 
aspect. General Howe had penetrated to the Chesapeak, 
effected a victory at Brandy-wine, and captured Philadelphia; 
while Burgoyne seized on Ticonderoga, and arriving on the 
banks of the North River, already proclaimed his expectations 
of an easy conquest. 

Our Lieutenant of artillery was immediately placed under the. 
orders of General St. Leger \ uncle to the gay and accom- 
plished Colonel, once so well known in the circles of &shion ; 
and such already was his reputation, that he appears to have 

* He then potseticd the rank of Colonel only^ 



188 .JOUGUSNIfe* 

been either tke sole officer, or at least the senior in command 
in his own dcfMUtme^t, during the expedition now meditated. 
The detachment to which he appertained, experienced a 
variety of privations, and was exposed to &,t more perils from 
the close and difficult nature, of the country, than the sword 
of the afiemy. Having at length formed a junction on the 
Mohawk river, with Colonel Johnson and a considerable body 
of Indians, it was determined, in pursuance of secret instruc- 
tions, to lay siege to, and capture Fort Stanwix, an important 
out-post, then occupied by an American garrison, under 
Colonel Gansevorte. Accordingly on the arrival of the troops 
the place was invested, and summoned, while batteries were 
raised under the immediate superintendance of the sub- 
ject of this memoir. Having succeeded in out-flanking the 
enemy's defences, and maintaining a great superiority of fire^ 
no doubts were entertained of an immediate surrender. But 
in the course of the very night, when every thing was com- 
pleted for an assault, the cannon of the Americans being 
silenced; his Commander received the unpleasing intelligence^ 
that Colonel Baum, with a considerable body of the north- 
em army, had been surrounded at Bennington, and that 
Burgoyne himself, was actually in danger of being captured. 

Such melancholy and unprofif>erous tidings, produced a 
sudden and immediate retreat Accordingly, long before break 
of day. General St Leger decamped, Indians and all, and 
so secret and rapid were his motions, that he actually fargOi 
to send intelligence of his intentions to Lieutenant 'Gleoie, 
then serving in the entrenchments. Certain it is, that tlus 
officer first received the alarming and unexpected news, from 
one of his own gunners; and as he and his artillerymen 
would have been inevitably destroyed, had they attempted to 
move by day-light, taking counsel from his intrepidity alone, 
he determined to assume an appearance of unusual confidence. 
Accordingly, the fire was renewed on all points and direc- 
tions with redoubled vigour ; and by enfilading their works, 
he so occupied the attention of the garrison, who hickily 



MIU GLENIE. 189 

not aware of his critical situation ; that he could, and would 
have taken the fort itself had he possessed but a few soldiers 
to assume the appearance of heeds of columns. 

A retreat being now the only course left him to pursue, he 
contrived to effect his escape in such a judicious manner, that 
he carried off every man belonging lb his own corps ; and 
marching with unexampled celerity^ through woods, across 
fastnesses, and over rivers, arrived at head quarters, to the 
utter astonishment of all ; who supposing that be had been 
sacrificed in ord^ to ensure the safety of the troops, of course 
had predicted, that the whole of the €irtillery squad was 
either killed or taken prisoners. 

No sooner did inteUigence of this gallant afiair, which dis- 
played equal skill and fortitude, arrive in England, than the 
late Marquis Townshend, a brave man himself, and the con- 
stant friend and patron of merit in others, as a public mark of 
his esteem, instantly transferred the unknown object of this 
unsolicited fiivour, from the artillery to the engineers, which 
circumstance, together with the reasons annexed, were notified 
in the London Gazette, 

It appears frpm a list of promotions found on his taUe at 
his death, that in 1779, Mr. Glenie was nominated one of the 
^^ thirty Practitioner Engineers,'' and ^^ second Lieutenant;'' 
he was afterwards advanced to be first Lieutenant, which, 
estimating by comparative rank, placed him in a respectable 
station. 

Meanwhile, the love of military glory, and the memory o£ 
his late achievement, had not obliterated, or even lessened £>r 
a moment,, that fervour in the cause of science, which ever ani- 
mated his bosom. The veteris vestigia JUanmcs still burned 
with unceasing ardour. 

He had luckily become acquainted with Baron Maseres, and 
to him he now transmitted a variety, of important papers, on 
th^ ipost abstruse subjects. These were read before the Royal 
Society, and he was actually admitted a member, like Dr^ 
Franklin, without being subject to any fees, and not only without 



190 MB. OLElflE. 

his own eolicitatioiiy but even without his knowledge : for he 
was then serving in America. 

On his return to England, Mr. Glenie found that his fame 
had preceded him, and he was now received every where with 
attention and respect. About this same period he appears to 
have married : the maiden name of his wife was Miss Mary 
Anne Locke, whose father, for a considerable time^ occupied 
the respectable office of Store-Keeper at Portsmouth. It is 
not a little remarkable, that this gentleman had five daughters, 
who became the wives of five officers, all of whom were Scots- 
men. By this lady, who is still alive, he had three children, 
two of whom survive their father, and both occupy honourable 
and advantageous posts under Crovemment. 

At length. in ] 783, the late Marqm's, then Viscount Towns- 
hend wflQs obliged to resign the high and respectable post of 
Master-General of the Ordnance, a station of considerable 
emolument, and most extensive patronage, which he had held 
during ten years. His lordship was succeeded by Charles, 
Duke of Richmond, Lenox, and Aubigny, a nobleman, who 
in the course of a pertinacious opposition to the American war, 
had evinced no inconsiderable talents for debate; he had also 
acquired a high degree of popularity both in England and Ire- 
land, by first promulging the idea of annual parliaments* and 
universal suffirage. Having seen the navy of England, in 1 779, 
reduced to the afflicting necessity of taking refuge in the Bristol 
Channel, from the combined fleets of France and Spain,- which 
had menaced the dock-yard of Plymouth and insulted the 
whole coast; he determined on preventing such a disgrace m 
future. Accordingly, instead of augmenting our ships, and 
ereating a new nursery for our seamen, his Grace conceived 
the romantic idea of fortifying all our naval arsenals and ren- 
dering every important maritime station inaccessible to the 
assaults either of any single power, or combined naval 
force whatsoever. But his Grace had scarcely conceived his 
plan when, in consequence of the retreat of the ministry of that 
day, he was succeeded by his noble predecessor and rxvaL^— 



MR. GLENIE. 191 

Yet, by a new and sudden change, when Mn Pitt came into 
power, the Duke was reinstated ; and actually held his ibriner 
distinguished station during a long period of full twelve years. 
Being now firmly seated in power, and possessing the full con- 
fidence of a young, bold, eloquent, and able minister, he deter- 
mined to carry all his projects into immediate execution. His 
Grace commenced, with due respect for official forms : accord- 
ingly he first assembled a board of officers and engineers, 
and with no great difficulty obtained a pretty general but not una- 
nimous acquiescence to his dictates. It was hot at all surprising 
that these gentlemen, some of whom were doubtless interested 
in the question, should advocate works of this description: but 
it astonished the public greatly, when certain sea^-officers of 
considerable rank and character afibrded their countenance to 
a plan calculated, in the first instance, to render the royal navy 
entirely unnecessary ; and which even if declared useful in a 
certain limited degree, by swallowing up the disposable fiinds 
of the nation, would ultimately preclude its encrease and even 
its employment. 

A little anterior to this, Mr. Glenie, as has already been 
mentioned, became first a husband and then a father. 

Some difficulties having occurred, about this period in the 
construction of * Fort Monkton, and the neigtibouring lines, 
on the part of his superior dBScers, the aid of Mr. Glenie is said 
to have been invoked, and he immediately obviated them all, 
with a facility that astonished every one. This event, as he 
was accustomed to observe, proved on the whole disserviceable 
to him ; for if it added to his reputation, it at the same produ- 
ced both jealousy and envy on the part of those under whom 
he was destined to serve. 

During the second administration of the Duke of Richmond 
at the Board of Ordnance, he paid great attention to the sub- 
ject of this narrative ; who, like himself, was a fellow of the 
Royal Society. He had read the papers addressed to the 

* The writer of this article has just been told by a field-officer of artillery, that these 
works ooold never withaund the impetuiof the tide, uatil Mr. Glei^- contrived, hy 
doue- tailing the stone work, to render it capable of contending with tkn utmott efforts of 
the ocean. 



192 ufuQUMm^ 

Preadeol, and soasd eireiy opportunity of hooourii^ and dis* 
xmgniduDg bim both in public and private. His Graoa iraakly 
and fineqoently acknowleged that he was more indebted to 
Mr. James Glenie, than to all his reading, for his knowledge 
of the principles of the art of fortification ; and so far did he 
at one time carry his admiration^ that he deigned to designate 
himself as ^^ his pupiL^' What a rare opportuni^ for advance* 
ment would this have afforded to a servile spirit? How few 
oScets of engineers could have resisted the blandishments^ 
and caresses, and seductions of a Master-General of the OrdU 
nance? But the mind of Gl^nie was formed in no ordinary 
or vulgar mould ; and on his ojunion being demanded, he re- 
spectfully, but firmly declared himself in direct opposition to 
the new scheme of fiMrtificatioiis. The Duk^ having obstinately 
and uoavailingly persisted in his conversion, he then ecnnmu* 
nicated confidentially to his Grace^ that in his own private 
judgment his projects were in express opposition to all the 
rules of the art of war ; and he supported this doctrine by a 
familiar recurrence to all the great masters both in ancient 
and modem times. 

It is not here meant to ccmvey any idea of disrespect to the 
memory of the nobleman in question, to whom the writer of 
this memoir^ when a boy, deemed it an honour to be known. 
His Grace posaeMed great and rare qualifications ; but it moit 
be frankly owned, that towards the latter part of his life, he 
was unfortunately smitten with a military mania, hi^fy 
detrimental to the best and dearest interests of his country. 
One of his opponents in parliament, indeed, was accustomed 
to diaracterise him as a new kind of <^ Uncle Toby," who 
conveyed his qu^es in casemates, where detached data were 
formed so as to resemble advanced works, and who never 
picked his teeth without having recourse to a palisado ! 

In 1785| the Master General's grand plan wa^ at length sub- 
mitted to parliamentary inspection, and m the bucceeding ses- 
sion brought forward and bolstered up by the rare eloquence 
and extensive influence of Mr. Pitt, then Premier. Supported 
by such weight and interest) there can be but little doidit that 



. MR.GLENIE. 193 

die forty or fifty millions required for thie execution of such 
gigsntic prefects would bave been readily granted, but for the 
intervention of Mr. Glenie; and how lligt was obtained and 
Immght into action, will be here detailed in print for tbc first 
time. , 

The lieutenant had alwa3rs been attached to the Marquis 
Townshend, who was Im early patron, and had voluntarily 
and readily signalised his merits by a rare and very flattering 
exertion of authcHri^. This nobleniian was now in the riiade^ 
while his rival, the Duke of Richmond, badced in tfat 
sunsl^e o( power ; but if his new, extraordinary, and ex* 
pensive speculations could be but once set adde^ esftaiit 
ruin and disgrace would, it was supposed, inevitably ensuei;^ 
The late Mr. Courtenay, who with great wit, or at least great 
fiicetiousness, united considerable talents, and was the confix 
dential firi^id and secretary of the Ex-Master General, know<» 
ing the declared opinion of Mr. Glenie^ determined to make 
him an instrument, not only for the advancement <rf the noUie 
lord and himself; but also for the advantage of the state. Hd 
accordingly invited this officer to his own house for a fow days ; 
and he was never permitted to leave it until he had composed 
that fiimous pamphlet, which produced at one and the same 
time^ the safety of his native country, and his own indivi« 
dual ruin !- 

This work, entitled, ^^ A Short Essay,'' soon engaged, and 
at length wholly occupied the public attention ; for it was con- 
nected with a branch of expenditure whidi threatened a ne^ 
national debt, nearly as formidable as diat which had lately 
been created by the American war. In this fiur4amed publi* 
cation, which passed through several editions, he demcmstrated 
that extensive lines produce prolonged weakness, not streaoigth: 
that fortifications serve but to invite the enemy into a feragn 
country, and fiimish him after his arrival with the most eSb^ 
tual means of becoming master of it; and that thetroe|Mi 
ooope4 up within these chains of redoubts*, would be fiir 

• Abodyof S3,000ioldicn«ts JcquindlbrFioitaiB^^ 
VOL. II. O 



194 MR. OLEVtB. 



more fennichbl^ as an active and moveable fbrc^ against an 
invading enemy. He recommended the navy as the most 
natural and most ^Qdent defence of Great Britain ; and he 
oondiided by maintaiuing that this country must inevitably 
lose both the East and the West Indies, with her naval superio- 
rity. After a careful investigation of the sums intended to be 
laid out by the th^ Master*Greneral of the Ordnance, he 
clearly proved, by a correct estimate, that they would exceed 
the whole capital required for building a new aud complete 
fleet, superior to that of any nation upon earth ! How fiur he 
was correct in his ideas, let the succeeding war of 17939 de- 
monstrate : for during its commencement and prc^ess every 
thing «was achieved by a superior maritime force. By its 
means^ we were enabled to beat, 'and even to annihilate the 
navies of France Spain, and Holland; to sweq) every sea 
in both hemispheres of every hostile force; to carry the terror 
of the British arms to the shores of the Mediterranean, ai 
well as to the distant Egypt ; and finally to conclude the war 
by the decisive victory of Waterloo ! 

The Duke instantly took the field in person, and pub- 
lished a bold, but inefficient rq)ly to a dissertation, which to 
mathematical exactitude superadded a glowing and ardent en- 
thusiasm; founded on scientific principles, it was aided, embel- 
hshed, and elucidated by an able appeal to the testimony of both 
ancient and modern history. The effect must now ^pear in- 
credible. Sisera was doomed to fall by the hands of a woman; 
and the Master General of the Ordnance of that day was laid 
prostrate, for a time, by the pen of a subaltern o£5cer of 
Engineers I 

This little pamphlet, strange as it may appear, proved fiital 
to the Duke's mighty projects; and thus by securing the 
wealth necessary for the equipment of our fleets, preserved the 
royal navy firom decay, if not from destruction. Nothing 
could exceed the surprise and discontent exhibited by the 
Houae^ on the production of. his new fang^ed schemes, . Gene- 
ral Burgoyne, who had been consulted, boldly denied bis at- 
ient; and declared the board to have been soipriaed into a 



MB. GLEKIE. 199 

seeming acquiescence^ by the ;aio8t extravagant hjrpotheses. 
Colond Barry, as usual^jreplied with keen and cutting sat casm • 
while Sheridan. eminently distinguidied himsdif on this occa^ 
sion by a very able speech. After inusting cm the wanton 
waste of wealth, he concluded by pointing out the dangers 
likely to accrue to the constitution ^Mn consequence of the 
vast addition to the military power of the crown, arising out of 
a permanent system of fortifications." 

The Minister, notwithstanding, his p<qpularity» found him- 
self deserted by the country gentlemen, now both enlightaied 
and enraged, and the ayes and noes amounting to exactly 
169, the Speaker's vote instantly negatived a system at <»lod 
absurd, chimerical, and extravagant! 

The rq)utation of Lieutenant Glenie, was now assuredly in 
the ascendant; for such a mighty effort had never been adiieved 
before by an obscure and almost unknown individual, even in 
this country ; bat the day of his humiliation, as may be readily 
supposed, was not iar off. If we are to bdUeve the yoice\qf 
fame, the great personage to whom we now allude, was not a 
little exasperated on the present occasion. Some allowances 
must indeed be made for the critical situation of a nobleman, 
long since deceased, but who then occupied one of the highest 
employments in the State. It cannot be doubted, but that the 
plans in question originated in the. best as well as purest mo- 
tives ; and yet, it was^not a little mortifying tp behold an officer 
in his own department, and under his ismiediate controul, not 
only leaguing with his political enemies, but actually exulting 
over him ! 

Mr. Glenie's noble antagonist had not been driven firom 
power, as was expected, in consequence of his recent dis- 
comfiture. On the contrary, after being defeated oa the ques- 
tion of ** new,'' he actually contrived, at length, to. obtain a 
parliamentary sanction for many o£ his proyects,^ und^r thehfiad 
of <^ repairs of old fortifications." Thus the Duke triumpdied 
in his turn ; and being a man of great talents and high cbariac- 
ter, was 8ii{qx>rted during the remainder of his official career, 
by the ^fhole weight of the i^dministration of that day«. 

o 2 



196 MB. OLENIE. 

The Lieutenant, in the mean time, cannot be auppoaed to 
have slept on a bed of roses. He had offended his superiors, 
and that too in a way not to be easily forgiven* All inter- 
course with them was of course cut off; and every idea of 
promotion banished for the present from his mind. He had 
obtained considerable fame indeed, as an engineer, a man of 
letters, and a mathematician, in the course of the late con- 
troversy. But however flattering these circumstances might 
prove, to an ardent and enterprising mind, yet he never 
reap^ any solid benefit from them^. Those too, by whom he 
wa» now patnmised, entertained but feeble expectations of 
being restored to office ; and they were unable to afford any 
thing but a distant hope to their adherents. 

Mr. Olenie^ soon after this, happened to be sent abroad^ and 
daring a considerable period was necessarily exposed to all the 
dangers and inconveniences arising from colonial service and 
unhealthy climates. As his opinion was deemed of great 
weight, he also experienced frequent removak; and being en- 
tirely destitute of both patrimonial and acquired fortune^ must 
of course have endured many personal inconveniencies ; for 
a wife and fiunily were to be maintained out of the scan^ pay 
of a subaltern 1 

At length, he is said to have consulted several disdngniahed 
leaden o£ opposition relative to his friture ccmduct; aad 
the result was a recommendation to withdraw; in addition 
to which he is reported to have obtained a written document 
from a high and respectable quarter, containing a promise of 
restoration and reinstatement ! For the latter circumstance^ to 
which Mr. Courtenay was declared to have been privy, the 
writer of this article cannot vouch, as he never saw the paper in 
question ; but in respect to the former he entertains no doubt 
whatever. Accordingly, in an evil hour, this truly unfortunate 
officer, at length tendered his resignation ; and that too at a 
time when he was entitled to promotion. There can be but 
little doubt that this was an indiscreet step ! 

Forsaking his profession, his friends, and his ooantry» and 
relying implicitly on the moonshine of political promiaes^ Jie now 



MR. GLENIE. 197 

embarked with his wife and childmi, as an adventurer, for British 
America ; and either obtained^ or purchased for a trifling price^ a 
considerable tract of land in the province of New Brunswick, 
where his widow is actually settled at the present moment. .. 

Soon after his arrival, he was professiimally consulted by the 
Duke of Kent, who then occupied a high staticm in our por- 
tion of the Trans- Atlantic Continent, relative to the best means 
of preserving oujr remaining possessions there. His Royal 
Highness, who, with great zeal for the public wd&re^ umtet 
die rare .talent of discerning the human character, at a fangle 
glance, instantly perceived his merits, and is supposed to have 
obtained a report from this able engineer, in which the meami €t 
strengthening the defences of Halifax, a most important station, 
both on account of its dock-yard and its geographical poidtipn, 
were fully detailed. 

Mr.Glenie, now entered on a novel scene, and was henceforth 
destined to act in a new diaracter and capacity. This ficiixiy, 
which had been rec^ojdy severed from Nova Scotia, was at thai 
period agitated by two political parties, called the ^* Upper ^ 
atid the *^ Lower Coves," from their req>ective places of abode. 
The latter were in opposition to the measures of the Governor ; 
and he having joined them, was returned as a Representative to 
the House of Assembly. He had opposed the Master-General of 
the Ordnance; he had opposed the President of the Royal Society ^ 
at home * ; and he now once more opposed ^^ the powers that 
be," in a foreign and unknown land. Yet strange as this may 
seem, it would be difficult to attach any blame to his conduct ; 
nay he might and possibly was actuated by the noblest mo* 
tives, on all these occasions. Those who knew him best main- 
tain tiiat he was solely influenced by a spirit of independence^ a 
love of propriety, and a noble contempt for injustice ; it would, 
indeed be unfair to trace the conduct of a man, who on all, and 

* Mr.Glenie was one of those who opposed Sir Joseph Banks in 1783, respecting the 
disQUMion of Dr. Charles Hutton, then Professor of Mathematics in the Royal Mili> 
lAryAcademy of Wodirichy from the office of Corresponding-Secretary to the Royal 
Society. Ob this occi^ioD, he acted in conjunction with Bishop Honlcy, Dr. Miske- 
lyne, the AstrononMr>Roja}, Mr. Maty, Sir George Shuckburgh, Mr. T. B. Holies, 
Baion Maacfci, Sic. Sic. 

o 3 



198 MB. OL£NIB« 

every one of tkeie events acted in direct hoetility to his own 
kmnedpfte interests, to any improper source ! 
,. Bat if we are to give full credit for the most honourable 
motives to this unfortunate gentleman, what can we say of his 
simplicity^ when, under these drciimstances, he entered into 
deep speculations, and actuaUy became a contractor for ship- 
tiihber, and niasts for Oovemmoit. The result will not sur- 
prise any one. He and his partner, who is said to have been 
a man of considerable opulence, were both ruined on this oc- 
casion ; and yet their successors, more politic, or at least more 
fortunate, are said to have realised a sum of nearly 100,000{. 
by the same individual pregect \ 

It thus became necessary for Mr. Olenie to leave the forests 
of North Amentia, and beginning the world anew, and at an 
advanced period of life, to search for bread and employment in 
Europe. But alas ! he was now entirely forgotten, after an 
interval of so many eventfiil years. His iriend, General Mel- 
ville, received him with open arms; and Mr. Courtenay was 
still alive indeed, but old, infirm, and about to retire from Par- 
liament : he readily recognised, however, his merits and his 
services ; but he himself had been stripped of office, and had 
also oudived all his friends I The subject of this memdr, 
however, found means to be introduced to some of those then in 
possession of power. Such, however, was his utter ignorance of 
the manners of a court, that he considered every smile and bow," 
on these occasions, as an acquiescence in his claims, while a 
dight compliment was instantly construed into an immediate 
pledge, for ensuring all his pretensions ! 
- With that good-nature which has ever characterised the Eari 
of Chatham, this nobleman, during part of the time that he 
occupied the office of Master-General,, is said to have retained, 
rather than to have employed him, as Engineer-Extraordinary. 
And when the East-India Company formed an establishment 
for its young artillery-officers, Mr. Glenie was recotnmended to 
the Court of Directors, to instruct their cadets, with a salaiy 
which, together with the emoluments^ amounted to about MOl. 
per annum. 



mh. glenie. 199 

This, however, proved to be but a short gUmpse of pros- 
perity, in the long and changeable life of this extraordinary 
man, who was once more driven into want and obscurity, by 
an utter ignorance of the world and its affidrs. The story 
shall be brief, the particulars, indeed, are not wholly known to' 
the writer of this article, who did not become acquainted witii' 
his history, until a considerable time afterwards^ ^ 

During a trial in which the &mou9^ l^rs. Clarke acted a' 
ccm^icuous part, Mr. Glenie appear^ as an evidence, and 
in consequence of the questions put by the conns^i on both 
sides, is reported to have stated some particulars, that proved 
highly oflfensive in a certain quarter I But if he was sion- 
moned on this occasion, he was obliged to attend, and Aier 
solemnity of an oath imposed on him the obligation of telling 
the whole truth ; if he appeared voluntarily, and of his own 
accord, it was the conduct of a man, who had not profited^ 

* > 

even by the severest lessons ci adversity ! 

Be this as it may, he was soon after informed by an oflBcial 
letter from the India House, that the Company had changed 
its plans — altered its establishment — and that his future 
services were dispensed with. * All his new patrons, were 
from this moment deaf to his applications, and he was icmcb^ 
more thrown on an unfeeling world, unfriended^ unprotected,' 
and unpatronised ! 

Soon after this, with that eagerness with which the unfor* 
tunate constantly convert hopes into realities, Mr. G. assented 
to a proposition on the part of a late member of parliament, to 
repair to Copenhagen, for the purpose of negotiating the pur- 
diase of a large plantation, with the proprietor of it, who rei* 
sided in that capital. With his usual improvidence, he set 
out on this extraordinary mission, without any agreement as 
to remuneration, in the dark and gloomy month of Novem- 
ber) 1812. The voyage proved long and boisterous, and oh 
his return during the succeeding year, with the loss of health 

* It is but candid here to sute, that Mr. Glenie, while at Croydon, could ill broolc 
a fttpeiior in power, who io aH probability, was &r inferior In respect to science. His 
fOKtcfMioM on thia occaaion miglit prove disterviceable. - 

O 4" 



1200 MfU OLENIE* 

and strength, and spirita, his daimi'were propoted to be sub- 
mitted to arbitration; but the referees could never agree as to 
the oompeosation to be awarded. From this voyage, and 
a severe concomitant iUness, he never entirely recovered; 
it was ipidertaken at a time of life, when exhausted nature 
demands repose; and the new and rec^it disappointment 
experienced on this occasion, appeared to have completed the 
climax of his misfortunes. 

During all these perils, adventures, and mortifications, Mr. 
Glenie, however, never once forgot the pursuits in which he had 
exhibited such precocious attainments ; and these, from his early 
youth, to the very last moment of his existence, he fenidly 
^dierished. The limits of thi^ narrative will permit no other 
than a brief aqposition erf* his mathematical labours. 

Amidst his eaid^ caippaigns in America, he cheered tlie 
solitude of the surrounding forests, and gave variety to the 
occupations of a military life, by a general demonstration of 
the ** Binomial problem," which he instantly transmitted to 
Baron Maseres, who has inserted it in his *^ Scriptores Logar 
rithmicL'* 

He afterwards conveyed to the Royal Society, a demon- 
stration of the celebrated Dr. Matthew Stewart's ^* 42d Pro- 
positioD, or 39th Theorem,'' which had xemained without 
solution, and puzzled the learned during a period of sixty- 
five years. From the same head, in 1792, proceeded the 
^ Antecedental Calculus, or geometrical method of reasoning 
without any consideration of motion or velocity, applicable to 
every purpose in which Fluxions have been, or can be 
applied." 

In 1811, was read before the Royal Society, and afterwards 
published in their transactions, his famous paper entided: 
^* Of the circle and the infinite incommensurability of its 
area, to the square of the diameter, or of its circumference to 
the diameter; together with very usefiil, and rapid geome- 
trical approximations for both." In the accompanying de- 
monstration, he has set public curiosity to rest, concenoiig 
^ the squaring of the circle ;" by proving the impoMifaility of 



MR. GLEKIE. SOI 

it: a question, which is supposed to have engaged the at* 
tention, and to have eluded the research of the illustrious 
Newton* This, there is reaion to suppose, is the last work 
of any consequence, which came under his consideration* 

Towards the latter end of the year 1816, Mr. Glenie re- 
tired from town, and hired apartments at Eabury Houses in 
the vicinity of Belgrave-Place^ Pimlico ; to which he was partly 
moved by the consideration of a better air, and partly with the 
hope of obtaining mathematical pupils. His health, . however, 
was now sensibly on the decline, his affiurs were deranged^ his 
wife and £eunily were absent, and he appears to have been to- 
taUy destitute of c^ndent Mends, and powerful coiiiKfirions. 

In this extremity, when apparently forsaken fay oU theimil^ 
a female who had been a long time about the person c£ thji 
aged Mathematician, remained firmly attached to her old mas- 
ter, and administered to all his wants and necessities. He was 
at length struck with an apoplexy, produced, no doubt, by care^ 
vexation, and a dread of coming evils, and after languishing 
a week, he at length submitted to the common fate of mankindy 
on the 2Sd of November, 1817. His remains, accompanied to 
the grave by several of his friends, were interred, with a decent 
k)lemnity, in the church-yard of St. Martin's in the Fields, on 
Sunday the 1st of December. 

. Thus died, in the 67th year of his age, James Glenie, F.R.S. 
who, on a variety of accounts, lays claim to be considered one 
of the most singular and interesting characters of the preset 
age. In person he exactly answered the description of Ulysses, 
by Homer. His make^ and form, and strength, augured a 
life capable (^ great longevity, and likely to be extended to a 
century : but this was prevented, by an uninterrupted series of 
disastrous events. His real disease, or at least the predominant 
and predisposing cause of his demise, doubtless originated in 
a broken heart ! 

He has been represented by some, as Arritabley but was it 
possible for any nerves to have withstood the miseries of 
thirty years? He was deemed querulous, by others : but v^t 



202 MA. GI4SNIE. 

law, either moral, or mntiihipal, precludes complaint on the 
part of the unfortunate : 

" Res sacra miserJ* 

Modest and unassuming in his mannefs ; he appeared diffi* 
dent of himself; and such was Mr. Glenie's utter unconscious- 
ness of the extent and peculiarity of his own powers, that he 
actually deemed oratory one of his leading qualifications ! 
Simplicity and crMulity formed the ordinary features of his 
character : the man who had supplied the omissions of * Vaubfoi 
and pointed out the errors of Hannibal f , was easily imposed 
upon by any artful tale. The last year of his life was spent in 
a manner worthy oS a philosopher. He studied the rules of 
his ancient profesaon in Polybius ; and was accustomed to read 
daily a certain portion of the Ghreek Testament, by means of 
which, he corrected the text of the English version. 

Although entirely destitute of the gifts of fortune^ yet he 
possessed a native independence of mind, together with a cer- 
tain sturdiuess of character, which approached the antique^ and 
was doubtless a man whose talents and resolution rendered 
him worthy of a better fate. 

On a great and trying occasion, like Publius Horatina 
Codes, he stood in the breach, but his fate was difierent firom 
that of the gallant Roman : the one was grateiuUy rewarded 
with a gift of land, and the grant of a statue ; while the other 
was suffered to pine during the latter portion of his life in 
panury and affliction. He fell a victim to certain peculiari- 
ties in his own character, as well as in those of the times in 
which he lived. His misfortunes, indeed, were produced by 
those very qualities that not unfi:^uently elevate others to 
wealth, to fame, and to honours of all kinds I 

As a Geometrician, his talents must be allowed to have been 
of the first order. He was fiuniliar with the abstruse branches 
of the sublime mathematics ; he carefully selected and uni- 

• See ft eompftriion between Vanbtn's, ftnd the custontry mode of fortiSouioB. 

t See ft duaenatioD prefixed to a work dedicftted to the Poke uf York, by tke Ut0 
Dr. Wm. Thomion, (ftuthor of the " Contioufttion o( the History of Philip II.") in* 
tended for the use of the militftrj tcfahol ftt High Wycombe. 



MR. GLEN IE. 203 

farmly succeeded in the demonstration of the roost difficult 
problems ; these alone, he would condescend to encounter. — 
His operation, by " approximation," is not only new of itself; 
but it exhibits a more rapid mode of calculation than any 
former discovery. In short, he aspired to, and ought doubt- 
less to be deemed an inventor^ in that science, to which he 
had consecrated his earliest, and his best days. 

Such was the general deference paid to a rare union of talents 
and misfortunes in his persoB, that'his friends not only voluntari- 
iy contributed to alleviate Ml wa]it% but also concurred unani- 
mously in assigning him that military rank, which, but finr his 
wayward fortune, coupled irith a variety of strange, unexpected, 
and singular occurrences, would have been long since conferred 
on him. Accordingly, he was generally known and addressed 
by the appellation of ^^ Colond ;" and it must be &irly owned, 
that if science such as his be justly appreciated, he would have 
wielded the baton of a general, both with credit to himseli^ 
and his country. 



C «« ) 



No.X. 




Right Honourable GEORGE PONSONBY, 



AIakt difficulties must necessarily occur in respect to a 
geneiiogy diat boasts of seven or eight centuries of antiqniQr; 
that affects to unravel the clue of descent amidst the proacrip- 
tioiu and miseries of civil war ; or boldly refers to the annals of 
a foreign country, both for authenticity, and illustration. Not- 
withstanding these trifling perplesities, which have not been at 
all diminished by the interested complacency of modem 
heralds; the Ponsonbys are supposed to have come originally 
from Picardy. As that province is at this present moment 
me of the poorest districts of France, and at no time was ever 
remarkable for its wealth or fertility, it is but little wonder 
that it furnished many adventurers who were eager to share in 
the ^ry and the spoils held out by the Norman expedition. 



MR. PONSONBT. 209 

to England. One of the family, is said to have aocmipanied 
Duke William to this comitry; and after the dedsive battle^ 
which conferred the crown on that aiterprinng chie^ he was 
of course provided for among the rest i^ his followers. Ac* 
cordingly, the manor of Ponsonby, at Hale, in Cumberland^ 
which fell to his lot, gave both ^< a local habitation and a name'' 
to himself and his descendants. One of these^ Sir Jdm Pon« 
sonby, either being of an adventurous spirit, like his ancestor, 
or preferring the rich lands of Ireland, to the Ueak valky s and 
barren mountains of the north, accorapasded iibe Protector's 
army thither, and like many others of his protestant country* 
men, carved out a rich succession for Hunsel^ from among the 
estates of the Irish Catholics, a multitude of whom at this 
period, were punished with confiscation, or proscribed under 
the names of ^^ notorious delinquents,'' <^ rebels," ^^ free- 
booters," &c. and thdr estates disposed of, among what are 
still termed in that country, << the Gromwellians." Some years 
since, the rental possessed by this fiunHy, in die iister isl^ 
was estimated at 30,000/. per annum, and it has doubtless 
encreased greatly since that period. 

Such a mass of property, in a comitry so situate, superadded 
to character, talents, and &vourable opportunities, could not 
fail to confer honour as well as riches. Accordingly two 
peerages*, the Speakership f of the Irish House of Commons, 
followed some years after by the Chancellorship, and an alli- 
ance with the Ducal Houses of Devonshire^ and St Albans, 
as well as the noble ones of lancer. Grey, Westmorland, 
Shannon, Kilworth, Loftus, and Mountmorris, have all contri- 
buted to render this a rich, powerful, and distinguished fiimily, 

Mr. Ponsonby, the subject of the present narrative^ was bom 
on the 5th of March, 1755. He was the third son of the Ho- 
nourable John Ponsonby, brother to the late^ and uncle to the 
present Earl, of Besborough, by Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, 

* Beaboiough and IrookiUy. 

t The HoQounble Juhn Ponsonby, Speaker of the IrUh Hooae of CooMBont, waa 
elected to 1760; in 17699 be was tueceeded by Edmond Sexton Pcry* B*<1* 



S06 MB. FONSOKBT. 

daughter of William, third, and great aunt to the present, 
Duke of Devonshire. 

Of the &ther, it may be here necessary to make some men- 
tion. Having been bred to the bar, he succeeded Mr. Boyle 
in the chair of the Irish House of Commons, at a period 
when that office, however honourable, could not be called 
lucrative; for we find the sum of SOOL only, voted to the 
Speaker ^^ to enable him to maintain the state and dignity 
of his office." The fees, however, amounted to an equal sum; 
and an augmentation took place, in 1761, so as to make the 
whole 2000/.; which was doubled in 1765. 

Soon after the accession of George III. we find the name 
of the elder Mr. Ponsonby among those of the '^ Jxunds Jt»- 
tioes;" he was nominated to that station no fewer than six 
times. This gentleman had the Ixddness to refuse to certify a 
money-bill from the Privy CSoundl, a circumstance that ren* 
. dered him extremely popular, as this mode was even iJioi 
deemed by some, to be unconstitutional, and was afterwards 
abrogated. 

On the demise of Lord Shannon, his son and heir who liad 
married the Speaker's daughter, joined his &ther-in-law, and 
the Ponsonbys; and such was the extent of their joint in- 
fluence, diat they not only overcame the rival house of Beres- 
ford, but in some measure counterbalanced the royal preio- 
gative itsd^ powerful as it then was in Ireland. He resigned 
his seat as Speaker in 1769, during the vice-royalty of Lord 
Townsend; for an address having been voted by the Com- 
mons of Ireland to that nobleman, contrary to his decided 
opinion, he requested leave of the House, to withdraw from 
the chair, that he might not be under the necessity of acting 
inconsistently with bis own avowed sentiments, by carrying 
up, and reading a vote of approbation to that nobleman, 
against which he had argued strenuously in a committee. Not- 
withstanding this, the Ex-Speaker was said at one time^ to 
have enjoyed *^ the pationage of all Ireland ;" this doubtlesa 
savours of exaggeration; but it is not too much to affinui that 

11 



MR. PONSONBT. 9Xfl 

he possessed, and for a long time exercised a greater d^ree 
of influence than any commoner, nay, than any peer had 
ever done before his time, in the government of the sister 
kingdom. 

His younger son, Mr. George Ponsonby, of whom we are 
now to treat, after receiving the first rudiments of his edu- 
cation, under the paternal roo^ was put to a public school, 
where he obtained a considerable stock of classical learning. 
He then repaired to the University oi Cambridge^ and as he 
neither possessed the prospect of a peerage, nor a great estate^ 
he was not dazzled by coronets, or distracted by the hopes 
of future magnificence, firom the pursuit of knowledge. The 
same circumstances, rendered a profession absolutely neces- 
sary. Actuated by an honourable ambition, he therefore 
entered himself of one of the Inns of Court, as this was 
deemed the readiest and shortest road to preferment. Nor 
was he mistaken in the sequel, as.all the honours attendant 
on the most successful career, were at length fidrly won and 
enjoyed by him. 

In the year 1780, Mr. Ponsonby received what is termed 
a ^^ call" to the Irish bar, but he did not for some time dis- 
tinguish himself either in the Four Courts at DtibUn, or daring 
the assizes. He at this period, seems to have turned his mind 
chie&y to pursuits seemingly incompatible : politics, and hunt- 
ing. Yet, he thus eariy, not only omtrived to have a selit, but 
also in good time to be a leader in parliament. Mr. Ponsonby» 
however, did not altogether neglect his profession^ interests, 
for when the Duke of Portland' was appointed Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, in 1782, we find him obtauiing a silk 
gown. He was soon after nominated, first counsel to the 
commissioners of the revenue, an office which was then deemed 
of considerable importance, both in an honorary, and pecu- 
niary point of view, the salary and emoluments being estimated 
at 1200/. per anniun. As many important prosecutions were 
undertaken by this board, a barrister of no more than two or 
three years standing, must assuredly have possessed connder- 
able talents, as well as some iittle practical knowledge, before 



808 KB. waxtMNMY. 

he could ha:^ fiilfilled the duties annexed to his appointment 
ivitfa ability and discretion. But even then, he was cfaara^ 
terised for a species of constitutional indolence, which, however, 
did not wholly preclude in his, as in many other cases, an eji^ 
traordinary attachment to, and an unceasing exertion in the 
q)orts of the field. He would at any time^ have rather on* 
kennelled a fox, and contended for the brush at the end of the 
chase^ than have prosecuted a poor smuggler to destructioii, 
and employed the harpies of the law, in driving the unha{qij 
wife and innocent children from a cottage to a jail I 

Puring the short administration of the Duke of Pordand, 
consisting only of a few months, Mr. Ponsonby continued, at 
has been already suggested, to mingle pleasure with buaineWi 
Anterior to this period too, he resolved on marriage*, and on 
that occasion, made choice of Lady Mary Butler, eldest 
daughter of the late Brinsley, second Earl of Lanesboroui^ 
By the sudden recall of the nobleman alluded to abofc^ 
our young barrister was deprived of a patron, and in the ptst^ 
son of the new Viceroy, he soon experienced an enemy. The 
late Marquis of Buckingham had been selected by Jir. Pitt, 
to govern the sister kingdom in a new manner, and on new 
principles. It had been the constant policy of England, to 
regulate that unfortuni^ country by means of parties and great 
families, and it was now decreed that the house of Besborough 
should give way to the house of Waterford. The new Vioe- 
roy acordingly commenced his administration, by m Airing a 
variety of changes ; and among the rest, Mr. Ponsonby was 
dismissed from office, for the express purpose of appointing 
Mr. Marcus Beresford, a cadet of that powerful fiunily, whote 
star was now in the ascendant, his successor. On this occasion) 
there could be no objection either to the age or talents of 
Mr. Ponsonby; for his successful rival was still younger and 
less informed than himself. 

It has been said that persecution produces mar^nra; and 
patriots are doubtless frequently confirmed, and 

• Thii took pUco in May, I7ti. 



MR. PONSONBY. 209 

actually made by the same means. The scanty fortune of a 
younger brother could but ill supply the loss of such an in- 
come^ more especially to a married man, who had formed 
an establishment suitable to a revenue which he had been 
taught to deem permanent, while he was already hailed as a 
father by an offspring that looked up to him for succour and 
support. His wounded pride also took the alarm : for he 
could not behold a hostile family triiunphant. and that too 
partly at the expence of his own, without the keenest feelings 
arising out of the palpable wrong, and injustice, to which he 
now considered himself as subjected. 

This happy occurrence^ for so it actually proved, however 
mortifying it might at first appear, finally produced a great 
and beneficial change in his character and conduct. Greatly 
to his honour, he now determined on a new course of life, and 
sacrificing his indolence on the shrine of his ambition, he 
resolved to change his career of pleasure for pursuits more 
worthy of his talents. Accordingly his stud of hunters began 
to disappear by d^ees, and the courts of law to be visited 
more frequently than the dog-kennel. Nor was this all, for l\e 
resolved to qualify himself for excelling in his profession ; and 
accordingly by intense study, he soon proved what a man of 
parts is capable o^ who is not afraid to do violence to his 
very nature, when it is averse from every thing bordering on 
toil and constraint. Industry, added to the means derived 
from a masculine and correct understanding, soon rendered 
Mr. Ponsonby an able and accomplished lawyer, in a country 
where profound and technic$il skill are not deemed altogether 
necessary, as with us. His fiimily connexions still respectable 
and numerous, although no longer powerful, soon pointed him . 
out as a rising man, and business now flowed in apace. His 
silk gown, which still remained, gave him both precedency 
and consequence ; and his income, in a short time, greatly exn 
ceeded what it had been When he looked up to his official gains, 
as a certain and assured resource. Nor was this all, for ^hile 
he displayed a large portion of forensic eloquence, he deter-i 

you II. F 



210 MB. PONSONBT. 

mined, at the same time^ to acquire and exhibit a very 
qyecies of oratory : that adapted for the senate. 

In a short time he accordingly began to be considered i 
speaker of the best promise in the Irish House of Commc 
The torrent of his eloquence bore down all before him. 1 
Viceroy in him found a redoubtable enemy, whom he h 
had armed with indignation and resentment. Acting Hh 
popular side, and on public principles, he now thii rec 
against corruption ; he boldly disclosed all the real or i p* 
posed criQies and errors of administration ; he aggravated 
complaints which were then both loud and general, and « ' 
began to be deemed a proper person to lead the host oF op- 
position to battle. They were uniformly defeated, inc » 
the division, but some difficulty existed as to answering t 
ai^guments. Meanwhile, our young member broadly i . 
palpably asserted that the government patronage, in t I 
House, had increased, was increasing, and ought- to be 
diminished ; that the expenccs occasioned by this fatal syt* 
tem had exceeded all former bounds ; and that out of three 
hundred members, there were one hundred and ten who 
joyed places and pensions under the crown. He was both 
pointed and personal too, in respect to the nobleman who now 
presided over the destinies of his native country. << Onr 
wrongs,'' exclaimed he^ <^ instead of being alleviated hare been 
cruelly multiplied by the new Viceroy ! He has united injos- 
tice to corruption ; he has aggravated our former sofibriiigs 
and mortifications, by superadding fourteen new placemen to 
the number, already too great, which existed before his tiwe; 
he has created new offices for his partisans in this assembly, 
by encreasing the number of members at the public boards r 
and to accumulate his patronage he has subdivided among two 
or more, the duties and salaries of offices, which, until his 
time, had been filled by one single individual." 

Nor was it long before Mr. Ponsonby attained a oompleti 
triumph over that nobleman, who had unplumedhim in ofdtf 
to decorate a rival with his spoils. On the King^s alwBUBg 
illness in 1789, both kingdoms were overwhebned with grief 



MR. PONSONBY, 211 

and consternation at such a melancholy and unexpected event. 
In England, however, it was determined to restrict and limit 
the powers of the Regent, and that too in such a manner, and 
to such a degree, as, in the opinion of opposition, to render 
the office painful if not odious to the Heir- Apparent. His 
very right, indebd, to the exercise of its important fimctions 
was questioned by the premier of that day ; and he was fully 
supported and borne out by a great majority of the British 
Parliament, in the plan so ably laid down, and so eloquently 
enforced by him, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Mr. Fox, 
and the then powerful party associated beneath his banners. 
. It was far different in Ireland ; for tjiere the minority, after 
a short struggle, became triumphant. Mr. PcHisonby, now at 
the head of it, aided by the powerful talents and co-operation 
of Mr. Grattan, in the first place, maintained with equal bold- 
ness and success, the exclusive right of Ireland on the suspen- 
sion of the royal functions, to nominate and^ appoint her own 
Regent, without any reference to the conduct of Great Britain, 
on that occasion. This doctrine, indeed, arose out of, and 
was immediately connected with the great question of national 
independence, which had been so recently broached, main- 
tained, and acquired. The Irish legislature^ on this occasion, 
appeared resolute to support its rights, and exercise all the 
functions immediately connected with them. This national 
spirit was accompanied with another of a different kind. The 
leaders of all parties were eager to express their personal at- 
tachment, in order to engage the attention and the gratitude 
of their future sovereign, by thus acting in direct o])position 
to his fether's chief minister. The Brince of Wales was ac- 
cordingly invited to assume the Regency of the kingdom of 
Ireland, unfettered and unclogged with those restrictions 
which had been imposed in England ; and as the disappointed 
Viceroy chose to withdraw firom the government, rather than 
sanction a measure so hostile both to his feelings and instruc- 
tions, a deputation was selected from both Lords and Com- 
ilions, which had orders to proceed to Carlton-House, for the 

p 2 



S12 MR. PONSONBT. 

express purpose of commiinicating this singular and extraor- 
dinary event. 

But the sudden and happy restoration of the king, instantly 
created no small terror and dismay among many of those 
who had advocated the claims of the Prince of Wales, in 
England and Ireland. Some in both countries were dismissed 
from office; some chose to atone for their zeal by the most 
humiliating concessions ; while those who had stood unshak 
in the ministerial phalanx were caressed, rewarded, and i - 
vanccd. 

Mr. Ponsonby remained firm and unmoved ; and while new 
rigours seemed to be preparing for his countiymen, he came 
forward at the head of a small but faithful band, and attacked 
all those violent measures whicli he foresaw and prophesied, 
could only lead to a general convulsion. Yet, such was the 
&scinating eloquence and extensive influence of Mr. Pitt, 
that when the rebellion burst forth in 1798, an attempt w 
actually made to confound the leaders of the opposition witb 
the chiefs of the insurgents. But the character and conduct 
of Mr. Ponsonby alike defied distrust and misapprehension. 
Faithful to his purpose, and constantly at his post, he de> 
nounced certain crimes that according to him were perpetrated, 
and that too with impunity, in the very capital 

At length an union with Great Britain was projected, the 
apparent aim of which, was to amalgamate the interests of the 
sister island, by means of indissoluble ties ; to close the bleed- 
ing wounds of Ireland by a liberal spirit of conciliation and 
concession ; while by a community of interests, privileges, and 
enjoyments, both nations were to be rendered more happy and 
more powerful. But Mr. Ponsonby, and most of those with 
whom he usually acted, objected to the proposed scheme. They 
wished, indeed, to see a speedy period put to the distresses of 
their bleeding country ; but tliey were averse from sacrificing 
what they termed her independence. They could not contemplate 
the abolition of her separate legislature without pain ; and they 
deprecated so great and important a change, as an evi]^ the ad* 



MR. PONSONBY. SIS 

vantages of which were in some measure speculative, while the 
rmn was certain and unequivocal. We shall say nothing as to 
the means recurred to for efiecting this great object, many of 
which ought not to be praised ; but, perhi^s, on the other 
hand, it may have tended greatly to the strength of both 
islands, by a fortunate combination of the common interests 
and resources of the whole empire. 

At length, after a long and powerful struggle, a new order of 
things took place ; the opposition became the ministry; and the 
treasury bench in Ireland, as well as in England, received new 
occupants. This great change w;as produced in 1806, in con- 
sequence of a singular and unexpected coalition between Lcnrd 
Grenville and Mr. Fox. On this occasion, the extraordinary 
merits and long services of Mr. Ponsonby were not forgotten ; 
for he was made a member of his Majest)r's Privy Council in 
Ireland, and at the same time received the seals as Lord Chan- 
cellor *; while his elder brother was created an English peer.f 
Soon after this, his friend Mr. Curran, who like himself iiad 
advocated the independence of Ireland, as well as defended 
a number of their countrymen, accused of rebelUon, in 
the criminal courts of Ireland, also acquired the official 
appellation of Right Honourable, and obtained the appoint>- 
ment of Master of the Rolls. The Foxo-Grenville, or 
second coalition administration as it was now called, did 
not, however, prove of long duration. It exhibited un- 
doubtedly a constellation of > eminent men, all of whom were 
highly gifted; but with an exception to the abolition of the 
slave trade, which merits no ordinary d^ree of praise, they 
achieved but httle for the benefit of their country. This pro- 
ceeded, perhaps, from two circumstances ; in the first places 
they remained but a few months in office ; and in the next, 
they were never able to obtain the entire confidence and cordial 
co-operation of the king. Much good, however, was pro- 
jected for Ireland, and tliis cabinet is said to liave actually re^ 
tired in consequence of an attempt to concede certain claims 

* The appointment took pUce March Q5, 1806. 

t William Bnbazony Lord Pontonby, of Imokilly, March 13, 1806, 

P s 



214 MB. POKSONBT. 

to the people of that portion of the empire which have since 
been realised by them, in conse({uence of the liberal and well- 
timed adoption of their successors. 

On the retreat of " all the Talents," as they were termed, 
in ridicule, by their opponents, Mr. Ponsonby, who had not 
been ennobled on this occasion, withdrew also. The pen- 
sion granted him amounted to 4,000/. per ann.: and was 
certainly, as observed by his opponents, a large remuner- 
ation for official services of such short duration ; but on the 
other hand, it ought not to be forgotten that he had rdin- 
quishcd his professional practice; and that it had becx) 
impossible for him to return to the bar of that court in whicb 
he had presided witli no small share of ability and dignity, as 
the first judge in Ireland. 

Mr. Ponsonby now repaired to England, and as the death 
of Mr. Fox had deprived the country party of a leader, he 
was chosen to command the battery on the opposition bcncl^ 
in order to direct its thunder against a more numerous phalanx 
drawn up in battle array, on the right hand of the Speaker. 

His talents as a leader were doubtless conspicuous, in addi- 
tion to which, he had assuredly attained no inconsiderable de- 
gree of skill by long practice in Ireland. He was connected 
by blood with most of the great Whig families ; while by his 
late preferment and recent &11, he was endeared to ail those 
lately dismissed from office. He had been tlie friend of Mr. 
Fox, and was nearly allied to Lord Grey, who had just re- 
signed the high station of Secretary of State, and who had now 
became a joint leader in the House of Lords iiith Lord Gren- 
ville, in consequence of the union of his niece* with that 
nobleman. 

The last session of the present parliament proved one of the 
busiest and most important during the whole course of Mr. 
Ponsonby's political career. On January 28, 1816, when the 
address was moved to the Prince Regent, Mr. Ponsonby 



*■ Mary EHzAbeth Ponsonby, who mftrried Charles the prtMDC, awl MMad £■! 
Grey, Nov. 10, 17M. 



MR. PONSONBY. 215 

dily concurred, so far as respected the terms; but he, at the same 
time, considered the speech from the throne in no other light 
than as a production on the part of mmistcrs for the time being. 
" These ministers," added he, " have promised to adopt mea^ 
sures of economy ; but was it not notorious, that in express 
opposition to these promises, they had resisted every propo- 
sition for this purpose ? Was it not equally true, that they 
had decidedly opposed every exertion to save unnecessary ex- 
pences ; and r^^ularly resisted one proposal of retrenchment 
after another, till they were, unfortunately for themselves, 
obliged by the votes of the House, with the greatest reluctance, 
to cut down those (^cial establishments, which they would 
have otherwise strenuously clung to ?" 

** As to the distresses of the nation, they were said to be 
temporaiy, and he would hope, rather than admit, that to a cer- 
tain extent, this was true. Last session ministers had asserted that 
the revenues of the country were in a flourishing condition ; tod 
now, when the sinking fund had proved inefficient, and our re* 
sources had totally failed, it was a^rted, that all this had arisen 
merely from temporary causes. But had the return of peace 
produced this mass of evils ? The real cause of our distress 
was the immense debt and taxation of the country; It was by 
these, that the people had been so dreadiully borne down as they 
were at the present moment. 

^' As for myself, I am confident that no man can charge me 
with having given any countenance to the inflammatory de- 
signs lately hinted at ; but this. I know, that the only way to 
re-obtain the confidence of the people, is for this house to do its 
duty." He concluded a long and able speech, by moving an 
amendment, the substance of which was, « that a prompt 
and effectual reduction of the military and every other branch 
of our expenditure, must be looked upon by His Majesty's 
fisuthfiil commons, as the first step to relieve the sufferings 
and redress the grievances, of which the people so justly 
complain." 

Mr.Ponscmby, however, agreed in the address to the 
Priiibe B^genty mMmmoiisly voted the same day on another 



216 

account, ^* aitiioii^ he doubted wheclicr the i > in the 

gias« ot Hk Rojiid Higbncs&s's carriage, had oed 

bjr balkts, as stated in evidence by Lord James Mun '\ 
^ dus circamstance, however," he added, *^ was of importa « 
onlfy as to the guilt of the person by whom the crime was c 
nutted, and could not have the smallest influence, as to 
decision of the House." I 

On February 4, 1817, Mr. Ponsonby supported the War- 
rington address, complaining of the ^^ obstructions in petition- 
ing.'' The distresses of all classes of the ccmimunity were unpA- 
raileled in the history of the countr}', *^ nothing could be more 
dangerous," he added, ^^ than to give the people an oppor- 
tunity of stating, that their petitions were not 8u£Rsred to 
reach that house.'' ^ Their sacred and indubitable right of 
petitioning should be preserved, by the faithful representativ 
of the country." 

Mr. Ponsonby was nominated one of tlie members of the 
Secret Committee, respecting ^' certain meetings and dangerous 
combinations;" and the report in which he appears to have con- 
curred, was presented to the house by Mr. Bathurst, on Fe- 
bruary 19. Notwithstanding this, he actually resisted the 
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act. On that occasion, he had to 
ihelter himseli^ he said, ^^ from the charge of imbecility, on the 
part of liis friends, as well as to combat the hostility of his 
political enemies." He confessed, however, that he had been 
induced, in some measure, to alter his opinions. He ^ be- 
lieved the powers vested in the government of the coiuitiy at 
present sufficient to keep the peace of the country, without 
the measure now meditated, and one main ground for that 
belief was, the fact communicated by the Lord Advocate, of 
having seized on the central committee of union, at Glasgow." 
He entertained a reverence for the law of Habeas Corpus^ 
almost amounting to superstition, — he believed it the great 
bulwark of British liberty, — that which brought home to the 
the poorest man in the country, die value of the 
constitution. 



MR. PONSONBY. 217 

' " If it was to be suspended on ordinaiy events, this prac- 
tice would become a part of the customary legislation of the 
country. On all former occasions, when the power of arbitrary 
arrest and detention was given, there was either foreign war, a 
disputed succession, or a rebellion existing in the nation. 
The present was merely a conspiracy of famine, acted on by 
malignity, and the circumstance of its being confined to the 
lower orders, was, in reality, the greatest argument agliinst 
'the measure, for they might remain month after month, and 
year after year, in dungeons, without the House knowing 
any thing of it. He knew too well, also, that in former ih- 
stances of suspeqsion, men as innocent as any in that House, 
had been long kept in gaols." Mr. Ponsonby was one <rf the 
minority of 98, who voted against this measure. He also op- 
posed the "Seditious Meetings Bill," and voted as well as spoke 
against it 

On Afarch 4, ISlTi Mr. Ponsonby brought ii^ a bill, both 
very useful and necessary, to prevent the renewal of eertaia 
<;ivil and military commissions on the demise of the crowil ; 
in March he supported his friend Sir John Newport in the 
motion for retrenching the fees of the courts of justice ; and in 
a debate a few days after, respecting the Welch judges, he 
maintained that the ftmctions of chief justice of Chester, and 
attorney-general were incompatible. The last time this 
gentleman spoke in the House, was to recommend to His 
Majesty's ministers to alleviate the general distress, as that, 
and that alone^ had produced any thing in the shape of tumult 
or disaffection. 

His health, however, now began to be sensibly on the decline, 
and although his mind, perhaps, had lost somewhat of its 
original tone and vigour, yet to the last, his intellects were 
to the full, as clear and comprehensive as ever. 

During a succeeding debate in the House of Commons, the 
subject of this article was seized with a paralytic affection, which 
proved fatal, and lingered for a few days, during which r^;ular 
bulletins were published jby the attending physician. 



218 MB. ^NSONB Y. 

I 

Thus died, on July 8, J SI 7, at his house in Curzon Street, 
May&ir, London, the Right Hon. George Ponsonby, the osten- 
sible leader of the opposition against the present ministry.— 
Like the great Earl of Chatham, he perished at his post, having 
been struck with a mortal disorder, while occupying his well- 
known seat in St. Stephen's Chapel. But the seizure did not 
take place, as in the case of that great patriot, while actually 
speaking, for he was then listening with his accustomed pa- 
tience to the detail of a subject, in which he took no part. 

As a lawyer, while a simple barrister, he was deemed respects 
able in point of talents, rather than deep in technical know- 
ledge ; indeed his early attachment to the sports of th^ field, 
added to his political pursuits at a latter period, precluded that 
cx>ntinuity of research, and those laborious intesdgtitions which 
are necessary to celebrity : law is a jealous mistress, and will 
npt admit of a rivaL He possessed all the qualities^ howevei^ 
and a sufficiency of professional knowledge to render him a 
good Chancellor ; yet time was not given to acquire a name for 
himself or perform any thing essential for his country, in that 
capacity. 

As a political leader in Ireland, he achieved the two great 
objects of his early ambition, which were to render a Viceroy, 
who seems to have exhibited somewhat of personal hostility 
against him, unpopuli^^ and to drive the rival house of 
Beresford from office. • In England he was less fortunate, for 
he never could make any sensible impression on his political 
enemies, and had the mortification to behold a new set of prin- 
ciples broached, which aimed at the destruction of the influence 
of that distinguished portion of the aristocracy over whose in- 
terests he for a time had presided, to their entire satis&ction. 
In this capacity, he was praised by both sides of the house, for 
his dignity, candour, and decorum ; but above all for his mo- 
deration. There were others, however, who wished for a bolder 
leader. Some of his adherents were pleased to call his mo- 
deration, tameness ; and when the Minister was attacked on the 
old subject of patronage, rotten boroughs, &c. Mr. Ponsonby was 
blamed by them for having covered, instead of cutting off the 



MR. PONSONBY. 219 

retreat of the enemy. But they did not reflect, that this sub* 
ject acted as a two-edged sword, and that the foe could not 
have been conquered at this precise moment without wounding 
his best and dearest friends by the same fatal stroke. 

As a statesman, Mr. Ponsonby opposed the war with France 
and the union with Ireland, and it has never been doubted that 
his opinions on both occasions were honourable, conscientious, 
and disinterested. He was also one of that Committee which 
unanimously approved df the report that led to the suspension 
of the Habeas Corpus Bill, but in respect to that measure, he 
afterwards thought prc^r to retract his vote, and change his 
opinion. 

Mr. Ponsonby's eloquence participated of his character.—* 
His address was neat, gentle, and elegant. His language and 
manners, courtly and polished. He never was assiduous to cul- 
tivate the good-will, or applause of the multitude, and there- 
fore never spoke, while in England, from a love of popularity. 
His good taste, precluded declamation ; his oratory, accord- 
ingly, partook rather of the simple than the flowery ; and altho' 
he avoided a figurative diction, he yet arrived at his object by 
a circuitous, rather than a direct course. 

Neatness and simplicity constitute the great features of his 
parliamentary speeches ; his ^language was plain and perspicu- 
ous ; and he avoided those rhetorical flourishes which make no 
lasting impression. He was thus accounted rather solid than 
brilliant Gifted with a strong understanding, he commanded 
respect for all he uttered ; his attack was masterly and scientific, 
rather than bold and daring ; but he chiefly excelled in a reply, 
on which occasion, an extensive and retentive memory, proved 
of eminent service. He loved to speak last, and on that occasion 
constantly and invariably exhibited his power and his art, in suc- 
cessfully refuting and exposing the arguments of his adversaries. 
He never took notes ; and yet never missed any opening, in the 
arguments of an opponent; whatever was false he exposed, what- 
ever futile, he ridiculed ; and if he did not alwajrs Obtain victory 
he generally deserved it Long practice had given him a cer- 
tain tact^ or hi^ d^ree of technical knowledge^ never to be 



S^ MR. P0N8OSBY. 

attained without it f and his great experience proved service- 
able to bis party, during many a warm debafe. It has been 
ah-eady hinted, that on one memorable occasion he provided a 
bridge for a retreating enemy ; but it ought not to be omitted, 
that he also frequently pointed out a secure asylum for his 
friends, by hovering on the ranks of an adverse army, and cover- 
ing the retreat of his own, when he found it engaged too 
far, for the common safety. 

In respect to his Parliamentary seats, Mr. Ponsonby was 
fhrst returned for a. borough, over which his family was sup- 
posed to possess some controul. In the Imperial Parliament, 
he for a time represented Tavistock, having succeeded Lord 
Howick, on his becoming Earl Grey, in consequence of the 
demise of his fiither. In 1807, he was returned for the county 
of Cork, and previously to obtaining the Chanoellorahip he 
had been knight of the shire for the county of Wicklow, which 
he indeed represented at the time of his demise. 

The corpse of Mr. Ponsonby was interred on July 1 2, in a 
private manner, without ceremony or ostentation, at Kensing- 
ton, near London, beside the remains of his brother the first 
Lord Ponsonby. He has not lefl any male issue ; his only 
daughter, Martha, is the wife of the Hon. Francis- Aldborough 
Prettie, second son of Lord Dunally, and knight of the 
for the county of Tipperary. 



221 



No. XL 
EYLES IRWIN, Esq. M. R. I. A. 

« 

Xhis gentleman having been bom at Calcutta, about tbe 
year 1748, is consequently a native of the East, and his life, 
talents, and character, all tend to prove that virtue and abili- 
ties are not to be exactly measured by degrees of longitude and 
latitude, as some philosophers have pretended. His &ther, a 
native of Ireland, lived for many years, and actually died at 
last in the service of the East India Company, leaving several 
children behind him. Of these Eyles had the good fortune 
to be sent to England for his education; and was accordingly 
brought up at the school of the late Dr. Rose, of Chiswick ; 
a venerable gentleman, who at that period, possessed a high 
reputation both for his learning and talents. 

In 1767, when about eighteen or nineteen years of age, 
young Irwin became a candidate for employment in the same 
service as his late father ; and he was accordingly nominated 
in due time, to a respectable situation at Madras, as a civilian. 
About this period. Lord Pigot, with whose melancholy 
catastrophe every one connected with the E^t is acquainted, 
happened to be Governor ; and Mr. Irwin, who was patronised 
by him, of course took part with that much injured nobleman, 
who was dispossessed of his power and imprisoned by that 
very military for,ce which ought to have supported him. In 
consequence of his exertions on this occasion, he was soon after 
suspended by those who had usurped the government ; and it 
is sufficiently obvious that suspension^ under such circum- 
stances, is but another name for ruin ! 

Inflamed idthJodignation, and determined to make an im- 
mediate appeal to his employers in Lieadenhall-street, while he 
transmitted iiis complaints, by the usual means, to the Court 



9fH MB. IBWJN. 

of Directors; he hmuelf detarmined ijo take a new, or at 
least a very unusual route to Europe. On this romantic, but 
dangerous occasion, he was also charged with a secret dispatch 
from his friend the Ex-Governor. 

Accordingly, having embarked in 1777, at Madras, wth 
several Englishmen, he landed at Mocha, after a tedious passage 
of eight weeks. On the 16th of April, they sailed for the port of 
Suez : but on the 7th of May, were obliged to anchor at Yambo, 
on the coast of Arabia, where no European vessel had ever before 
entered. Here they were treated witli the utmost cruelty and 
injustice, by the old Vizier, the Vicegerent of the Sheriff of 
Mecca, who had invited thera to land; by him they were 
made prisoners, and confined in a tower, above which v^as a 
haram, where the ladies belongiiig to the Shaik were secluded. 
During this period of difficulty and danger, when death itsdf 
appeared at one time inevitable, the subject of this memoir was 
accustomed to repeat the following passage from " Thomson'i 
Seasons :" 

*' Should fate comittand me to the farthest verge 
Of the green earth, to distant barbarous ch'mes, 
Rivers unknown to song ; where first the sun 
Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting beam 
Flames on the Atlantic isles, 'tis nought to me, 
Since God is ever present, ever felt. 
In the void waste as in the city full ; 
And where He vital breathes, there must be joy. 

When ev'n at last, the solemn hour shall come, 
And wing my mystic flight to future worlds, 
I cheerful will obey ; there, with new powers. 
Will rising wonders sing :" &c. 

At length, by means of a secret intercourse with some of 
the English at Mecca, the Sheriff of which was a black youth 
under twenty years of age; in addition to a bribe of a diamond 
ring, a shawl, and a piece of gold stuff to his deputy at YambcH 
tfuch of the gentlemen as were destined for Europe^ actualty 



MR. iRwm. 283 

received permission to depart. As they were obliged to pay tf 
very large sum for their passage to Suez, they named the 
vessel appointed for their conveyance, " the Boat Imposition,'* 
and set sail for that port on the 10th of June. After' coasting 
for more than a month, they were at length deceived by the 
Arabians who actually carried them to Cosire, in upper E^ypt, 
instead of the harbour they had bargained for : and ther6 they 
arrived, July 9, 1777. 

Here again our English travellers experienced a variety of 
exactions and impositions ; but having put on their Arabian 
dresses, they at length departed with the Caravan, on the 7th 
of July. On the Slst of the slune month, they eaapyed the 
felicity of beholding the Nile, which could not but be an 
agreeable sight to those who were at once weary and thirsty, 
having drunk up all their water, some time before. 

On their approach to the town of Ghinnah^ our travellers, 
for the first time, beheld symptoms of human-industry, in the 
shape of cultivation ; and they began to make a ocnliparafive 
estimate, between the beauties of the charming river, now 
under their eye, and that of the Thames. After travelling 
through a variety of grounds and gardens, they at length re-* 
cognised the object of their search ; and they were doubtlesa 
delisted with the prospect of obtaining some victuals, after a 
iast of three days^ durati(»i I Next morning they accordingly 
feasted cm cows' milk and new bread. 

Here^ at Ohinnah, they experienced a new series of vexa* 
tions, impositions, and delays; and had only to console them-> 
selves with the reflection, that the Vizier in ^^ his piratical 
visits, continued to rob them with politeness." In urging his 
requests, which might be considered as so many demands, he 
never exceeded the bounds of good breeding ; and yet he am- 
trived to levy a contribution of silver-momited pistols and 
daggers adorned with jewels ; shawls of the most valuable kind;^ . 
and not a few dollars ! Notwithstanding all this plunder, he 
laughed with and rallied our travelers on their suspicions; 
diank their coffee without reserve; and contrived, although 



324i MR. IRWIN. 

against the Mahommcdan law^ to indulge himself with several 
cups full of rum ! 

As appearances were not satisfactory, one of the gentlemen 
luckily secreted wealth to the amount of about 1000^ by 
means of his servants ; while Mr. Irwin found means to conceal 
about 100/. still left in Venetians and guineas. In addition 
to this, he had a ruby ring of considerable value, ai}d also a 
gold watch, all of which were carefully placed in an handker- 
chief about his waist ; while an European domestic, contrived 
to carry some trinkets and jewels in his sash and turban. 

A variety of petty robberies soon after took place ; and on 
Major Hammond being requested to deliver a diamond ring, 
he prudently substituted a paste one ; but for a silver mug no 
substitute could be found ! Their trunks and packages were, 
now examined, and plunder was *^ the order of the day.'' A 
box containing dispatches was mistaken for treasure; and 
their disappointmait was extreme when they beheld nothing, 
but papers and sealing wax. 

After being released from their first prison by the Hakeem^ 
or Governor, they were conducted by him to his own house, 
and there desired to await the arrival of jiis master, the 
^aik Ul Araby in person, or at least until dispatches could be^ 
received from him. Meanwhile their entertainment was kind, 
and their viands excellent; they were also most unexpectedly 
treated with^a. serenade, the music of which lasted until mid- 
night They were afterwards cheered with the sight of about 
thirty dancing girls, who tripped " on the light fantastic toe^" . 
to the sound of tinkling instruments. Their paces were mea-^: 
sured, and their gestures animated; and Mr. Irwin, after 
mentioning the *^ dancing girls of India," with comparative: 
contempt, alludes to females of the same description maitioned. 
in the Scriptures, gravely adding ; ^^ These are certainly the: 
descendants of the womenr of Israel, whose beauty and skill 
gladdened the heart of the sapient king." This appears to 
have been a ceremony constantly recurred to on the first visible j 
rise of the Nile, which was .now. aimounced. 5^ Jt aeemSi'S 




' MS. IBWIN. 2S5 

adds he, <^ that they took our house in tbdir way to the river, 
where they went down to bathe at that late hour, and to sing 
the praises of the benevolent Power, who yearly distributes 
his waters, to supply the necessities of the natives/' 

On the 14th of August, a new Hakeem arrived, and the 
English prisoners now hoped for deliverance from their Egyp* 
tian bondage; but they were once more disa{^inted. *^ He 
was an elderly man, tall, thin, and of mean ^pearance ; distant 
in his behaviour and seemingly full of his own consequence* 
This may possibly arise from the lowness of his origin, which 
is that of an Abyssinian slave. His deportment was so dif«* 
ferent from that which distinguished his predecessor in office, 
that we could not but look on him as an arrogant upstart who 
promised to abuse the &vour of his lord. He condesc^ded, 
however, to tell us with a smile, that his master had recom- 
mended us to his good offices, and had directed that the strict- 
est justice should be rendered to us." 

At length, on Saturday the 30th of August, their deliverer 
made his appearance in the person of the long-expected Shaik^ 
who sailing down the Nile, accompanied by a large fleet of 
boats, at length landed at his capital. Having summoned the 
strangers to his palace, they were seated on the same carpet 
with himself; and treated with cofiee and fruit, among which 
th^ found some delicious grapes, and a date surpassing every 
thing th^ had before tasted. 

^^ While we were partaking of this repast," says Mr. Irwin, 
^< I had leisure to take a Ml view of the Shaik, and cannot 
resist the inclination of introducing a character to the reader 
of which I flatter myself he will have occasion to be enamoured 
hereafter. Isman Abu Alfyy the great Shaik of the Arabs ; for 
such we would render the Shaik td Arab — is a short fat man, 
of about five feet two inches high, and turned, as we learned, 
of 75. His eyes are grey, and his complexion very fiiir ; but 
what at once gives him a singular and more youthful look^ 
his beard which is very bushy, is coloured (^ a bright yellow. 
This exterior may not seem the most pnmiising^ and might 
create distaste, if the benei/olence that bemam from his coun* 

VOL. ri. 2 



224 MR. IRWIN. 

against the Mahommedan lav^ to indulge himseirwith several 
cups full of rum I 

As appearances were not satisfactory, one of the gentlemen 
luckily secreted wealth to the amount of about 1000/. by 
means of his servants ; while Mr. Irwin found means to conceal 
about 100/. still left in Venetians and guineas. In addition 
to this, he had a ruby ring of considerable value, aqd also a 
gold watch, all of which were carefully placed in an handker- 
chief about his waist ; while an European domestic, contrived 
to carry some trinkets and jewels in his sash and turban. 

A variety of petty robberies soon after took place ; and on 
Major Hammond being requested to deliver a diamond ring, 
he prudently substituted a paste one; but for a silver mug no 
substitute could be found I Their trunks and packages were, 
now examined, and plunder was <' the order of the day.'' A 
box containing dispatches was mistaken for treasure; and 
their disappointment was extreme when they beheld nothing 
but papers and sealing wax. 

After being released from their first prison by the Hakeem^ 
or Governor, they were conducted by him to his own houses 
and there desired to await the arrival of iiis master, the 
Skaik Ul Araby in person, or at least until dispatches could be 
received from him. Meanwhile their entertainment was kind, 
and their viands excellent; they were also most unexpectedly 
treated with*a. serenade, the music of which lasted until mid- 
night They were afterwards cheered with the sight of about 
thirty dancing girls, who tripped « on the light fantastic toe^". 
to the sound of tinkling instruments. Their paces were mea- 
sured, and their gestures animated; and Mr. Irwin, after 
mentioning the '^ dancing girls of India," with comparative: 
contempt, alludes to females of the same description mentioned 
in the Scriptures, gravely adding : " These are certainly the 
descendants of tlie womenr of Israel, whose beauty and skill 
gladdened the heart of the sapient king." This appears to 
have been a ceremony constantly recurred to on the first visible^ 
rise of the Nile, which was now annoimced, ^^ Jt ^e^n^'N 

5 



MR. IRWIN. 226 

addii he, ^' that they took our house in their way to the river, 
where they went down to bathe at that late hour, and to sing 
the praises of the benevolent Power, who yearly distributes 
his waters, to supply the necessities of the natives.'* 

On the 14th of August, a new Hakeem arrived, and the 
English prisoners now hoped for deliverance from their Egyp* 
tian bondage; but they were once more disappointed. ^* He 
was an elderly man, tall, thin, and of mean appearance ; distant 
in his behaviour and seemingly full of his own consequence* 
This may possibly arise from the lowness of his origin, which 
is that of an Abyssinian slave. His deportment was so dif- 
ferent Grata that which distinguished his predecessor in office, 
that we could not but look on him as an arrogant upstort who 
promised to abuse the favour of his lord. He condescended, 
however, to tell us with a smile, that his master had recom- 
mended us to his good offices, and had directed that the strict- 
est justice should be rendered to us.*' 

At length, on Saturday the 30th of August, their ddiverer 
made his appearance in the person of the long-expected Shaik, 
who sailing down the Nile, accompanied by a large fleet of 
boats, at length landed at his capital. Having summoned the 
strangers to his palace, they were seated on the same carpet 
with himself; and treated with coffee and fruit, among which 
th^ found some delicious grapes, and a date surpassing every 
thing th^ had before tasted. 

" While we were partaking of this repast," says Mr. Irwin^ 
<^ I had leisure to take a fiill view of the Shaik, and cannot 
resist the inclination of introducing a character to the reader 
of which I flatter myself he will have occasion to be enamoured 
hereafl;er. Isman Abu Ally, the great Shaik' of the Arabs ; for 
such we would render the Shaik ulArab — is a short fat man, 
of about five feet two inches high, and turned, as we learned, 
of 75. His eyes are grey, and his complexion very fidr ; but 
what at once gives him a singular and more youthful look, 
his beard which is very bushy, is coloured o( a bright yeOow, 
This exterior may not seem the most promiaiii|^ and might 
create distaste, if the benevolence that hemam iGrom his coun- 

VOL. ri. e 



226 MJI. IBWIN. 

f 

tenance^ were not ever fiiremost to secure the heart of the be- 
holder. Neither can the shrillness of his voice, which is harsh 
aad dissonant, destroy the beauty of the sentiments which it 
is sufficiently made use of to convey. 

** He is still active for a man of his size and age ; and his 
spirits are so good that, were it not for the ravage that time 
has made among his teeth, he might pass for a younger man, 
by fifty years at least. Exc(^pt the Viziers of Yambo and 
Ghinnah, whom we had found to be villains by sad experience, 
we had hitherto dealt with the dross of the nation. It was te- 
served for this moment for us to meet with the polite gentle- 
man and the honest man, comprised in the person where they 
ought to be found: — in the representative o( his people. 
Happy the subject of a virtuous land who at once possesses and 
imitates so rare an example I But how sunk in the abyss of 
infamy are the race who wholly deviate from the standard of 
rectitude ; and though daily reproached by the life of their 
monarch, are not to be reclaimed by the tone of authority^ or 
the elocution of active virtue/' 

From this virtuous and energetic old man, they at length 
obtained ample justice^ and it appears indeed^ that he had re- 
turned to Ghinnah, chiefly for the purpose of redressing their 
wrongs and dispatching them in safety. Some of the ofienders 
now suffered the punishment of the bastinado ; others had a 
chain placed around their necks ; and all within his reach, were 
obliged to restore the property of which the strangers hai 
been cheated and deprived. He himself appears to have been 
proof against temptation, for on their sending him a present, 
by way of acknowledgment, after the Eastern manner; he 
returned a handsome snbre and j^ir of pistols, which were 
articles of considerable value, and only retained, out of polite- 
ness, an Indian carpet and palamporc^ or coverlet of little or 
no value. As it was dangerous, altliough pleasant, to fidl 
down the stream of the Nile, he ordered camels to be pro- 
vided for their conveyance by land, and being well acquainted 
with the faithlessness of his subjeots, he took the son of fhe 
conductor, by way of hostage, for the fidelity of the &thcr» to 

6 




y-".. 
i 



V. 



MR, IRWIN. ^7 

whom he gave notice, that he should answer ^^ with his head/' 
for the safety of the Englishmen under his charge. 

At length, on the 4th of September, they moui^ted their 
camels, and commenced their journey 'across the desarts of 

Thebaic* Their route was rendered both more remarkable 

» 

and romantic, by falling in with a band of robbers, who had 
just plundered a caravan. But instead of molesting our travel- 
lers, they became both guides and protectors, in this unfre* 
quented waste; for after b. parley^ they agreed to pursue the 
same com-se, and having once given a solaoon promise, it was 
their constant and unvarying practice to prove fidthfiil to their 
engagements, even at the expence of their blood. 

After travelling SS3 miles, they arrived at l^nnisJi, a small 
but pleasant town which is supposed to stand on the site of 
ancient Babylon. It was during this long journey, and the 
very day, they joined company with a band of Arabian thieves, 
that Mr. Irwin found time and indinatipn to attune his lyre 
to harmony, and sing of the dreary scenes, and dangerous 
adventures to which he was now continuaUy subjected. 

ODE TO THE DESART. 

Written on a Journey ihrwgfi the Desart ofThebais, Sept. j^fj. 

" Thou waste from human sight retir'd. 
By nought esteem'd, invok'dy desir'd; 
Where stony hill and sterile^ plain, 
And ever^HitteD silence reign. * 

** Where nought is seen to cheer the eye, 
But russet earth and sunny sky ; 
Nor tree nor herbage bless the ground, 
Nor aught to cherish life is found. 

<< Save, where the deer, whom fears assail. 
Shoots suddenly athwart the vale ; 
If chance the sound of distant feet 
Approach his lonesome, dark retreat. 

* ** And ever muting ifetltncholy reignt." Pom's EUnsa to Ahttord. 

8'2 



^■. 






-•■■'•^ 



328 M& nwm. 

« 01 wlule.thj Morets I ttplor^ 
And traverse all thy regions o'er, 
The patient camel I bestride — 
May no ill hap his steps betide ! 

** As on we press the burning soO, 
And through the winding valley toil. 
Still Irad some hDl's projecting height^ 
To shield me from SoFs piercing sight. 

" And should our scrips of water &ilt 
And horrid thirst my lips assail, 
Th(9n, then, thy scanty drops impart, 
To renovate my fainting heart. 

*' Nor lo tl^ toilii^ »oa refuse 
The trufle's leaf, or berry's juice ; 
These stinted products of the waste, 
Luxurious! let my camel taste. 

" At noontide heat, and midnight cold, 
Thy vengeful stores of wrath with-hold ; 
Nor bid the sudden whirlwind rise. 
To blend at once, hilli , vales, and skies 

** Dread cause too subtle to define, 
Where horror ! danger ! ruin join ! 
Stop, stop, its pestilential breath. 
That whelms a caravan in death ! 

** But chief, whence lies our daily track, 
O ! turn the roving Arab back ; 
Who, tiger-like, infests the way ; 
And makes the traveller his prey* 

'< As erst the sons of Israel fled 
From Pharaoh's reign and Nilus' bed, 
Here manna fell by God's command, 
And water followed Moses' wand : 



> 

s""^ 



5 



MR. liiwm. 009 



*' So may old Niltts passing nigh, 
A portion of his floods supply ; 
Invite the neighb'ring peasant's toiU 
To cultivate thine alter'd soil. 

^' So be thy wilds with verdure dad. 
And trees adorn each naked head; 
So in the thirsty vales below, 
Discover'd springs be taught to flow* 

<' Sof teeming with neglected vems. 
Thy marble pay the sculptor's pains ; 
Who emulous of Grecian taste. 
May give an Athens to the waste ! 

'^ And on thy furthest sandy shore. 
Which hears the Red-sea^s billows roar, 
May commerpe smile, her sails unfold. 
And change thine iron age to gold V 

« 

It was on the 19th of September, that they embarked qu 
board of a boat, and passing under the stem of an Ottoman 
frigate, arrived at Old Cairo. After dressing theqiselves in 
their best Turkish clothes, they arrived at the English factory, 
and were received with open arms, by Mr. Baldwin the Con- 
sid* While engaged in this short and charming voyage^ Mr. 
Irwin composed the following verses, addressed to a river, 
which he never mentiotis without a miiigled sentiment of 
veneration and enthusiasm. 

ODE TO THE NILE. 

<< Immortal stream ! whom Afric leads 
Through barren plains and verdant meads ; 
Now flaming o'er the Nubian sands. 
Now laving Egypt's cultur'd lands ; 

** To mark where first thou court'st the gale. 
The poet's stretch of thought might fail ; 



830 MB.JftWiDf« 

M^ht heroes iliudder to behold 

The wonders which thy depths unfold* 

** O ! place me on thy gentle tide, 
When first it leaves its fountain wide ; 
Till threatening on the catVact's brow. 
It rushes to the world below. 



" Here, as the joyless wild we trace. 
Where nature shrouds her beauteous face. 
The ostrich -^ child of want and gloom 1 
Dips in the wave his silver plume. 

*^ Now lurking on thy sedgy shores 
The crocodile his prey explores 
Hark ! 'tis a virgin's diriek * •— thy flood. 
She sought — to colour with her blood ! 

*^ No arms the monster can appal — 
Bounds from his scales th* unerring balL 
Lo 1 to avenge a mother's tears» 
The hippopotamus appears ! 

*^ Now death assumes his grimmest form> 
Thy troubled surface owns the storm ; 
Like warring vessels, on they move 
Their ^mortal rage and force to prove! 

*^ O ! haste we from this conflict dire» 
And to thy fairer scenes retire ; 
Where, swelling o*er thy native strand^ 
Thy waters fatten all the land ; 

• 

/' Where on the wide expanse are seen 
The tufled grove and island green : 
The minaret that tow'rs above» 
The haram — prison gay of love ! 

* This alludes to a circumstance which happened just before die tmhor came to the 
Nile. The frequent combats between the RiTer-horse and the CrocodiUy in whkh th* 
fon&er is generally victorioof , are too well kooim to need a comnwit. 



} 






■'••ir< 



MR. IRWIN. 231 

** As pleasure, commerce^ spread the saily 
A thousand galleys catch the gale : 
Their oars a thousand galleys ply, 
Whose pomp refulgent strikes the eye. 

*^ Now bear me down thy western arm, ^ 
Where Delta looks one cultur*d farm ; 
By ruined cities, nodding towers, 
And hide me in Rosetta's bowers. 

ft 

J* 

<* Hail shades ! who give such chtirms to view, 
As ne*er Alcinous' garden knew ; 
While blossoms here their sweets unfold, 
Bow'd is the tree with fruit of gold. 

** And thou fam'd stream ! what tho' no more 
The world's emporium as of yore; 
Tho' grac*d not with the Roman namei 
Thy realm contending factions daim : 

<< A Pharaoh^ daughter erst was thinei 
Whom pity touch'd with cares divine, 
As she the prophet chanc*d to note 
While in his ozier-bark afloat. 

<< Thou knew*st a Cleopatra's reign. 
Who numbered victors in her train ; 
A Julius, led by glory's ray ; 
An Anthony — * to love a prey ! 



it 



A Ptolemy of learn'd renown> 
And great Sesostris wore thy crown ; 
Thine, Memphis ! crush'd by adverse fates, 
And Thebes — that op*d an hundred gates 1 



« And still shalt thou our homage keep, 
W^hile sea-girt Pharos awes the deep ; 
While left for ages to admire, 
Thy pyramids to heav'n aspire ! 



^ • 



.>?^^ ■ • 



939 MRi iBwisr. 

** Wliflepleoty on thj banles n found. 
To feed the famish'd nations round ; 
While Poets strive to sing in vain 
The wonders of thy vernal reign l" 

Our trayeUers appear to have been delighted with their 
new residence, notwithstanding its very uninviting name of 
" Miser Ul Kaira^' or the city of Anguish. But they had 
been so plundered, and terrified, and teased, and abused at 
Yambo, Cosire, and Ghinnah, that every thing by contrast now 
proved doubly delightful. To their honour be it recorded, 
also, that amidst the luxuries of the capital of Lower Egjrpt, 
they did not forget to show their gratitude to the good Shaik 
til Arab, to whom they now transmitted, by their camd- 
drivers, a Turkey-carpet, for the use of his seraglio, and t 
piece of purple broad cloth, with satin facings for a vest to 
himself; to these were added, some jars of French fruita^ and 
Italian sweetmeats, together with a few rarities for the ladies. 
These were also accompanied with a complimentary letter. 

On the ^^th of September, they once more embarked in a 
' boat, and proceeded along the river, to the village of Daranie 
on the Delta; but not until they had learned the jojrful intd- 
llgence, that Mr. Whitehall had arrived in a month at Caiiti^ 
from London, with dispatches containing orders for the resti>> 
ration of Lord Pigot to the government of Fort St. George. 
They now continued their course to Rosetta, and at lengthf 
arrived at Alexandria. They immediately visited Pompey's 
pillar, to the top of which, some English sailors had contrived 
to scramble by an ingenious contrivance, about four years 
before, for the express purpose of drinking a bowl of punch on 
its summit 

Having embarked on board a French ship, called the Cleo- 
patra, on the 8th of October, for Marseilles, they traversed 
the continent, and landed safely in England at the cloae of 
the year 1777, afier a journey of eleven months firom India. 
The duplicates of their dispatches, had arrived at the India* 
House, long before themselves ; but they had the satiafiictiofi 



MH. IRWIN. 833 

to be received with kindness, and a speedy redress of all griev- 
ances was immediately promised. 

Mr. Irwin, in the course of the next year (1778) married 
Miss Brooke. This lady, was nearly related to the celebrated 
Henry Brooke, a native of Ireland, who, after composing a 
poem, entitled, <^ Universal Beauty," which obtained the ap- 
probation of Pope, wrote the celebrated tragedy of Gustavus 
Vasa, and the novels, called ^^the Fool of Quality,'' and 
"JuKetGrenviUe." 

His suspension having been taken off by order of the Ck>urt 
of Directors, and he himself restored to his former station in the 
service of the East India Company, Mr.Irwin now determined 
to return to Asia. Equally imdismayed and undeterred by the 
miseries and mishaps which had attended him during his 
former perilous journey, he actually set out again on a similar 
one in 1780. His experience^ however, proved eminently 
serviceable to him, on the present occasi(^ and hie route over 
land was fitr m(»re fortunate, as well as expeditious now than 
before. 

/ On his arrival at Madras, a new and most distressfiil scene 
presented itself. /' When he left India, the Company's servants 
were divided among themselves, and many flagrant instances 
of insubordination had actually taken place; but now, the 
very existence of its dominions was threatened, and insult 
superadded to misfortune*. A superior French fleet, under the 
BailU de Suffirein, more than onc^ threatened the Company's 
settlements, and the drceion battles of Admiral Sir Edward 
Hughes, conferred but little securit|r on their maritime domi- 
nions. In addition to this, Hyder Ally had over-run the Car- 
natic, and his light troops occasionally advanced tp the very 
walls of Fort St. George^ while the finances of the English in 
that quarter of the world, as well as their energy, seemed to be 
paralyzed. On this occasion, the knowledge^ intq^rity, and 
dailities of Mr. Irwin proved peculiarly serviceable : and he 
was employed more than once on mission^ of no little conse- 
quence to the prosperity of the C<Hnpany^hich, by a di^Iay 
of ito r«M»ice8, coDpM irith ituuy 8b>g&» imtMc« of go<^ 



£34 If B. iBWor. 

fortune^ at length contrived to surmount all its difficulties, and I 
prove fiur more powerful and flourishing than before. , . t 

The late Lord Macartney, who was no bad judge of the 
human character, now invoked the aid and services of Mr. 
Irwin ; and in consequence of this selection, he was nomii ed 
a member of the committee " for the management of the ter 
tory and revenues of the Camatic*' This nobleman afterwar 
Employed him in a situation of peculiar delicacy and import- 
ance : this was the super in tendance and administration of the 
provinces of Tinnivelly and Madurah. To his lot, also, fell the 
necessary but arduous task of conciliating the Polygar chiefti 
with whom he accordingly entered into direct and immediite 
negotiations, for the purpose of keeping the districts now 
under his management in a state of quiet and security. "With- 
out this, it was impossible either to govern the country, raise 
crc^s, obtain rents, or levy taxes, y The neighbouring Pdy^ 
gars were, before this period, a kind of free-booters, who de- 
scended on the peaceable inhabitants^ of the plains, and 
swept away the fruits of their labours. When the countrr^q)- 
pertained to the Nabob, they were constantly in arms;)^ 
such were the oppressive exactions of his Highnesses se r WuiU 
and managers, that they were rather encouraged than deterred, 
during the existence of his government, j But the ceded dis- 
tricts were now managed with ability as well as justice ;liDd 
an armed force was prep^ed, ready to march at a momentfs 
notice, in order to punish all infractions. But it was seldoa 
that Mr. Irwin had occasion to recur to military coerciOD ; 
for the system regularly adopted by him was both liberal and 
lenient : and, accordingly, he soon. won the esteem and confi- 
dence of the natives, by his unvarying integrity and good eon- 
duct. According to the very flattering report of the committee 
of enquiry, ^' no force was required in this district to overawe 
the Polygars; and their confidence in the Company's justice was 
such, that a single message drew the most powerful of them 
fr6m their woods to pay their tribute, or give any other proof 
of obedience that was demanded : they protected the property 
of the government and of the husbandman, pod die stipolated 



MR. IRWIN. 235 

tribute, with the ^greatest part of their fixed balances, i^d iii 
less than two years the Company had received nearly half 
the amount of the nabob's collection, in eighteen.'^ 

Some changes having taken place in the management of these 
districts, Mr. Irwin returned to Europe in 1785, and after 
reposing himself for a time in the bosom of his &mily, he re- 
curred once more to his literary pursuits, and published several 
(^his compositions, both in prose and verse. The Court of Di- 
rectors, in testimony of hia services, voted him a handsome sum 
of money, by way of indemnification for the services he had per- 
formed, and the losses he had sustained, and in 1792, he was 
app<mited with amne other reqpectable gentlemen, to superin- 
tend the Company's affiurs in China. He returned m 1 794| and 
having now obtained an honourable independence, aspired soon 
after to be a director himself; but without that success to 
which his merits and knowledge so ful\y entitled him. This 
doubtless proceeded from the amiable simpUcity of his cha- 
racter : for no one was ever less embued with that little cun- 
ning, usually dignified with the appellation of ^^ a knowledge 
of the world." He now passed his time in retirement, de- 
voting himself to the social converse of a few persons whom he 
esteemed. His leisure hours were^ as fonperly, occasionally 
devoted to the Muses, and he, at length, expired at Clifion, on 
October 14, 1817, leaving behind him the character of a man, 
so uniformly good and amiable, ^^ that he never lost a friend, 
and never made an enemy.'' Mr. Irwin was a member of the 
Royal Irish Academy; and although not bom in the sister 
kingdom, he always exhibited a strong attachment to the soU 
of bis forefathers. 



List of ike Works of Eyles Irwin^ Esq. 

1. St Thomas's Mount, a Poem, 4to. 1771. 

2. Bedukah, an Indian Pastoral, 4to. 1 776. 

3. Adventures during a Voyage up the Red Sea, and a Jour- 
ney across the Desart, 1 voL 8vo. 1780. 

4. Eastern Eclogues, 4to. 1780. 



236 KB. iBwnr. 

5. Epistle to Mr. Haylej, 4to. 1788. 

6. Ode <Ni theDetth of Hyder Ally, 4to. 1784. 

7. Triumph of Innocence, an Ode, 4to. 1 796. 

S. Inqpiiiy into the feasability of Buonaparte^s Expedition to 
theEaM;, Svo. 1796. 

9. Buonaparte in Egypt, Svo. 1 798. 

10. Nilus, an Elegy (m the VictcHy of Admiral Nehon, 
4to. 1798. 

11. The failure of the French Crusade, 8v6. 1799. 

12. The Bedouins, 12mo. 1802. 

13. Ode to Iberia, 4to. 1808. 

14. Elegy on the Fall of Saragossa, 4to. 1808. 

, 15. Napoleon, or the Vanity of human wishes, 2 parts, 4ta 
1814. 



( 237 ) 



No. XIL 




Her Royal Highness 
The Princess CHARLOTTE of WALES, 



T. HE Princeas Charlotte-Caroline-Augusta, was the only 
child of his Royal Highness George-Augustus-Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, by Caroline- Amelia- Elizabeth, seccHid 
daughter of the late Duke of Brunswick, whose -mother, 
Augusta, was eldest sister of his present Majesty George III. 
Her Royal Highness was bom at Carlton-House, on the - 
7th day of January 1796, preciselj^ nine months after the 
solemnization of the nuptials between her august parents, who 
were first cousins. The birth as usual in such cages, was - 
accompanied by an extraordinary degree of publicity; for 
there were present on that occasion, the sole surviving brother 
of- his presrat Majesty *, the late Archbishq> of Canterbury 

• Hi* Il«j«l H'ifhMM dtg bic Duln of GIommuc. 



2t38 PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 

the Lord Chancellor, and all the great officers of state, as 
well as the most distinguished persons of the Prince's own 
household. The ladies of the Princess of Wales's bed-cfaam- 
ber, also assisted on this memorable and joyful event. 

For a considerable period of her in&ncy, this Royal Qiild 
was reared under the care and tuition of her mother, who then 
occasionally resided in the vicinity of Greenwich.* The pious 
and learned Dr. Pprteus, late Bishop of London, who appean I 
to have paid a visit to the Princess of Wales, and conversed 
familiarly with her daughter when only five years and seven 
months old, not only found* her mind imbued with the prin- 
ciples of religion, but discovered a tenacity of memory, and a 
promise of future excellence, that greatly delighted the wortbj 
prelate.f He has indeed left his sentiments on this sulgcctoD 
record ; and it is no small degree of praise, thus early to have 
arrested the attention and obtained the secret praises of so enu* 
nent a man. 

The health of her Royal Highness, however, was not tf 
this period such as could have been wished. But great, and 
almost instantaneous relief was expected, and readily obtsin- 
ed from the salutary effects of invigorating sea-breezes. A^ 
cordingly, a removal for a few weeks to South-Elnd, was nov 
deemed necessary; but Bognor first, and Weymouth aftff- 

* At Sbrewibory-House, Blackhetth. 

^ << Yetttrday, the 6th of August, 1801, 1 pnsseJ a very pleasant day at Shrcmbnn- 
House, near Shooter's Hill, the residence of the Princess Charlotte of Wales. Tba ^7 
was fine, the prospect f xtensife and beautiful, taking in a large reach of the ThaiBCS» 
which was covered with resscls of various sizes and descriptions. 

*< We saw a good deal of the young Princess ; she is a moat captivating and engagdi^ 
child ; and considering tlie high sutioo ahe may hereafter fill, a most iDterefciiig, and 
important one. She repeated to me several of her hymns with great correctness aad 
propriety ; and being told, when she went to Sooth-End, in Essex, (as ahe afterwards 
did for the benefit of sea-bathing,) she would then be in my diocese, ahe fell clowii m 
her knees, and begged my blessinfir. I gave it her with all my hean, and with mj 
earnest secret prayers to God, that she mi^ht adorn her illustriotu station with evcij 
Christian grace ; and that if ever she became the Queen of this truly great and gkirtOM 
country, she might be the means of diffusing virtue, piety, and happtneasp thraogh 
every part of her <loininioos !'* 

Extract from the Journal of the Ute Bishop of LondoBy ptri>Uahitd after hit kfUibif *s 
demise. 



PRINCES9 CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 2S9 

wardsi became the places selected for her residence, when a 
recurrence was had to salt-water for relief. 

At a proper age, the Princess Charlotte was removed from 
the nursery, and placed, by her Royal Grand&ther, under the 
superintendence of a very worthy and pious Countess, who 
acted for some years as Gouvemafite. Notwithstanding a cer- 
tain sprightliness, which is but seldom accompanied with ap- 
plication, her Royal Highness not only exhibited an early 
promise jof talents ; but was actually prevailed upon to dedicate 
a large portion of her time to studies of various kinds. These 
were at first superint^ided by females ; but as maturity ap- 
proachedf we find the following members of her establishment 
placed in succession about the person of this amiable and dis- 
tiaguished Princess, who from the moment of her birth, had 
been constantly looked up to, with eventful eyes, both as the 
hope of a nation^ and the heir to its throne. 

List of those emplo^d in the education of her Bxnfol H^^hness^ 
the JPrincess CAarlotte^Jrom her tender years, until the epoch of 
tnarriage. 

Countess of Elgin. 

Miss Garth. 

Lady De Clifford. 

Mrs. Udney. 

Miss Gale. 

Dr. Fisher, first Lord Bishop of Exeter, and afterwards 
of Salisbury. 

Rev. Dr. Nott. 

Rev. Dr. Short. 

The Duchess of Lseds. 

Rev. A. Sterky. 

Mrs. Lewis. 

Mrs. Campbell. 

The Misses Coates. 

It is eminently disagreeable even in private life, to recur to 
family dissensioos ; and it would be both painful and indelicate 
to detail any of the differences that may have occurred among 



S'14 PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WMBjfr 

Serene Highness, Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg, in the 
22d year of her age. In respect to stature, she was of the 
middle size, and rather large and full. But her person was 
duly proportioned ; and there was a certain degree of sym- 
metry, as well as loveliness, diflused over her whole form. 
The limbs were delicately rounded, especially the anns and 
ancles; tlie heiid in particular, cxliibited an air of mingled 
grace and dignity ; her large and intelligent blue eyes, lighted 
up features that seemed to inijWijve by cont'jin«»iation, while 
they contbrred no small brilliancy on a complexion thut nature 
had rendered uncommonly fair. It was impossible, indeed] 
scan the whole figure, even with a single glance, without 1 )g 
affected at one and the same time, with an interesting i 
indelible impression. 

Her Royal Highness's spirit, was truly and characteristically 
English. Accustomed frequently to behold the sea, she almvf 
contemplated it as the appropriate scene of British gloiy. 
On visiting a ship of the line, in 1815, (the Leviathan of 
74 guns,) this animated Princess trod for the first time on 
" the wooden walls of old England;" and seized on this oc- 
casion to pay a tribute of homage to the stern virtues of the 
maiden Queen, who first rendered our navy formidable ifl 
modem times. Sentiments such as these, justified the fondest 
hopte of a splendid reign : for the glories of Elizabeth, would 
not have been tarnished, with the proud, haughty, and im- 
perious rule of the Tudors. 

In point of acquirements, it was evident that nature had 
contributed as nnich.as instruction, to render the education of 
this lamejited Princess, in no small degree, complete. Of 
her own vernacular tongue, both us to its principle and prac- 
tice, it. is unnecessary to observe, that she was a complete 
mistress. The French, the Italian, the German, were also 
familiar; and the most celebrated works in these three lan- 
guages, were perusinl with equal grace and facility. 

Nor were the embellishments of I'emale education forgotten : 
the strings of the harp, and the keys of the piano, were struck 
with uncommon delicacy, and effect, by fingers formed from early 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. IMI 

while the daughter resided, as before stated, in the vicinity -^ 
WindfifH* ; and the next anniversary of her birth day, at which 
period she had completed her nineteenth y^r, was observed at 
' the Castle, with great^lendour. The entertainment concluded 
with a gniid/ete, not only to all the branches of the royal 
fiunily, but also to several of the nobility, at Frogmore. 

On May 18th, 1815, her Royal Highness was presented at 
Ckmrt, for th^ first time. Nearly about the same time^ this 
amiable female received the addresses of the youi^ Prince of , 
Orange, whose family had sought and obtained refuge here 
after their expulsion from Holland. His Majesty had taken 
an early and a lively interest in the fate of this youth, who was 
grandson to the late Stadtholder. Under the royal auspioe8» 
he had been sent to Oxford, and was always deemed the inr 
t^ided husband of the future Queen of England. Buj^er 
Royal Highness, from the very first, declined this match, and 
with due prudence, sheltered her •objecttons under the most 
decorous pretexts which filial duty coold wish for, or an. aflbort 
tion to her fiiture subjects suggest. His Royal Highness^ a£^ 
the battle of Waterloo, which conferred a diadem on his father, 
returned to this country, to renew his suit ; but without success. 

Another lover was the object of her choice. This proved to 
be Prince Leopold, the third brother of the reigning Duke of 
Cobourg, who constitutes the head of a younger branch of the 
family of the king of Saxony. On taking leave of the unfor- 
tunate and gallant Duke of Brunswick-Oels, for the purpose ^ 
of visiting England, his Serene Highness, whose mother was 
nearly related to the Royal Family of England, presented him 
with letters of introduction ; accordingly, during the memorable 
summer of 181 4,.he was presented at Court. His Highness 
bad fought gallantly in the Austrian army during the recent 
continental war, and although he possessed no very high rank 
in the service of the Emperor, yet he found means to make 
himself distinguished, on more than one occasion, by, his bra- 
very. This yOung German, in consequence of hk aiaUible 
qualities^ at length attracted the notice of the Princesa Char- 
lotte^ who Qould not be imSensible either to his many p^wnal 

VOL. II. R 



.. 



346 PRINC£S8 CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 

In respect to religion, her Royal Highness was educated ii 
the principles of the Church of England, to which she always 
professed a decided attachment. Had it pleased Providence 
that this interest in nr Princess had lived to ascend the throng 
like her ancestors, she would have doubtless supported it; 
without forgetting, however, the protection due, not only to all 
other Protestant, but even to all Catholic institutions wit 
the pale of the empire. I 

-Her Royal Highness, like her venerable Grandfather, ( 
stantly felt and exhibited the most lively interest in the diflfih 
sion of human knowledge. His Majesty was pleased fn Ij 

to express a hope, " that he might live long enough to le ' 
that every one within his dominions could read the Bible!' 
This has heea nearly realised doring the latter part of his reign; 
and his most amiable grand-daughter contributed with the in- 
most zeal, to accomplish his most gracious and b^iigiiaiit 
wishes. Every one within the range of her daily excursiflni^ 
was provided with tliis book ; and it was always accompanied 
with obvious and suitable admonitions. 

Not limiting her exertions to this point, our august Pnoea 
endowed schools, and afterwards superintended their progresi: 
without this, all the rest is but a waste of wealth I Her bomh 
ty was also extended to charitable establishments, already in 
existence : for during the last rigorous winter, she was {dttsed 
to render the situation of many young females more <x>mfinrt- 
able, by means of cloaks, or mantles, of the warmest and plain- 
est materials ; and that they might not suppose any degradation 
annexed to such a present, her Royal Highness condescended 
to wear one of them herself I 

This amiablcness of character and disposition extended to 
the lowest objects ; but her goodness was not unmingled with 
discretion. She loved cleanliness ; and the very appearance of 
it, was sure to attract a present of clothes, on the part of the 
poor and distressed. Thus every cottage in the vicinity was 
visited ; hunger was banished from' her domain ; the tean of 
the orphan were dried up ; while the sighs of the widow Here 
not heud in vain ! 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 34? 

On all these occasions, the use of pompous titles were inter- 
dicted ; yet the strange and incongruous appellations excited 
by gratitude were heard with a smile ; while the wants, and the 
prayers of helpless in&ncy and debilitating age were alone at- 
tended to. 

Even in her rebukes, the illustrious Charlotte exhibited an 
originality of character. She once reclaimed an attendant 
who never was punctual by the present of a watch ; and was 
thus gracious, even in her reprehensions. 

Of a princess so endeared, hot only to a whole county, but 
.a whole nation, happily some precious memorials still remain. 
Her Royal Highness's portrait was painted with great fidelity 
and effect by Sir Thomas Lawrence, R. A. The first butt 
was by the late Mr. Bacon. Another was moulded, on her 
marriage, and then cut in marble by the plastic hand and 
.skilful chisel of Tumerelli ; a third has been since completed 
under the eye of Mr. Hardenberg, a German ; while s^eral 
excellent miniatures, by Daw, are treasured up in the cabinet 
of his Serene Highness, her mournful husband. That fond, 
amiable, and accomplished Prince, has ordered her apartment 
to be preserved exactly in the same state as it was left at the 
commencement of the last fatal illness. He has also visited her 
tomb ; and while at Claremont, he daily repairs to her dress- 
ing-room, where be recognises, as so many precious relics, 
every thing that can remind him of happier and more prosper- 
ous days. 

We shall conclude this mournful article by a quotation from 
the very appropriate text of one of llhe many public expres- 
sions of grief on the donise of a princess, who is here deeply 
and most sincerely lamented : ** On account of her Royal 
Highness's talents and acquirements; her attachment to the 
principles of true freedom, civil and religious, which have con- 
Atituted the basis of our country's felicity and glory : the coun- 
tenance which her public conduct and domestic virtues aflfotdcd 
to the interests of good morals, and the exercises of piety and 
devotion ; while from her courteous and condescending man- 
ners we were led to anticipate, in common with the country at 

R 4 



s^ 



248 PXINCE8S ClUaLOTTE OF WALES* 

lai^ exteofiive hlegsings to the ^ommunitjMinder her rule, if 
fhe had lived to fill the throne of this united kingdom. 

« But as the Almighty has been pleased, in the cour»e a 
his providence, to disappoint our sanguine hopes, by removii^ 
har, we trust, to a better world, we bow in humble submissioB 
beneajth his chastening rod, and pray that the Universal Sove- 
reign will cause good to arise out of the national affliction; 
and that He may still continue to be a wall of fire round | 
about, and. die glory, in the midst of our land.'' 

No one member, either of the present or any former ro 
family, was ever so long, so generally, and so deeply lamen I 
Prince Arthur and King Edward VI. both died at a ten 
age, and were doubtless mourned by their contemporaries; | 
the Aurora of a day glorious to England, seemed to open witk 
the dawning virtues of Henry, eldest son of James I., and the 
death of the Duke of Gloucester, sole surviving child of Quees 
Anne, by excluding the Stuart line and introducing that of the 
illustrious sovereign of Hanover, afforded no small consolation 
amidst the afflictions of the nation. 

But when the morning star of the House of Brunswick bc^ 
came eclipsed for ever, the dynasty itself seemed ready to b» 
eKtinguished ; a whole nation felt the shock, not as an event 
to which royalty itself is incident ; but were lost and bewildered 
in wonder first, and then in horror, as if visited by some great 
convulsion of nature. 

At length, when no longer astounded with terror and tor- 
prise^ the striking and infrequent example was beheld, of a 
whole people voluntarily clad in black and difiused in tears. 
So great indeed, and so general was the moral efiect of ihis 
sympathy, that it proved at once contagious and fatal: fi>r the 
sudden communication of her Royal Highnesses premature 
and lamented &te produced a similar catastrophe on the part 
of many a delicate female who also became in rapid suooessioD, 
both a mother and a corpse I 

The remains of her Royal Highness were deposited in a 
mahogany coiBn, lined and trimmed with iribite. satin; the 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 249 

bolster and pillow, being covered with the same ; the plate, 
which was of rilver gilt, bore the following inscription : 

Depositum 
Illustrisums Principissae Charlottjb 

AUGUSTiE 

Illustrissimi Principis Georgii Augusti 

Fredbrici 
Principis Walliae, Britanniarum Regentis 

Fills unics, 

Consortisque Serenissitni Principis 

I^soPOLDi GsoRoii Frbdkrici 

Ducis Saxoniifty Mardiionis Misniie, 

Landgravii Thuringiae, Principis Cobilrgi 

Saalfeldensis, E^^ercituum Regis 

Marescalli, Majestati Regiae a 

Saoctioribus Consiliis, Ordlnis Perioelidis 

et Honoratissimi Ordinis Militaris 

de Balneo Equitis':' 

Obiit 6ta die Novembris anno Domini 

M.DCCCXVIL iEtatU suse XXII. 

The body of the infant was embalmed in the same manne\r 
as that of the Princess, and placed in a separate coffin. 

Tlie foUomng was the Order of Procession : 

Naval Knights of Windsor, in full dress imiform. 

Poor Knights of Windsor, in mantles and gowns. 

Pages of the Prince Leopold. 

Pages of the Royal Family. 

Pages of the Prince Regent. 

Pages of their Majesties. 

Solicitor to her late Ro3ral Highness. 

Comptroller of the Household of her late Royal Highness. 

Apothecaries of her late Royal Highness. 

Surgeons of her late Royal Highness. 

The Curates and Rectors of the parishes of Esher and Wndsor. 

Physicians who attended her late Royal Highneai* - 



Qh-i PRIKCESS CUARI^OTTE OF W. 



^ Serene Highnessp Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg, iu the 
22d year of her age. In respect to stature, she was of the 
middle size, and rather hirj^o and full. But her person was 
duly proportioned ; and there was a certain degree of sym- 
metry, as well as loveliness, diflused over her whole form. 
• The limbs were delicately rounded, especially the arms and 
ancles; tlie hetid in particular, exhibited an air of mingled 
grace and dignity; her large and intelligent bluL' eyes, lighted 
up features that seemed to ini})rove by cont'jni|«iation, while 
they conferred no small brilliancy on a complexion that nature 
had rendered uncommonly fair. It was impossible, indeed^ to 
scan the whole figure, even with a :*iiiglc glance, without being 
affected at one and the same time, with an interesting and 
indelible impression. 

Her Royal Highness's spirit, was truly and characteriaticaUv 
English. Accustomed frequently to behold the sea, she alwaji 
contemplated it as the appropriate scene of British glory. 
On visiting a ship of the Ime, in 1815, (the Leviathan rt 
74 guns,) this animated Princess trod for the first time on 
" the wooden walls of old England ;" and seized on this oc- 
casion to pay -a tribute of homage to the stern virtues of tbe 
maiden Queen, who first rendered our navy formidable io 
modem times. Sentiments such as these, justified the fondest 
hop^ of a splendid reign : for the glories of EUzabeth, would 
not have been tarnished, with the proud, haughty, and im- 
perious rule of the Tudors. 

In point of ac(iuiremcnts, it was evident that nature had 
contributed as nnich.as instruction, to render the education of 
this lamented Princess, in no small degree, complete. Of 
her own vernacular tongue, both as to its principle and prac- 
tice, it. is unnecessary to observe, that she was a complete 
mistress. The French, the Italian, the German, were also 
familiar; and the most celebrated works in these three lan- 
guages, were perustnl with equiil grace and facility. 

Nor were the embellishments of female education forgotten : 
the strings of the harp, and the keys of the piano, were atnick 
with uncommon delicacy, and efi^, by fingers formed from early 



PRINCESS- CHAHLOTTE OF WALES. 245 

youth, to extract from th^se instruments, the finest tones and 
the truest harmony. Drawuig too, as well as music, did not 
display their attractions in vbin. Landscape frequently em- 
ployed the leisure hours o( royalty, and some of the beautiful 
views around Claremont, attest the delicacy both of her eye 
and hand. Her pencil too, at times, aspired to historical sub- 
jects, and a head of Hannibal still exhibits the fierce eye, the 
unconquered spirit, and the nnconquered mind of the hero of 
'Saguntum and Cannae. 

Mi^ Co§way is said to have directed her taste and judgment 
in the 4ne arts; while the elder Bacon taught his royal pupil 
how to model, with effect, so as to transfuse to plaster, the form, 
and air, and manner, of real life. Content .Mth JHaining the 
plastic art, we hare not learned 'that her Royal Highness ever 
wielded the mallet, or directed tlie chisel, in order to confer oh 
a rude Mock of maiUe, all the features and animation of the 
•* -human fbirm divine.** . 

Subjects of higher importance were not, in the mean time, 
overlooked. Her illustrious father was pleased publicly to 
declsEiftB, that ||e had educated his only child according to the 
principles of tb^ Engliiih constitution^ in respect to which he 
had selected " his'friend," Mr R)»> as a model.'* - Ac^rdingly, 
his daughter was tauj^t from her early youth, to prohonnoe 
the name of that great oratot with reipect^ and was accustontied 
to present his bust, by K^ubiliac, to her particular friends.* 

■ 

• The followinjr letter to the late Countess of Albemarle, a daughter of Lady de Clif- 
ford, whom she h«d been accustomed to see, and corretpcmd With, withoat' restraint, was 
accompanied by one of these. 

" My dear Lady Albemarle, 
** I most heartily thank you for your very kind letter, which I hasten to answer. But I 
must not forget, that u\'w letter oiu^t be a letter of conjj^tulations, the most sincere: I 
love you, and therefore ^here is no wish, I do not form £»r jour happiness in this work)* 
** May you have as few cares, and vexations, as can fall to the lot of man ; and may 
you long be spared, and long eiijoy the blessing of all others the most precioun — Yoor 
dear Mother — who is not more precious to you than to me. But there is a trifle which 
accompanies this, (the bust of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox,) wliifh f hope you 
will like ; and iif it sometimes reminds you of me, it will be a great source of pleasure to 
me. I shall be most happy to see yon, for it is a long time, since I had tl^C pleatare. 
*' Adieu my dear i«dy Albemarle, and believe roe, ever, 

** Your affectionate and sincere Friend, 

" CHARLOTTE." 
X R 3 



346 PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 

In respect to religion, her Royal Highness was educated in 
the principles of the Church of England, to which she alwajs 
professed a decided attachment. Had it pleased Providena 
that this interesting Princess had lived to ascend the tlirone, 
like her ancestors, she would have doubtless supported it; 
without forgetting, however, the protection due, not only to all 
other Protestant, but even to all Catliolic institutions within 
the pale of the empire. 

Her Royal Highness, like her venerable Grandfather, con- 
stantly felt and exhibited the most lively interest in the diflu- 
sion of human knowledge. His Majesty was pleased frequentlj I 
to express a hope, " that he might live long enough to lean 
that every cme within his dominions could read the Bible T 
This has been nearly realised during the latter part of his reign; 
and his most amiable grand-daughter contributed with the ut- 
most zeal, to accomplish his most gracious and benignsot 
wishes. Every one within the range of her daUy excursion!) 
was provided with this book ; and it was always accompanied 
with obvious and suitable admonitions. 

Not limiting her exertions to this point, our august Princem 
endowed schools, and afterwards superintended their progresi: 
without this, all the rest is but a waste of wealth I Her bomi- 
ty was also extended to charitable establishments, already in 
existence : for during the last rigorous winter, she was pleated 
to render the situation of many young females more corofint- 
able, by means of cloaks, or mantles, of the warmest and plain- 
est materials ; and that they might not suppose any degradation 
annexed to such a present, her Royal Highness condeiBcended 
to wear one of them herself I 

This amiablcness of character and disposition extended to 
the lowest objects ; but her goodness was not unmingled with 
discretion. She loved cleanliness ; and the very appearance of 
it, was sure to attract a present of clothes, on the part of the 
poor and distressed. Thus every cottage in the vicinity was 
visited ; hunger was banished from her domain ; the lean of 
the orphan were dried up ; while the sighs of the widow ynate 
not heard in vain ! 



.PRINCE98 CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 347 

On all these occasions, the use of pompous titles were inter- 
dicted ; yet the strange and incongruous appellations excited 
by gratitude were heard with a smile; while the wants, and the 
prayers of helpless ii^ncy and debilitating age were alone at- 
tended to. 

Even in her rebukes, the illustrious Charlotte exhibited an 
originality of character. She once reclaimed an attendant 
who never was punctual by the present of a watch ; and was 
thus gracious, even in her reprehensionsr 

Of a princess so endeared, not only to a whole county, but 
a whole nation, happily some precious memorials still remain. 
Her Royal Highness's portrait was painted with great fidelity 
and effect by Sir Thomas Lawrence, R. A. The first bust 
was by the late Mr. Bacon. Another was moulded, on her 
marriage, and then cut in marble by the plastic hand and 
:$kilful chisel of Tumerelli; a third has been since completed 
under the eye of Mr. Hardenberg, a German ; while sei^eral 
excellent miniatures, by Daw, are treasured up in the cabinet 
of his Serene Highness, her mournful husband. That fond, 
amiable, and accomplished Prince, has ordered her apartment 
to be preserved exactly in the same state as it was 1^ at the 
commencement of the last fatal illness. HEe has alio visited her 
tomb ; and while at Claremont, he daily repairs to her dress- 
ing-room, where be recognises, as so many precious relics, 
every thing that can remind him of happier and more prosper- 
. ous days. 

We shall conclude this mournful article by a quotation from 
the very appropriate text of one of the many public expres- 
sions of grief on the demise of a princess, who is here deeply 
and most sincerely lamented : *< On account of her Royal 
Highness's talents and acquirements; her attachment to the 
principles of true freedom, civil and religious, which have con- 
stituted the basis of our country's felicity and glory: the coun- 
tenance which her public conduct and domestic virtues aflfordcd 
to the interests of good morals, and the exercises of piety and 
devotidfn; while from her courteous and cc»idescending man* 
ners we were led to anticipate, in common with the country at 

R 4 



,1 

I 

I 



;* 



* 



/ 



248 PEINCESS ClUaLOTTE OF WALES* 

large> extensive hleesings to the ^ommunitjMinder her rule, if 
fhe had lived to fill the throne of this united kingdom. 

« But as the Almighty has been pleased, in the cour»e of 
his providence, to disappoint our sanguine hopes, by removing 
hor, we trust, to a better world, we bow ia humble submissioB 
beneajth his chastening rod, and pray that the Universal Sove- 
reign will cause good to arise out of the national affliction: 
and that He may still continue to be a wall of fire round 
about, and. the glory, in the midst of our land.'' 

No one member, either of the present or any former royai ' 
family, was ever so long, so generally, and so deeply lamented 
Prince Arthur and King Edward VI. both died at a tender 
age, and were doubtless mourned by their contemporariei; 
the Aurora of a day glorious to England, seemed to open witk 
the dawning virtues of Henry, eldest son of James I., and the 
death of the Duke of Gloucester, sole surviving child of Queen 
Anne, by excluding the Stuart line and introducing that of the 
illustrious sovereign of Hanover, afforded no small consolation 
amidst the afflictions of the nation. 

But when the morning star of the House of Brunswick bc^ 
came eclipsed for ever, the dynasty itself seemed ready to b» 
eKtinguished ; a whole nation felt the shock, not as an event 
to which royalty itself is incident ; but were lost and bewildered 
in wonder first, and then in horror, as if visited by some greet 
convulsion of nature. 

At length, when no longer astounded with terror and sor- 
prise^ the striking and infrequent example was beheld, of a 
whole people voluntarily clad in black and difiused in tears. 
'So great indeed, and so general was the moral efiect of ihis 
sympathy, that it proved at once contagious and fatal: fi>r the 
sudden communication of her Royal Highnesses premature 
and lamented &te produced a similar catastrophe on the part 
of many a delicate female who also became in rapid suooessioD, 
both a mother and a corpse I 

The remains of her Royal Highness were deposited in a 
mahogany coiBn, lined and trimmed with white. aatin; the 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES. 24lj 

bolster and pillow, being covered with the same ; the plate, 
which was of rilver gilt, bore the following inscription : 

Depositum 
Illustriflume Principissae Charlottjb 

AUGUSTiE 

Illustrissimi Principis Georgii Augusti 

Frederici 
Principis Walliae, Britannianun Regentis 

Fills unics, 

Consortisque Serenissitni Principis 

I^;$opoLDi GsoRoii Frbdbrici 

Ducis Saxonitty Mardiionis Misniie, 

Landgravii Thuringiae, Principis Cobilrgi 

Saalfeldensis, E^^ercituum Regis 

Marescalli, Majestati Regiae a 

Saoctioribus Consiliis, Ordinis Perioelidis 

et Honoratissimi Ordinis Militaris 

de Balneo Equids':' 

Obiit 6ta die Novembris anno Domini 

M.DCCCXVII. iEtatis 8u« XXII. 

The body of the infant was embalmed in the same manned 
as that of the Princess, and placed in a separate cofiin. 

Ttie following ivas the Order of Procession : 

Naval Knights of Windsor, in fuU dress imiform. 

Poor Knights of Windsor, in mantles and gowns. 

Pages of the Prince Leopold. 

Pages of the Royal Family. 

Pages of the Prince Regent. 

Pages of their Majesties. 

Solicitor to her late Royal Highness. 

Comptroller of the Household of her late Royal Highness. 

Apothecaries of her late Royal Highness. 

Surgeons of her late Royal Highness. 

The Curates and Rectors of the parishes of Esher and V^Qndsor. 

Physicians who attended her late Royal 



1150 PftlNCE88 CHA&LOTTE OF WALES. 

ChapkioiB to hig Serene Highnets. 

Equerry to her late Royal Highnets. 

Equerries of the Royal Family. 

Equerries of the Prince Regent. 

Quarter-Master-General. Adjutant-General. 

Officers of the Duchy of Cornwall. 

Chamberlain to the Great Steward of Scotland. 

Grooms of the Bed-chamber to the Prince Regent. 

Pursuivants of Arms. 
Comptroller of the ^j r Treasurer of the 

Prince Regent's Household.} *[ Prince Regent's Household. 

Master of the Prince Regent's Household. 
Heralds at Arms. 
Privy Purse and Private Secretary to the Prince Regent. 
Lords of the Prince Regent's Bedchamber. 
Norroy King of Arms. 
The Bishop of Exeter. The Bishop of Salisbury. 

The Bishop of London. 
The Ministers of Hanover and Saxony, Count Munater and 

Baron de Just. 
The Deputy Earl Marshal. 
His Majesty's Ministers. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Choir of Windsor. 
Six Minor Canons. 
' * Prebendanes of Windsor. 

Deaa of Windsor, Hon. and Rev. Henry Lewis Hobart^ D. D. 
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. 
The Groom of the J The Lord Steward of his \ The King's Master 
Stole. I Majesty's Household. J of the Horse. 

Clarenceux King of Arms. 
The Coronet of her late 
Royal Highness, borne 
Gentlemen Ushers. -{ upon a black velvet J- Gentlemen Ushers. 

cushion by Colonel 
Addenbroke. 
r Garter Principal King ofl 
Gentleman Usher. < Arms, bearing his r Gentleman Usher. 
<. t Sceptre. ^ 



. » 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WAIW* 



251 



Secretary to the ("The Lord Chamberlain of i The * ' 

Lord Chamberlain, i his Majesty's Household. 3 Vice -Chamberlain. 

Supporters of the Palli 

Lady Arden, 
Lady Ellenboroagh, 



Cf)e CofiSn 



Supporters of the Pall, 
Lady Boston, 
Lady Grenville. 

Covered with a black velvet Pall, adorned with eight escutcheons of 

her Royal Highnesses Arms, and carried by ^ight Yeomen of 

the Guard, under a canopy of black velvet, borne by eight 

Gentlemen Ushers. -"^ 

HiB TfCHf the 

D«ke of tork, 
in a long black 
doakyhS^ train 
boij^lbjr.two 
Gentlem^of 
hit R. H.'8 
Household. 



J^'^ ^; "• ^^^ ^ THE CHIEF MOURNER, 

Duke of Clarence, tt- . c tt- i. 

, , , I His Serene Highness 
m a long black | 



cloak, his train \ 
borne by two / 
Gentlemen of his 
Royal Highnesses 

Household. 






PRINCE LEOPOLD, 

in a long black cloak, 

his train borne by 

Baron de Hardenbrock and 

Sir Robert Gardiner. 



Princes of the Blood Royal, their trains borne by two Gentlemen 

of their Households. 

Ladies of the Bedchamber to her late Royal Highness. 

Women of the Bedchamber to her late Royal Highness. 

His Majesty's Establishment at Windsor. 

Her Majesty's Establishment at Windsor. 

Ladies Attendants on their Royal Highnessies the Princesses. 

Attendants on her late Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte. 

Attendants on her Majesty and the Princesses. 



>■ ' 



C 2ff2 ) 



No. XTlI. 




FRANCIS HORNER, Esg. M. P. 

1 o Biographical sketches of two celebrated legal and politi- 
cal characters, who have left thiK frail and transitory sc^ie of 
existence, we have now to add a third. The former died at a 
matiAe age, in full possession of a splendid reputation, and long 
after they had attained high professional honours r for the Right 
Hon. George Ponaonby had been seated on the woolsack ; and 
the Right Hon. John Philpot Curran, had also worn the 
ermine ; but the subject of the present memoir was cut of^ wbc»i 
he had but just attauied manhood, and without being able to 
realise those hopes, which had been fornie<l from his early 
talents and his numerous virtues. 

Francis Homer, of whom we are now about to treat, was 
bom in Eduiburgh, August 12, 1778. He could not, like the 
first of tliese two great hien, boast citlier of wealthy r(^lativea or 
high family connexions ; be of course disclaimed thoiie adven- 
titious advantages of birth and fortune, on which tlie world ge- 



iierally sets so high a value ; and, Hkc the second of the cha-«. 
meters just alluded to, built a firm and solid foundation on his 
talents and his eloquence. Thus, become like him, the archi- 
tect of his owfi fortune, he also erected a noble superstructure, 
from the completion of whicli he was alone prevented by an 
untimely death. 

The father of Mr. Horner was an eminent liuen-manufac- 
turer of Edinburgh, who determined to give him the? best edu- 
cation that could be obtained in his native country. His son 
was accordingly brought up at the High School, where it was 
soon discovered that not only his intellectual powers, but his 
application to his labours* were superior to those of his class* 
fellows.* He accordingly became an early favourite with, and 
a distinguished pupil of the late Dr. Adam, who then presided 
there ; and a memoir of the life of that gentleman, who has 
been considered as a second Busby, was dedicated to him, by 
one of his school-fellows, at a* time when the Public was but 
little aware of the extent of his genius.f 






* Mr^ Horner obtained at an early period the rapic of Ditx, among his achool-felloirs, 
although Mr. Brougham and the present Lord A^irocaie of ScotUnd, were hb conteit- 
porafies. And he constantly retained that di«finguished station, in spite of all compe- 
tition. Dr AdaiTi, the Rector, was accustomed to observe, that " Francis Homer was 
tbe only boy he ever knew who had an old head upon young shoulders T* 

H« was never known to join in the field sports or recreations of any of the boys ; and 
^jjj^ kept his station at school by his own industry and taleots alone ; which enabled him to 
excel those who had private tutors to dirtict thejr stu'lies. Ifhns been thought hj some 
of his medical friends, tViat these early propensities^ and constant application, dorinif his 
*' boyish days,'* contributed but too much to sow the seeds of that pulmonary disease, 
which assailed hh youth, overwhelmed his manhood, and at tetigih led to an untimely 



2.rave. 



f To Francis Horner, Esq. M. P. 

In the 

Bettef that to him. 

Of all the PVPiLS of Dr. Adam, 

A Tribute of Regard, 

to the 

Memory of that venerable Man', may with most propriety 

Be Dedicated ; 

This Memoir is Inscribed, 

as a 

Very humble Testimony 

of the 

Author's 

Oofeigiied Respect ftnd Saicfin. 



254 MB. HO, 




WHich removed to the College of Edinbiirgh, in like manner 
he attracted the notice of the celebrated Dugald Stewart, then 
one of its professors, and as he already aimed at a public sta- 
tion, Mr. Horner soon became a member of the * Speculative 
Society, and there can be but little doubt, that this most ex- 
cellent institution contributed not a little to form his mind 
and excite his {wnbition. Possessing a wish to excel, here he 
was taught to marshal his thoughts in due order ; to select and 
arrange both authorities and arguments ; to digest facts ; to 
compose memoirs; and above all, to a great facility in his 
- elocution, to superadd that confidence in his growing powers, 
which the habit of addressing an audience can alone com- 
municate. 

It so happened at this period, that Lord Henry Petty, the 
second son of the first Marquis of Lonsdown, had repaired to 
Edinburgh for the purpose of completing his education, at one 
of the northern universities; and Lord Ashburton, as well ai 
Lord Fitzharris, were sent thither at the same time and for 
the same purpose. Lord Henry happened to reside in the 
house of the celebrated professor already alluded to; and 
it was impossible to be long there without seeing young Hor- 
ner. A speedy introduction, soon produced an acquaintance; 
and this acquaintance at length' ripened into friendship. Thej 
attended the Speculative Society together; they studied ia 
common ; in short they were inseparable. Nor did this end 

• ** The Speculative Society was instimted for improvement in public speakine, ni 
in science in general, without haring peculiar reference to any of its branches : the aea* 
bers meet weekly during the sitting of the College, in a hail built by themselves^ A. D* 
1769, on a spot of ground, on the south aide of ilie College area, granted them for iIm 
special purpose by the town-council of Edinburgh, at the recommendatioD of tlit Aio. 
cipal of the Univtrsity. 

** The gentlemen dibcourse, in rotation, upon any literary subject they inciine x mi 
these performances undergo a very free criticism. The rest of the entertainiaent conaista 
of a debate uihiu a subject previously appointed, which is opened by one of theraembera 
in rotation, and discu&s**d by the Society at large. 

•< Far frtm a promiscuous atlmission into the Society, it is restricted to a very limited 
tnimbcr ; ami such has been its reputation, iliat the number of candidates for aupDlyjnf 
vacancies has aCT nicd the Society an opportunity to select those who are distiMuithed 
for capacity, imlustry, and decorum. It consists of gentlemen, who follow Rapccchd? 
ail the liberal piuftssions, but the greatest number belongs to the lav; and it hat al. 
ready famished sevtrsi profiesaors to tht Uoiveititics of St. Andfcw't, aiid EdioUmrhc** 
Amoi's History of £dlnbargh| p. 490—431 . ^^ 





MR. HORNER. Q55 

hie many collie intimacies, in a long separation, an acciden- 
tal recognition, and a parting dinner ! On the contrary, an 
intercourse and connexion were now formed, that tended not 
a little to give a colour and complexion to the life of on?, if 
not both these juvenile candidates for fame. In 6ve their 
mutual regard remained unaltered for a lortg series of years ; 
and they were at length parted by death alone, which dis- 
solves all sublunary attachments, and leaves nothing to the 
survivor but painful recollections and barren regrets I 

Meanwhile, after remaining some time in London under' the 
superintendence of the Rev. Mr. Hewlett, Mr. Horner directed 
his studies towards the municipal law of hi^ native country, a 
great and ample field for speculation, as it is necessary to 
collect the opinions of both foreign and domestic writers, and 
to pass through a course of reading formidable in the extreme. 
At that epoch too, k was not a little unfavourable to eloquence ; 
for the intervention of a jury was then unknown in civil causes^ 
or at least, the right of decision by twelve men had been 
usurped for ages by a court, th^ privileges claimed by which at' 
one time seemed to set the laws themselves at defiance. Since 
that period, however, the people of Scotland have either ac- 
quired, or been restored to their long-lost privileges, and the 
manner in which verdicts have been recently recorded, and 
decisions obtained, reflects no little honour on the present age. 

While Mr. Horner was thus fitting himself for his fiiture 
forensic labours, as a Scotch Advocate, Lord H. Petty, afler ob- 
taining a degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, visited the 
Continent, in company with M. Dumont, a Genevese of con- 
siderable talents. He returned to England in his 22d year, 
and was immediately elected one of the two M. P.'s for Calnci 
a borough said to be under the immediate influence of his 
&mily. Having thus been nominated a member of the new 
parliament just then convoked, he soon began to be considered 
a very able and formidable ally of the opposition of that day : 
the chief object of whic h was to humble Mr. J^itt, and place a 
Whig administration in the room of him and bis followers. 

Mr. Fox and his friends, at length proved snccessful ; and 



056 MtU HOBXER. 



m 
4 



% 



at the age of twenty-six, Lord Henry Petty found himself the | 
^ new Chancellor of the Exchequer, a member of the Privj 

Council, afid M, P. for the University of Cambridge. 

Undazzled by the sudden splendour with which he was now 
surrounded, the memory of former friendships was not oblit^ 
rated ; on the contrary, the ties and connexions of his youth- 
ful years seemed rather strengthened than relaxed. He was I 
well aware of the talents of Mr. Homer; he admired hia 
manly sense ; his mild manners ; his unassuming virtues : th ■ 
had all entitled him to his regard and esteem. He therefore 
recommended this gcndeman to the notice of his coadjutors i 
and he was accordingly returned to the third imperial parli»- 
ment, whicli met Dec. 10, 1806, as a burgess for the borough | 
of St Ives. This was a very critical period, for the Whigs 
had then a transient glimpse of the promised land ; but the; 
were scarcely allowed to take possession of it, b^ore thej 
were once more driven into the desert of opposition ! 

In the course of the succeeding year a new Ministry wm 
appointed, and a new parliament convoked ; but the name of 
Mr. Homer was not to be found in the list of its members. He 
had, however, distinguished himself so much, during the odIv 
session in which he had sat, as to be already in possession of i 
high reputation; and in consequrace of this early promise^ was 
again returned, and nominated a member of the celebrated 
committee, " to examine and controul the several branches of 
the public expenditure," on which occasion he took an activei 
and even a distinguished part. 

Meanwhile, he took chambers and resided in Garden-court, 
Inner Temple, and liaving entered his name at one of the ad- 
joining " Inns," soon after received a « call" to the En^iib 
ban But although thus fitted to attend the tribunals in West- 
minster Hall, and qualified at the same time, to act as an ad- 
vocate at Edinburgh •, yet we do not find him anxious for 
either professional emoluments or employments. Indeed» fo 
bewitching is the race of ambition, the pursuit of fame^ of 

* Mr. Horner, as early as 1800, was admitted into Oit Society of Adwocuct. 



MR. HORNER. 25? 

Wflftltby and parliamentary distinction, that he scarcely erer 
made his appearance in the courts of justice, either in the 
southern or northern capitals of the uniti^ kingdom. In Scotch 
appeals, before the House of Lords, however, he was more 
than once engaged ; and it was he who drew up, and argued 
the case of Lady Essex Ker, in the great Roxburgh cause. 
This lady, sister of a former duke, is a woman of considerable 
talents ; and if we mistake not greatly, provided both the law 
and the ^ts on this occasion : in short, she may be said to 
have. prepared the brief. But Lord Chancellor Eldon, from 
the first, opposed all her ladyship's pretensions, and it was not 
for Mr. Hom^ to persevere on such slender grounds, as be . 
was obliged prqfessiofially to exhibit ; for in a very shott time 
the Lords gave a full and complete decision in favour of thd 
pretensions of Sir James Innes Ker, Bart, who immediately 
acceded to all the ducal honours and estates. 

It has already been observed, that the subject of this memoir 
was not returned a member to the new parliament, convoked 
on the dismission of the Foxo-Grenville administration ; but 
he was too important to be consigned to obhvion. Accord-* 
ingly. Viscount • Mahon (now Earl Stanhope) son-in-law of 
Xrord Carrington, thought fit to withdraw from Wendover, 
and he was immediately nominated for that place. ' It is to be 
regretted greatly, that Mr. Horner was not regularly elected 
for some great city, such as Westminster, instead of being thus 
bandied about, from one noble family to another ; but yet it 
must be allowed on the other hand, that while he bore his 
faculties "meekly," he, at the same time, exhibited a cer- 
tain degree of spirit and integrity, that rendered him too 
formidable, either to be treated or considetred as a mere 
dependant. 

The only thing of any value, we believe, that was ever ob- 
tained by him, was the office of a commissioner for investigat- 
ing the claims on the late Nabob of Arcot, whose debts had been 
guaranteed by a solemn treaty with the East India Company, 
This proved to be no sinecure: it was an office of labour, 
of inquiry, and &tigai6;' and it cannot be doubted by any 



258 M&. HORKEIU 

one who contemplates his cfaarader, that he oonducted 
on the present as on all futare occasions, with singidar fideUlf, 
dehcacy, and dispatch. It oppearad, on investigatioii, dia 
there were not only a great number of pretended ckdaia» hi 

alao of fiilsified documents : these could not elude the scmtim 

■ 

of able and well-informed men, who negatived the prettfr 
si(His of a variety applicants, while xnt a few withdzow 6m 
a scrutiny^ so necessary for the security of piiUic anenli, 
as well as the public purse. We have reason to believe, dMl 
he afterwards resigned from a mere point of honour: occ 
du>osing to hold any public employment imder -the tmwn, 
after his friends and coadjutors had been obliged to wkhAraw. 
On February 1, 1810, Mr. Homer entered on that put «f 
his^parliamentary <sreer, by which he afterwards ntitninnd wrh 
a brilliatit repntation : the relative state of our cxnn flodti* 
changes. Accordingly, pursuant to notice, he mofed ftr s 
variety of accounts and returns, respecting the cimlatiif 
medium and the bullion trade. He deprecated 4he idea «f 
ascribing rthedifierence between the relative value -of thcK^ to 
the number of country banks ; as these formed an ni wfMl 
part of our ^stem of credit and onrrency ; nor wonld hedbipl 
another conclusion : that the cause must be Pefetred'ttMbto 
an 'undue issue of notes, by the Bank of England. He did 
not presume, however, as yet, to form a clear or 'oonfident ex- 
clusion upon the subject : his present oonjectupe maM^ 4igt Ae 
high price of gold might be produced, partly by a lamr cir- 
culation of Bank of £ngland paper than was necesaary; and 
partly by the new circumstfemces in which the bnllion trade of 
this country was placed. But it was to arrive act a correct 
opinion that he wished the House tOiCdll for the indRxnBatian, 
and undertake the enquiry he meant to propose. 

On May 1 0, 1 8 10, when Alderman Combe <made a *Riotion, 
Uaming the ministers for obstructing the addreaa of the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Livery of London, to >his (Ma- 
jesty in person ; it was seconded by Sir William iCnriia, and 
supported by Mr. Homer. The last of theae gentlenMn con- 
sidered this as <* a question of .idtal JmpofltanoB^ leqieetii^ 



MR. HORNER. 9S9 

whicb^ the nuniiters had attempted to defend th^nnselves b; 
drawing the veil from the infirmities of their Sovereign. It 
wa9 the right of the Liverj of Iiondoo, a« it was of other 
vubjectf, to have access to his Majesty's persou» in the worst 
limes — even in those of Charles 11. this had not been re^ 
fused* ' The most corrupt ministers, indeed, had no idea that 
it could ever be refused. How complete would have been 
their triumph if they had discovered the practice which of late 
had prevailed I The obstruetion of petitions was a subversion 
0f the fiindamaital law of the land." 

On the debate on the state of the nation, Dec, 20, 1810, in 
consequence of the King's illness, Mr. Homer deliverfd a long 
end able speech. He contended for making a R^^ent by an 
•ddress, instead of a bill ; ^^ as the present proceedings exhibited 
•n attempt to break down and confound all the boundaries of 
legislative authority, as distributed among the three independent 
branches of Parliament; to usurp the legislative power of the 
crown, and l^ a gross and illegal fiction, to steal the semblmo^ 
of an assent, where there could be no n^ative ; with the ab* 
surdity of affecting to sanction by the royal assent itsdf, th^ 
remedy made necessary by the incapacity of the king to assent 
to any thing." 

Towards the ccmdusion of the same session of parliamentt 
the House of Gammons demonstrated its respect for the talents 
of Mr. Homer, by nnanimonsly nominating him a member of 
the << BuUicm Committee*," ihe object of which, as has been 

* Th« following ve the otmet yf tlie gemlroiep wbo fi>niki4 tl»«cyaiiinUttf : — 

1. F.Horoer,£sq. 11. H. Thormoo, Esq. 

S. TIm 1U. Hon. S. Ptrcevtl, Esq., 19. Rr.Hoo.a.B. Sktridan. 

Ckpnccllor of the. ExdMqK«r. 13. liU. Hon. Chvia Loi^. 

3. Rt. Hon. Gcoij^e Tieroej. 14. A. String, Esq. 

4. Earl Ttmple. 15. W. Manning, Esq. 

5. Hofl. T. Bnai. 16. R.8htrp,EM|. 
S, H. ParBeIL»E«|f 17. P. Grenfell, E^, 

7. p. M. Migens, Esq. 18. J. L. Fonter, Esq. 

8. G. Jolinttone, Esq. 19. J. Thompson, Esq. 

9. D. Ot64ft JStfi.y in th« room of xh* 30. J- Inring, Esq. 

Ht. l|oo, Qeoi]ge Rosf J who declined. 31. W. Huskisson, Esq.: and 

10. W. Dickiatoo, Ctq. S3. Hon. J. Abercrmnbie. 

S 2 



Q60 MR. HORNER* 



-. f M" 



already observedi was intimately connected, not only with our 
coin, and our foreign commerce, but also with the balance of 
trade. We find his name at the head of this list ; he also pre-* 
sided for some time as chairman^ during the examination of 
the evidence^ and actually drew up the first part of the Report ; 
the second was penned by Mr. Huskisson, and the third by 
Mr. Henry Thornton. 

The Select Committee began by stating the unusual rise of 
gold, so as, at length, to attain a maximum of 15^ per cent, 
above the mint price ; in short, the ounce of standard fineness 
had risen firom Si. lis. 10^. to 4-/. 105. and 4/. 125. market 
price. They also discovered that the exchanges on Ham-* 
burgh and Amsterdam had been depressed towards the latter 
end of 1809, from 16 to 20 per cent, below ^or, while tlie 
exchange on Paris was still lower. So extraordinary a rise in 
the market price of gold in this country, coupled with so extra- 
ordinary a depression of our exchanges with' the Continent, 
pointed to the state of our domestic currency, as the cause of 
both : they therefore examined several merchants of extensive 
dealings afid intellig^ice, with respect to the high price of 
gold, and the low rates of exchange^ 

On enquir}', the high price of gold was entirely ascribed by 
most of the witnesses, to an allied scarcity of that article, 
arising out of an extraordinary demand for it on the continent 
of Europe. But <^ in the sound and . natiural state of the 
British currency,'* it was the opinion of the committee, that 
this effect could not be produced here. Moreover, the 
price of bullion did not rise abroad ; ^^ but since the suspen- 
sion of the cash payments in 1797, if gold be still our legoX 
measure of value and standard of prices, it may be doubted 
whether after the new system of Bank of England payments 
has taken place, a paper currency not convertible into 
gold, and variable in its relations, be not now, in reality, 
that measure." An encrease in the quantity of the local 
currency of a particular country, will raise prices exactly 
in the same manner as an encrease of the supply of precious 
metals raises prices all over the world : this will also produce 

12 



MR. HORNER. S6l 

% correspondent rise in the market price of bullion above its 
mint price. 

In Paris it appears that the progress of the French in Ger- 
many, had tended, greatly to render the course of exchange 
ynfavourable ; the unwillingness of great houses on the Con- 
tinent to discount bills on England; and the very large sums 
paid to foreign ship-owners, which, in respect to hemp, has 
amounted to nearly the prime cost in Russia : these have all 
also contributed to make the exchanges against England fluc- 
tuate from 15 to 30 per cent. 

After a variety of enquiries, it is contended, that the effects 
of the depreciation of the coin by wear and clipping, coupled 
with an excessive issue of paper, naturally produce an imfa- . 
vourable exchange. The Bank of England itself, soon after 
its first establishment, ftimishes a very instructive illustration : 
for the depreciation of the coin, occurring at the same time 
with an excessive issue of paper, their notes experienced a de* 
preciation of I? per cent.;' while the price of gold bullion was 
so much raised, that guineas were at 30 shillings, all the gopd 
silver disappeared, and the exchange with Holland, which had 
a little before been effected by the remittances for the army, 
sunk 25 per cent, under par. The remedy was, at length dis- 
covered, in a new coinage of silver, and in canceUing bank 
notes to a certain extent. 

It is here asserted, that nevertheless the bank ^^ had enter- 
tained a mistaken view of the difficulties of that time,-' yet the 
suspension of their cash payments was imposed upon it by the 
legislature ; ^^ although in the novel situation in which this 
commercial company was placed by the law, and entrusted 
with the regulation and control of the whole circulating me- 
dium of the country, they were not fully aware of the princi- 
ples on which such a deUcate trust should be execut^ but 
continued to conduct their business of discounts and advances, 
according to their former routine." The conclusion of. the 
whole evidence, reasoning, and deductions, is — 

1* The repeal of the law suspending the cash payments of 
the Bank: 

9 3 



f62 WU HORNER. 

2. That 0B8h payments cannot safely be resumed at flJi earlier 
date than two years ; and 

S. lliat the details be left to the Bank itself. 

On the 16th of May, 1811, Mr. Horner, in a long and 
doqaent speech of between three and four hours duralkniy 
supported all these positions, and contended strongly Sot 
the justice of the results. On this occasion, he with grM 
ability defended both himself and the other member* of the 
committee ; and concluded with moving sixteen distinct rmth 
lutions, the subject of which amounted to the following : I 

1 . That the promissory notes oC the Bank of Etiglttld are 
stipulations to pay, on demand, the sum in pounds itet)ifl{g| re* 
specdvely specified in each of these notes : 

2. Thai when the Pirliament suspended the cash pmpmM 
*ot these ttotea» it was not its intention diat any ftitaatiM 

whatever should take place in the value of the»e ptoumrj 
notes. 

3. It appears, that the actual value of the pnomisaofy notti 
of the Bank of England, (measuring such value by the stand* 
ard weight of gold and silver aforesaid,) has been for a cob* 
sideraUe period of time, and still is considerably less daa 
what is established by the laws of the realm, to be tht kgd 
tender in payment of any money contract or stipnlation : 

4. Tdat the fall which has taken place in the value of the 
promissory notes, &c, has been occaaiooed by the too great 
issue of paper currency : 

5. Tliat to the depreciation which has taken place in At 
relative value of the currency of this and foreign c oimtrie i 
may be attributed the depression of the exchange : 

6. That the only certain and adequate security to be piXK 
vided against an excess of paper currency, and for nain* 
taining the relative value of the circulating mediam of the 
realm, is the l^al convertabiUty, upon demand, of all peper 
currency, into lawful coin of the resdm: and 

7. That in order to revert gr^adoaliy to this secniicy, and 
te enforoe a due limitation of the paper of the Bank oi Eng- 
land, as well as the other Bank paper of the countiy : XtiieK- 

7 



pedieot to alter the tim^ during which the susp^isictt of cash 
paymeots sbaU cantiaue,: &9m six mo&ths after the ratiiicatWA 
of a defiuttive troatg: of peace,^ tQ that of twa yeaxa from th^i 
preseox tixoe. 

Thia«u14«Qti in consequence of varioi«^ a^uramw^fij o^ur 
fHa4 the House of Commons during (bur or five evenings^;* uv 
the course of which, Mc. Vansittart,, Mr. Rose) Lor4 Castle^ 
rea^ &c. ok^ectai to th^ report. AU these w^e aUy rephe4 
^o by Mr. Horner, who concluded as fi)lk>W4 : -«^ 

<' If there haa been a departure froia the <d4 and constitu- 
tional 9»odo of circulating the hgaX and ^ubstaotioL cwrrencji 
of the country^ the charge of naT«lt|y ia not imyntahte to&fe»t 
propoaition that would go to restore it. A general rulft Ui tha 
great system of circulating misdium, has been avowedty vio-* 
lated. I admit, indeed^ that that minister is wise and happy 
who knows when and how to deviate from a gem^al rule ; but 
I contmid that tb^e is still mcHre wisdom, an4 wor^^^^y. in 
knowing when mA under what ciixumstances thai geaiiral ruki 
ou^ ta be adhered to [hear I] ; but that above aUi the <k>o1 
trial of wisdom — the true test of fortwe^ is to know whea 
to returui after the success of an apparently justifiable daviar 
tioo [hear !] although it is indeed difficult to resist the tempts 
atioRS oi temporary esLpedients I shall now concludes by 
reading a passage I met with this morning, preserved by the 
cdebrated 3ir Robert Cotton, and cited by him as an extractf 
from a memorial of one of the greatest statesmen this country 
has produced : it is a remonstrance to Queen Elizabeth from 
her ablest minister, Lord Burleighji when at a time that Spain, 
was aiming at universal monarchy, (how strange the vicieisitudea 
of empires !) that monarch ^itertained the notion of making 
some experiments upon the national currency. The language 
is simple, but in my mind, pr^nant with wisdom : ^ it ia 
not by the ends of wit, or by the shifts of devicesi that you 
can defray the expences of the mooarchy, but by sound BfA 
solid courses*' '' 

Although all die propositions of Mr. Homer were negatived 
in dm $fifst; yet hoth the report aod tb« speeph bad a great 

s 4, 



264 MB. HORNER* 

! 
effect) not only on the public mindy but on the conduct both ot j 

government and the bank. After the expiration of seven yean • 

we have found all his plans and prognostications fiilly verified ; 

£ance that period, the issue of the new circulating medium hai 

been curtailed. Notes have risen to par, the market and mint 

price of gold are either the same, or nearly so ; money is now 

raised by exchequer bills, at about three per cent. ; and the 

foreign exchange, instead of continuing against, is now io 

general favourable to us. 

On May 7, 1812, Mr. Creevy made a motion respecting the 
two tellerships of the exchequer, then held by the Marquis 
of Buckingham and Earl Camden,' for services to the 8tat& 
performed by their respective fathei-s. On this occasion he 
moved seven distinct resolutions, the purport of which, was to 
confine their respective emoluments " to some fixed and settled 
sum of money, more conformable in amount to the usual 
grants of public money for public services, and more suited to 
the present means and resources of the nation," 

These propositions were opposed both by the Chancellor 
the Exchequer and Mr. Ponsonby. Mr. Homer also obje i 
to the scheme now offered. " No man," he said, •• c 
deny the right of the House to regulate, reform, and even 
abolish offices ; but still, all tliis must be done subject to regu- 
lations. The rights of all such as have vested interests^ must 
be preserved sacred ; for the property of the state was not to 
be protected at the cxpcncc of private property. All property 
indeed, was the creature of the state, and equally depended 
on it for protection ; and if this principle were once broken 
through by the House, temptation would grow upon them and 
there would be no end to it." 

The resolutions were afterwards negatived, without a 
division. 

Meanwhile, the health of Mr. Horner declined apace. His 
deep researches, his continued studies, and his parliamentary 
efforts, had alike contributed to wear out and exhaust a con- 
stitution which was never very strong. At length, a pulmo- 
nary consumption was actually threatened, and a removal to 



MR. HORNER. £65 

a warmer air and a more cheerful climate was prescribed by his 
physicians. Accordingly, with no small share of reluctance, 
he at length complied with their^ advice, to which were super- 
added the tender injunctions of his family, and the kind and 
constant recommendations of his firiends. Crossing therefore 
to the Continent, with all convenient speed, he passed through 
France, and not deeming, even its southern provinces, suf- 
ciently. warm, he entered Italy and continued there. The 
symptoms of the disorder *, however, which was carried from 
England, and had preyed upon him for so long a period, en- 
creased to such a formidable degree, that he was at length cut 
off at Pisa, on the 8th of February 1817} in the height of 
manhood, and in the full enjoyment of his reputation, at the 
age of thirty-eight. His remains were interred in the pro- 
testant bur}dng-gi-ound, at Leghorn. 

Thus died, and was buried in a foreign country, Francis 
Homer, Esq., a man amply endowed by nature, and greatly 
beloved, both by friends and opponents. The qualities of his 
head and heart were indeed calculated to engage and secure 
attachment: for although modest, and even reserved in his 
manners ; he was yet warm, zealous, affectionate, grateful, and 
disinterested. 

In point of understanding he was at once strong and com- 
prehensive : in point of learning, respectable ; in regard t9 
that species of knowledge acquired, afler entering the world, 
he was almost tmrivalled ; and in solid judgment, he did not 
yield the palm to any one. 

An orator of a former day attained the appellation of 
^^ Single-speech Hamilton," on account of the talents therein 
displayed ; and were the reputation of Mr. Homer to rely on 
his celebrated oration on the bullion question alone, he must 
even then have been considered as a man possessed of no ordi- 
nary taste for eloquence, and no common degree of political 
wisdom. 

As his conduct was always strictly correct, a high opinion 



* This proved a complicated case ; for it consisted not only of a cB^lwtiOD> but uar 
dnraCioDrof the lung*. 



266 AIJR. BO&N£&. 

was constantly entarUuned,^ tioth of hk patriotifim and biii pri- 
vate worth. Tktts without any of the accidottal, but felicitoiif 
aids of birth, station, fortune, or connexions, he nobly contrived 
to win his way and to encrease yearly in reputation ; equally 
free from vanity and presumption, he also carefully steered dear 
of personality, and party rancour : accordingly, while endeared 
to the opposition, in whose ranks^ with a very short exceptioiii 
this gentleman constantly fought; he was at the same tine 
greatly respected by ministers. His eloquence participated of 
his character; it was chaste, correct, elegant, and skilfiiL 
Such was his inflexible integrity on one hand, and bis kigk r^ 
putation on the other, that it is a well-known fiEict, thai Mr. 
Ponsouby frequently deferred to his judgment; and it ia nov 
no secret, that when that gentleman thought of retiring^ he 
always pointed out Mr. Horner as worthy of being his p^*fag^ 
successor I* 



* How much uid truly he wm bcbvcdy sty be gathered from what oec u r nA m Vw- 
liament, Kwn after the melancholy iDtelligence of his demise arrived in Englaad : fat 
it will appear from the debttei, that he was respected and regretted hy all parties la 
the nation. 

*' In the House of Commonsy on Monday^ March Sd, 18l7f Lord Jllerpfltk vqMi 
and spoke as fi^lowi : »-I rise to more that the Spedcer do issue hie writ for a new 
member to serve in Parliament for the borough of St. Mawes, in the woam of the hit 
Francis Horoer« Esq. 

*' In making this motion^ I trust it will not appear presumptuous or oflBckmiky If I 
tddress a hw wonls to the House upon this mekocholy occasion. I am mrnmn that kb 
ittber an uBOsual eourae i but, without endeavouring to iostitme m pwuUel with ete 
instaiu:ea, I am authorised in saying that the course is not wliolly unprecedented. 

** My kmented friend, of whom I never can speak without feelingt of the dbcpat 
regret, had been rendered incapable for some time past» in eonaequenc* «f iW bi^ 
state of his health, of applying himself to the labours of his profession, or to tlm dSf 
charge of his parliamentary duties. He was prevailed upon to try the effects of a miycr 
and mora genial climate -« the hope was vain, and the attempt fhiitleaei k« saab be- 
iteath the slow but destructive effect of a liB^eriog dkceae. which baffled tlia ppif rf 
medicine and the infloence of climate ; but under the pressure of increasing iufinnhyt 
under the Infltctkm of a debilitating and exhausting malady, he pi e sci te d titidlmiiilshcd 
the serenity of his anuable temper, and the composure, the vigour, and firmness nf kas 
excellent and enlightened understanding. I may, perhaps, be permitted, without pene- 
trating too &r into the more sequestered paths of private life, to alhide to thoen mild 
virtues -^ those domestic charities, which embellished while they dignified hk pritMe 
charartac. I msy be permitted toobserve. that as a son and u a brother, bnwiaemi- 
nently dutiful and affectionate : but I am aware that these qualities, however ■—s«»«»*j^ 
can henlly. wt& alxict propriety, be addrmsed to the rewidiiirtni «f lUboHnc 
When, however^ they art blended, interwoven, and incofponttd ia iha *Hitm of s 



MR. HOKN£R« S67 

The following character of Mr. Horner is ably penned by a 
contcmporar}', who was acquainted with him, both at school 



public nun, they become a species of public propeny. and, by their influence and 
cxftinple, eMentially augment the general stock of public Tirtue. 

** For his qualifications as a |mblic man I can confidently appeal to a wider circle -• 
to that learned profeiston of which he was a distingaishetl ornament— to this House, 
where his exertions will be long remembered with mingled feelings of regret and admi- 
ration. It is not neceswry for me to eater into the deuil of his graver studies ani oe- 
cupatiowi. 1 may be alluwed to say generally, that he raised the edifice of fait fidr Cuiie 
upon a good and solid foundation — upon the firm basis of consdentkmt prfaciple. 
He was ardent in the pursuit of truth ; he was iuBexible in his adKarenee to tha great 
principles of Justice and of right. Whenever he delivered in this House the Ideaa of bit 
clear and intelligent mind, he employed that chute, simple, but at the sama'tiiMi ^lerroua 
and impressive style of oratory, which seemed admirably adapted to the ehwidation tad 
ditcossion of imporunt business : U seemed to combine the force and p gcciikm of legal 
argnment with the acquirements and knowledge of a statesman. 

" Of bis political opinions it is not necessary for me to enter into any detailed 
statement : they are sufficiently known, and do not require from me any comment or 
illnstration. 1 am confident that his political opponents will admit, that he never 
ctmrted popularity by any unbecoming or unworthy means : they will have the candour 
to allow, that the expression of his political opiniDoa, however firm, mmly, and «le- 
cided, was tmtinctiired with moroscness, and unembittertd with any peitonal animoiity 
or raneonrous reflection. From these feelings he was eHer tually exempted by the 
operacioo of those qtialitiel which formed the graces and the charm o f his private 
life. 

*' But successful as his exertions were, both in this House and in tlie Courts of Law, 
eoosidering the contracted span of his life, they can only be looked upon as the har- 
bingers of his matorer fiime, as the presages and the anticipations of a more exalted 
repatatitm. But his career was prematurely closed. That his loss to his family and 
his friends is irreparable, can bt readily conceived ; but I may add, that to this House 
and the country it is a lots of no oniinary magnitude : in these times it will be severely 
felt. In these times, however, when the structure of the constitution is tmdefgoihc 
cloie and rigorous investigation ; on the part of some with a view of exposing ita defeeta, 
on the part of others with that of displaying itt beauties and perfections ; we maty derive 
some consolation from the reflection, that a man not poisessed of the advantages of 
hereditary rank or of very ample fortune, was enabled, by the ciertion of fasa ova 
honoumble industry — by the successful cultivaition of hk native taleata, to vindifate 
to hiasself a station and eminence in society, which the peoudcat and wealthiest might 
envy and admire. 

'< I ought to apologise to Um Houae, not, I troat, for having intioduocd the Btili|i«ct 
to their notice, for of that I hope I shall stand acqoicied, but for having paid so im- 
perfect and inadequate a tribtite to the memory of my deputed friend." 

Mr. (xnmin^.— ** Of all the nMtances wherein the same ooune has been adopted, aa 
that which my noble friend has pursued with so much feeling, and good taste on this 
tKomiom, I do not remembar one more likely than the present to conciliate the general 
•pprabation and aympacby of the Honse. 

<< I, Sir, hid not the happineta (a happiness now conmerbaUncad by a proportionate 
excess of ioiiow and itgi^t) to ba aoqnnitted poiaonally, in privato life, with the dis- 



S68 MA. HORNER* 

aad the University. It is here literally copied from a manu- 
icript kindly communicated to the Editor. 



tlmaished and amiable imlividual whose loM we have to deplore. I knew him ooiy 
vilhlB the walls of the House of Commons, ^nd even here, from the circumstance of 
mj absence durinu the last two sessions, I had not the good fortune to witness the lain 
VdA more matured enhibition of his talents ; which (as I am informed, and can wd 
believe) at once kept the promise of his earlier years, and opened still wider expects* 
dOBB of future excellence. 

•* Bat I had seen enough of him to share in those expectations, and to be sciisibk 
cf what this House and the country have lost by his being so prematurelj tikfs 
from ns. 

** He had, indeed, qualifications eminently calculated to obtain and to desertc sar- 
•ess. His lound principles — his enlarged views — his various and accurate knowkdes 
-^ the even tenor of his manly and temperate eloquence — the genuineness of hii 
varmth^ when into warmth he was betrayed — and, alxne idl, the singular modcs^ 
«lth which he bore bis faculties, and which shed a grace and lustre over them all; 
fheae qualifications, added to the known blanielessness and purity of his private cbua^ 
ter, did not more endear him to his friends, than they commanded the respect of tboK 
to whom he was opposed in adverse politics ; they ensured to every effort of hit 
abilities an attentive And favouring audience; and secured for him^ as the nsnlt of sl| 
a solid and unenvied reputation. 

** I cannot conclude. Sir, without adverting to a topic in the latter part of the spceck 
of my noble friend, upon which I most entirely concur with him. It would not W 
seemly to mix with the mournful subject of our present contemplation any tiling of a 
controversial nature. But when, for the second time within a short course of yens, 
tlic name of an obscure borough is brought before us as vacated by the loss of conspin" 
ous talents and character, it may be permitted to me, with my avowed and nocoriDOi 
epinions on the subject of parliamentary constitution, to state, without offence^ thai ii 
is at least some consolation for the imputed theoretical defects of that consiitoiioa, 
that in practice it works so well. A system of representation cannot be wholly vicioaft, 
■od altogether inadequate to its purposes, which sends to this House a succeasioa of 
such men ss those whom we have now in our remembrance, here to develi^ the tslcati 
with which God has endowed them, and to attain that eminence in the view of their 
country, from which they may be one day called to aid h^r counsels, and to sustain her 
greatness and her glory.*' 

Mr. AfoTuicrs Sutton,-^'* I know not whether I ought, even for • moment, to 
iatrude myself on the House : I am utterly incapable of adding any thing to what hu 
been so well, so feelingly, and so truly stated on this melancholy occasion ; and yet I 
hope, without the appearance of presumption, I may be permitted to say, from the 
bottom of my heart, 1 share in every sentiment that has been expressed. 

" It was my griod fortune, some few years back, to live in habits of great intimacy 
and friendship with Mr. Homer : change of circumstances, my quitting the nrnfsiikm 
to which we both belonged, broke in upon those habits of intercourse; bt;t I hope, aid 
believe I may flatter myself, the feeling was mutual. For myself, at least, I can most 
honestly say, that no change of circumstances — no diflference of politics — no iaicmpT 
tion to our habiu of intercourse, even in the slightest degree diminished tkt 
the regndf and the affection I most tiflcerely entertained for hMa. 



MR. HORNER. 269 

** The characteristics of Mr. Homer's mind, if I apprehend 
th^m rightly, were clearness of perception, calmness of judge- 



" This House can well appreciate the heavy loss we have sustained In hiro, as a pub- 
lic man. In these times, indeed in all times, so perfect a combination of command- 
ing talents, indefatigable industry, and stem integrity, must be a severe public loss * 
but no man, who has not had the happiness — the blesnng, I might say — to have 
known him as a friend ; who has not witnessed the many virtues and endearing qualities 
that characterised him in the circle of his acquaintance, can adequately conceive the 
irreparable chasm in private life this lamentable event has made. 

" In my conscience t believe, there never liveii the man, of whom it could more 
truly be said, iliat, whenever he was found in public life, he was respected and admired 
— whenever he was known in private life, he was must affectionately beloved. 

" I will no longer try the patience of the House: I was anxious, indeed, that they 
should bear with me (or a few moments, whilst I endeavoured, not to add my tribute to 
the regard and veneration in which his memory ought , anrt assuredly will be held ; bttt 
whilst I endeavoured, however feebly, to discharge a debt of gratitude, and do a justice 
to my own feelings." 

Mr. ff^nn iaid, '* that his Noble Friend (Lord Morpeth), and his Right Hon. 
Friend who had last spoken (Mr. M. Sutton), had expressed themselves concerning 
their departed friend with that feeling of affection and esteem which did them so much 
honour, and which was heiglitened by their habits of intimacy, and their op^orttndties 
of observing his character ; but the virtues by which he was distinguished ^rere'iiBI cbn- 
tined within the circle of his acquaintance, or concealed from the view of the wdHd.- 
Every one who saw Mr. Horner, had the means of judging of his temper, his mildness, 
and his personal virtues ; for they were seen by all. He carried with hiin . to public 
life, and into the duties and the business of his public statkni,' all that '|;emlencaa of 
disposition, all that amenity of feeling, which adorned his private life, aifd edHelM 
him to his private friends. Amidst the heats and. contests . of the House, . amidst >tBe 
irthcaeoce of political discussion, amidst the greatest conilias of opinion and opposi- 
tion of judgment, he maintained the same mildness and serenity of disposition aad 
temper. No eigemess of debate, no warmth of feeling, no enthusiasm for his owb 
t^inions, or conviction of the errors of others, ever l>etrayed him into any uncandid 
construction of motives, or any asperity towards the conduct of his opponents. His 
loss was great, and would long be regretted.** 

Sir S. RomiUy said, ** that tlie long and most intimate friendship which he had en- 
joyed with the Honourable Member, whose loss the House had to deplore, might, he 
fioped, entitle him to the melancholy satisfaction of saying a few words on this distress- 
ing occasion. Though no person better knew, or more highly estimated, the private 
virtues of Mr. Homer than himself, yet, as he was not sure that he should be able to 
titter what he felt on that subject, he would speak of him only as a public man. < 

'< Of all the estimable qualities which distinguished his character, he considered as 
the most valuable, that Independence of mind which in him was so remarkable. It 
was firom a consciousness of that independence, and from a just sense of its importance^ 
that, at the same time that he was storing his mind with the most various knowledge ou all 
subjects connected with our internal economy and foreign politics, and that he was taking 
t conspicuous and moat successful part in all the great questions which have lately been 
discussed in Pailiament, he laboriously devoted himself to all the painful dutiesof his 
profession. Thtnigh his success tt the bar wu not at all adequate to hit jnerits, he yet 



^0 MS^JHULNER. 

moity and palienoe of investigatioii -— prodadiig, at their 
coosequfpceip firmness of conduct and independence of prin- 

— ^.^j^p— iT'^B^'^'^ '■■■■■■'■ " ■ ■ ■ —^-^^^ ■ 



•ttd&itlj penwrered in his labours, and seemed to consider it is ctiential to hit iidr- 
pendence, that he should look forward to his profession alone for the honomi mi 
eroolumeots to which his extraordinary ulents gave him so just a claia. 

'< In the course of the last twelve years the House had lost tone of che OMitt coa* 
siderable men that erer had enlightened and adorned it : there was this, howercTy pen* 
liar in their present loss. When those great and eminent men to whom he alladed ven 
taken from them, the House knew the whole extent of the loss it had austaincd, fi< 
they had arrived at the full maturity of their great powers and endowments. Boiao 
person could recollect — how, in every year since his lamented friend had first taken 
part in their debates, his talents had been improving, his faculties had been developed, 
and his commanding eliMjuence had been rising with the important subjects on which it 
had been employed — how every session he had spoken with still increasing weight aad 
authority and eEPect, and had call^ forth new resources of his enlightened and coospc* 
hensive mind — and not be led to conjecture^ that, notwithstanding the gnat esoellcBK 
which, in the last session, he had attained, yet if he had been longer s|»ared» h« voiUd 
hart iiiscovtfed powers not yet discovered to the Hottfe> and of which perhapa bi sns 
ttooonacioos himself. He should very ill express what be felt upon this occaaiaa» if ht 
were to consider the extraordinary qualities which Mr. Horner poss e ss e d apMt Gdob cbe 
ends and objects to which they were directed. The greatest eloqatae^ wm ia iwtf 
only an object of vain and transient Admiration ; it was odly when enndbM bjr tht wb 
to nrhich it was applied, when dirscted to grett and virtuous cnds» to the pvoMcisan 4 
the opprgised^ Xo the e«franehiaement of the enslaved, to the extension of kao»k%r, 
to diipelUng tike douds of igooraace and sapentitioo, to the advancemtot flf iht btai 
iBttMMs of 4he country, and to enlaigiog the sphere of human htppiaan, dM ift he* 
c«me a Miifoal benefit and a public Uessii^i that it was becMM the powcrlid ntsis, 
of which they w«i« no^ deprhred, had befn wilfimnly cMrted in the puiMii nd |n- 
moting of sueh o ^je dls» that be rnmidswd che ktss which thej had to iHatMm 
one of the c^atatt wfaidi, io'the praseu ststeof this coentiy, it eould fiwftlj tan 
sustained* 

^ Ue*H^. SWpU*'^^ Amoegst his other friends. Sir, I camMt r^fuao t« h|mV 
the melaacholy ooq[M>htioo of paying my bumble tribnte of esteem and nficctiea m ibi 
memory of a person, of whose rich, cultivated, and enlightened mind I bate ao ^i« 
profited, and nboea eaqnisiu talents— whose ardent seal for tnnh ■bijat j««, 
sedate, and discriainatiog judgment— whoM forcible but elisatened ebiiiucnee *- mi, 
dbove ally «bo« soflexUnle virtee and iaisgrity rendered him one of ibe bom 
disiiq^ibhcd asembeis «f this House, one of the brighiest oraaBsenu of ilio pnifaisioa 
to whieb be belooged, tad held him fimh as a finished model for the imitacaosi of ibt 
rising gssMratioB. 

** The fidi amount of suib a losf, at such a eof\iuiictMe, and under all ibo larions 
eircusBittDccs and e eaiid ars tiops ef the case, I dsre not attempt to ostun^o. ||y 
Lnracd f tiead (Sir S. HomiUy) has well ebsarved, that, if the picscBt Uas b^ yw^ 
the futuie is gfcMer : ibr, by dispensations fiur above the reach of human acnstaj, ba 
has been taken from «s Ota period when be MS only in hb progress touMdadvft b%^ 
•tartoiis Id the sttte, in wbidb, so £k as human fbiesigbt could disecffn» bia BMnrtu mmi 
have placed bim, and which wouU have given to his country tbe fiiU ud rifrwd 
benefits of 4qs fare and adminble qualities." 



ME. HORNES. 271 

ciple. Canrj^ng these qualities into his public li£s» he evinced 
greater moderation and fbrbearanoe duA are often found 
in the narrow and comparatively unambitioits strifes o£ a less 
extended scene. 

<< He entered parliament at rather an early age^ and soon 
became not only an useful and con^cnous man of business, 
but drew Biore respect to his personal character, and was 
regarded by both sides of the House of Commons, with 
greater ccmfidenoe and interest than any young member had 
atttracted, perhaps, since the early dayv of Mr. Pitt. This 
win mpfeect higher praise^ when it is added, with truth, that 
no man coming into that House under the patronage of a 
whig nobleman, could have acted with greater liberality to- 
wards extended ideas of popular right, with more fairness 
and firmness to the persons of his oppaoaitMf or with more 
apparent latitude of individual judgment, on some of die most 



Mr. C. Orant ** lad ImpmiVii lamentBdllrieiKi lyfow hcUd aNtii^^wdMd himsdf 
so much as he had tufaae((tteDtIjr done, and could not W vilest when aucb an 0|ipartiuiitjr 
occurred of paying a tribute to bis nMoiory. Whatever diffeience of opinion ihcj 
might hare on publie qoeniom, be could tuspend thai difference to adnire hu tdUMi 
bis mill, maAhUntXwm, It «•§ mC kb tnlcDto alone dut were developed in bis 
cloqntncc. HiB tloqutnet fitigkKpdhkhetni thniagfa it were seen his high-minded 
pwbitr, Ilia jkdkaigofjf hk baawdtnce, and dl those qualities which not only 
exacted applaaat bat euited lovt. It wm the mind that appeased in sp^hcs tiMt igKn 
th«B dwBamr. BmmeM mimfba laio tba aeeoont of his priTaic life, altbopgfabif 
private Tinnea were at IcMton a Icvri with bit pMe mefita. Amid all the eares and 
interests of public life, he new loMliii ntlsh fat dommk •oriacy, or bie ■iiarhim 
to his family. The last time Aat he ^.^) epawaaad whh hia, ho was aoticifttti^ 
sriib pleasofe the arrival of a season of leisare, when be conld spend a abort time in 
the bosom of his family, and amid the eodearmenu of hia friends. When he looked 
at his public or private conduct, bb virtues, or bis takois, ha «o«U be allowed lo 
have earned appluoae to which few other nan ever entitled theMeebea.** 

Lord Luidies ** lioped to be esensed for adding a few words to what had bpen said, 
though be bad not the honour of a private aajadnnnce with Mr. Homer, whom 
he knew only in thw tiouic, where they bad almoat onifbrmly voted on 9ffKm^ 
aides on every great question. Notwithstanding these diflfefcnces, he had often said in 
private, that Mr Homer wu one of the greatest ornaments of hb eoantiyi and he 
wodld wow say in jmblic, that the comrty eouJd not hasa eafleiud aytar loas. The 
forms of Aribmam aHowed noaieans of expcessin^ the ffniiactive opioioB of the fjous^ 
on the honour doc to bb memory ; but it must be coosolatocy to his friends tn tre 
that if it hail been possible to hive come to sack a vote, fe would CHtahily hare be*^ 



uuanioiotB." 



272 AIRi HORNBR. 

trying occasions, in all these scenes that have occurred in <XiT 
recent parliamentary history. 

<' llr took a considerable part in the important financial^ 
and *' pu-cially Politico-economical, deliberations which have 
occ.iipi' d public fittention for the last seven years, and will be 
lont: Tf iiicmbercd, as having in great part, if not wholly, caw 
ptr'i ;iod the far-famed report of the bullion committee; of the 
df't lines and recommendations of that production, men's 
opinions differed at the time of its appearance, according 
as they were led, by a knowledge of the science, through 
which alone it could be rationally appreciated, by a sense 
of immediate expeilioncv, or by the leanings of the leaden 
of their respective parties. But, considering the circumstancei 
under which it was produced, the temper of the timesi 
and the extent and varying aspect of those appearances and 
conditions which it had to reconcile into the shape of general 
principles, I may venture to affirm, that it abounds with 
more accurate evolution of important propositions and fint 
truths in the science of political economy, than any document 
ever produced by a legislative body. Indeed, those who haw 
been accustomed to note carefully the Parliamentary l)ebates 
since 1811, must have perceived that Mr. Homer had abetter 
hold on the principles of that important science, than an? 
Orator of his day. 

" As a public speaker, he was not remarkable for the popular 
graces and attractions. If eloquence consists in rousing the 
passions by strong metaphor, in awakening the sympathies by 
studied allusions, or in arresting attention by the saDics of a 
mind rich in peculiar association, Mr. Horner was not do- 
quent. But, if eloquence be the art of })ersuading by accurate 
reasoning, and a right adjustment of all the parts of a dis- 
course, by the power of a tact which is rather ifUeUectualh 
rights i\\f\x\ pacticallyjine ; Mr. 11. was eloquent. He spoke 
with the steady calmness of one who sarjD his way on principkf 
while he feU it simply and immediately through sobrietu of 
-^ J^^ment nndgood conduct ; and never seemed to be more ez- 

^' dted by his subject, or more carried away in the n 



^ K - U Ul 



MR. HORKER* 27s 

of debate^ than to make such exertions as left one uniform 
impression on the 'minds of his hearers, that he spoke from 
an honest internal conviction, and from a real desire to be 
usefiiL 

^* In private life, he was distinguished by an impressive 
graveness, which would have appeared heavy, had it not been 
observed in permanent conjunction with an easy steadiness of 
conversation, and a simplicity of manners very far from any 
thing odd, affected, or inelegant. His sense of honour was 
high and decided. His taste for literature, like his taste for 
conduct, was correct. As his acts of friendship or of duty 
were done without effort or finesse, so did he enjoy with 
quietness and relish, those tender and deeply felt domestic 
affections which can sweeten or even adorn, almost any con- 
dition of life. He was one of that powerful band of able and 
distinguished men, with which the Edinburgh Review origin- 
ated, and was known as one of its contributors for several of - 
the earUer years of its progress. 

^^ He was not fitted to win popularity, but, his habitual mode- 
ration, his unaffected respect for every thing respectable that 
was opposed to him, and the successful pains which he took 
to inform himself well on the grounds and nature of every 
business in which he bore a part, gained him an influence 
more valuable to a man of judgment, than popularity. In 
short, reckoning forward to the distance of probably a very 
few years, and to that change in his Majesty's councils, which 
it was the object of Mr. Horner's political life to accomplish^ 
and under which he sincerely believed his country would be 
more free and more secure, than under any other probable 
event ; no man seemed more likely to rise to high place and 
influence than himself. 

^^ In a crisis of public affairs like the present, unbiassed and 
upright politicians will admit, that the influence of men like 
him, is peculiarly desirable. And I would receive it as a con- 
solation if any one could be at present named, to fill the space 
which he has left." 

VOL. II. T 



n: 



"ll 



I 



( 275 ) 



No. XIV. 



The Honourable HENRY ERSKINE, 



TWICE LORD ADVOCATE, AND ONCE DEAN OP THE FACULTY OP 

ADVOCATES. 



1 HE house of Buchan has been always distinguished, either 
for the possession of high employments or the display of extra- 
ordinary talents. As a scion of the powerful stock which so 
long possessed the earldom of Mar, it traces its alliances to 
the blood-royal of Scotland, as well as to the dacal stems of 
Lenox and Roxburgh, and the noble ones of Morton, Find* 
later, and Dalhousie. Sir James Stewart, second son of Sip 
James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn was the founder of 
thi^ family. John Stuart, son of John Earl <^ Buchan, having 
Jt)een killed at the battle of Musselborough in 1547, hia 
daughter Christian, four years after, became a Countess, and 
married Robert Douglas, brother to William the sixth Earl of 
Buchan, who, in her right, enjoyed the honours of that 
house. Their grand-daughter Mary, having formed an alli- 
ance with Sir James Erskine, eldest son of John Earl of 
Mar, the succession to the Earldom of Buchan, which had 
before been in heirs-general, was, by patent under the great 
seal of Scotland, limited to heirs male. 

So much for the descent of the subject of these memoirs j 
and as to the offices held by his immediate progenitors, they were 
Lords High-Stewards, Lords Treasurers, Lords Great-Cham- 
berlains of Scotland, Lords High Commissioners to the Greneral 
Assembly, &c., &c., in succession. In our own time we have 

T 2 



§76 HOy. H. ERSKINE. 

beheld an Earl of Buclian neglected indeed, by ministers, and 
never sufficiently appreciated by his own countrymen, but pos- 
sessing extraordinary genius and talents ; his next surviving 
"brother not only taking the lead, but selected twice to occupy 
the highest and most honourable office at the Scottish bar; 
while a third and youngest was ennobled in England, and 
became Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. 

The Honourable Henry Erskine, third son of Henry David 
Earl of Buchan, by Agnes, daughter of Sir James Stewart, 
of Coltness and Goodtrees, Bart., was bom at Edinborgb, 
on the 1st of November, 1746, O. S. 

His health being originally delicate, we have been given to 
understand that the early part of his education was of a do- 
mestic nature ; a tutor * possessing considerable talents, having 
been for some time resident under the paternal roo^ who 
superintended the studies of the three brothers. They after- 
wards repaired to the college of St. Andrew's, which ha« 
been long famous for producing celebrated men ; hence thej 
were transferred, first to the university of Glasgow, and 
secondly to that of Edinburgh. 

As his patrimonial fortune was not large, a profe8si<Hi be- 
came necessary for Henr}', and the bar and the army pre- 
senting the only two avenues to fortune, usually trod by the 
sons of great families in Scotland, he was early destined ibr the 
law, while his younger brother, Thomas, at first adopted 
the sword, and lastly the gown. 

Their &ther, Henry-David, the tenth Earl, deceasing in 
1 767, the Countess-Dowager, a pious and accomplished wo- 
man, afler superintending their progress, lived until 1778, 
to enjoy the certainty of beholding her eldest son both opulent 
and respectable ; while the endearing prospect was already 
opened to the eyes of a fond mother, of contemplating the 
junior branches advancing to eminence at the English and 

* Mr. James Buchanan of Glasgow. By liiii talents and liit IntluKiry aoon fitted L(vd 
Cordross (become so by tlie demise of his eldm brother), and the two other sons of Uw 
last Earl of Buchin, in succetsion, for a neighbouring uoivertity. 

11 



HON. H. ERSKINE. 277 

Scottish bars, of which, indeed, they afterwards became thc^ 
ornaments. Nor ought due praise to be omitted here, to the 
bead of this distinguished family. With a noble and generous 
spirit, the present Earl of Buchan, voluntarily took upon him- 
self the payment of his father's debts ; and submitted to the 
severest privations, merely from a delicate sense of duty : for 
no existing law enforced a sacrifice so highly honourable both 
to his principles and feelings ! 

Meanwhile^ the second brother prosecuted his studies at 
Edinburgh, attended the Court of Session, read the Scotch 
and foreign jurists, made himself familiar with the celebrated 
work of his countrynMUi Craig *, relative to a system still un- 
happily prevalent; and thus prepared himsdf to earn an 
honourable competence while a bachelor, and sufqport a family 
with respectability when he should be inclined to marry. 

At an early period of life, he was admitted a member of the 
faculty of Advocates, having then only attained the age of 
twenty-two. This, which exactly corresponds. to **acall" to 
the English bar, took place in 1768, now nearly half a century 
ago ! and at a time, too, when a taste for eloquence of any 
kind was not sufRciently cultivated in the northern parts of the 
island. The language, which at that period, exhibited but 
a very imperfect dialect of the English, was not favourable^ 
perhaps, to oratory. . The fatal suspension of trial by jury in 
civil cases, the proceedings by written rather than oral pleads 
ingSy and that law, which still renders unanimity in criminal 
trials unnecessary, neatly precluded all scope for genius and 
ability. It became necessary, indeed, to quote all the conflict- 
ing opinions in the books, to be familiar with the barbarous 
Latin, in which the still more barbarous feudal code is com^" 
prchended, and to obtain a circtimloadory facility of spieecb, 
in order to spin out the proceedings with an enormous but 
profitable verbosity. The judges, too — many of whom, like 
Monboddo and Kaimes, were men of singular learning, liberality^ 

■ 

♦ De Feud 16, 
T 3 



S78 HON. H. ERSKINE* 

and accomplishments, — must be addressed according to obso- 
lete forms, and in a whining cadence prescribed by custom; to 
have trenched on which, would have been unpardonable, indie 
presence of the ^' Lords of Council and Session," some of 
whom, at that period, actually claimed the right of dispensii^ 
with acts of parliament, in virtue of what they affected to call 
the nohile qfficitmt I 

It is but little wonder that oratory was at so low an ebb 
fifty years ago, both at the bar and the pulpit, althou^ 
it would be uncandid to decide on the latter, by the speci- 
mens contained in the famous pubhcation called '' Scolcb 
Presbyterian Eloquence displayed/' Aoid yet, judging bj the 
effects, it would be unfair to disallow that John Knox was a 
master . of the human passions, which he wielded to his will, 
by means of the vernacular tongue. It is an unequivocal pnxtf 
of this, indeed, that by the force of his arguments and the 
thunder of his declamations, he overawed both the Queen and 
the clergy of the existing establishment ; that he caused tlie 
cathedrals and parish churches to be despoiled of their 
<< popish ornaments," and that, finally, he established the 
standard of a newer and a purer faith, on the smoking ruins of 
the prostrate Church of Rome. 

As the Scottish bar, like the Scottish pulpit, had fisw or do 
great models to recur to, arts, which would assuredly be ccm- 
demned at the present moment, were then practised with impu- 
nity.* The civil law, which is the foundation of all that is eminent 
in jurisprudence on the northern bank of the Tweed, is not only 
uncertain in its foundations, bearings, and illustrationa; it is 
not only ambiguous, equivocal, and dilatory, but it en- 
courages, hke the only court governed by its maxims in 
England, accumulated expence and endless litigation. Many 
admirable improvements have been lately enforced, indeed, by 

« It has l>een said that the speeches of a certain famous advocate of that day, were 
always regulated by circuiustauces. For a rich client he would sometimea aionn and 
rage; and on great occasions (provided his fee wu large), would, at a critical 
burst into a flood of tears. 



HOK. H. ERSKINH. 279 

act of parliament : but such, or nearly such, was the actual 
state^ of forensic practice, when Mr. Henry Erskine presented 
himself in the outer court before the lord ordinary to obtain 
interlocutory judgments, and to creep on by due degrees, and at 
the r^rular and invarjdng pace of a snail, to a final judg- 
ment. 

This gentleman possessed polished mannefd, ati imagin- 
ation warm and ardent,* a judgment ripe and precocious. At 
an early age, he had cultivated the Muse^ and refined both 
his mind and his language by poetry. These all operated, in 
a certain degree, to render him a conspicuous character, and to 
introduce a certain degree of grace and chastity, a chUDge of 
no common magnitude^ both in the pleadings and elocatiflai'of 
the courts of justice. 

Another arena, of a very extraordinary kind soon after pre- 
sented itself. This was the general assembly of the Kirk of 
Scotland, a representative body, in which both the clergy and 
the laity, appear annually by deputies fix)m thdr req>ective 
synods, and parishes,, at Edinburgh. This has been termed 
^^ the best theatre for deliberative eloquence, to be found in 
Scotland ;" and it was here indeed, that the late indefatigable 
Henry Dundas (Viscount Melville), who left no moment 
of his life unoccupied, either with business or pleasure, first 
prepared himself for the more profitable contentions of the 
senate. It was here also that Henry Erskine, no longer 
trammelled by technical niceties, exhibited the first specimens 
of his oratory. As he possessed a deep sense of religion, 
even in his juvenile years, and was zealously attached fi*om 
conviction, as well as education, to the Presbyterian faith ; the 
superior excellence of this system, both in respect to tenets 
and discipline, was always maintained anJ asserted by him. 
These orthodox sentiments, joined to a due consideration of 
his talents and his lineage, of course rendered him respectable 
in no common degree, in the eyes of his colleagues ; and ac- 
cordingly, he was always, listened to with the greatest defer- 
- ence and attention. 

T 4 



280 HON. H. ERSKINE. 

Meanwhile, his practice encreased apace, and. his abilitiet 
soon made him sought after, from the shores of the Forth, 
to the extremities of Caithness. In addition to thi9» ai he 
always distinguished himself greatly when he undert(x>k to 
rescue innocence from persecution ; to vindicate the cause of the 
oppressed, or to support the claims of the friendless tenant, 
against the encroachments or injustice of his Lairdy he soon 
became a very popular advocate. Nor was his opinion at t 
hiwyer n^locted : for no one could give a readier answer to 
a case, or unravel the mysterious diversity of the municipal 
law, with superior acuteness and precision. 

So early as 1770, we find that his pdetry breathed -some- 
thing of a scorn of pride, and oppression, as will be seen from 
the following hitherto unpublished specimen, written at thit 
period. . , , 

The Sen^ive Plant and the Nettle, a FaUe^ 

How oft, neglected and forlorn, 

Do high»^rung worth and merit lie, 
While wealth aod power, though basely bora. 

Lift their unworthy heads on h^h. 

How oft are sense and genius bright 

Denied the po^r reward of praise ; 
How many, modest merit slight, 

While gilded duhiess wears the bays. 

His bosom wrung with anguish keen, 
How oft we meet the slighted youth, 

On whose pale cheek too well is seen 
That wealth prevails o'er love and truth* 

Deep-mark'd witli scars, sore-worn with toU, 

Low lies the hero's hoary head ; -— 
While striplings share his hard-won spoil. 

Helpless his orphans weep for bread. 



HON. H. ERSKINE. 281 

The patriot's worth, the poet's fires. 

And B^ffoce faur, neglected die ; 
Sweet cuti^ herself expires. 

Nor •hutt.one grateful hand her eye.. 

Sweet Philomel thus pours her strain 

Where only echo hears the song ; 
Thus sheds the rose, her sweets in vain 

Some stream's untrodden bank along. 

Yet not less sweet the scent or song, i 

Though wasted on the desart air : 
Though found among the humble throng. 

Truth, sense, and virtue still are ftin 

Then droop not thou, whom fate unkind, . 

Poor and unknown, has doom'd to dwell ; 
The muse thy lone retreat shall find. 

Shall visit oft thy humble cell. 

Hot mourn, ye brave, though cowards live, 

To wear the laurels won by you ; 
Here or hereafter, Heaven shall give 

The prize to worth and valour due. 

To soothe with hope your humble state. 

To keep alive fair virtue's fires, 
Read (and unmurmuring yield to fate) 

The simple tale the muse inspires. 

Within the garden's sheltered bound. 

The florist's art, the florist's care, 
With every hue had deck'd the ground, 

With every scent perfum'd the air. 

The nipping frost, the driving snow. 
The chilling wind and beating rain, . 

Though deep they fall, and fiercely blow, 
There deal their baleful blasts in vain. 



282 HON. H. ERSKINE. 

Though Sol his genial ray denies^ 
And mom refuse her dew to l^gA, 

There artificial suns arise, 

Tliere artificial showers descend. 

Within these bowers, full many a flower, 

The native of benigner skies, 
Such as might grace Hesperian bower. 

Or fairy grove, were seen to rise. 

• 
Even flowers, by nature's hand design'd. 

Mid savage wilds unknown to grow. 
Transplanted and by care refin'd, 

Were taught both fair and sweet to blow. 

JuBt such a fostering power is thine. 
And virtue such dost thou bestow, 

Oh, education, source divine. 

From which truth, worth, and wisdom flow. 

Yet midst these beds, full many a weed. 
In spite of care would often spring ; 

For thoughtless zephyr bore the seed, 
And dropt it from his wanton wing. 

And many a fair and fragrant flower, 
Falj'n from the sower's careless hand. 

Spite of the sweetly-fostering shower. 
Died on the waste and barren sand. 

So many a heart of fire sublime, 

Unknown and friendless, lives and dies, 

While meaner souls, by fortune, climb 

The heights where fame's proud turrets rise. 

On the hard, bleak, and barren mould 
The plant for soft sensation known, 

Twas thus the tale a florist told, 
Was dropt unsheltered and alone. 



HON. H. ERSKIKE. 283 

From the rude wind and dashing rain^ 

Instinctive shrunk its tender leaf, 
For shelter, while it sought hi vain» 

Low hung its head in silent grief. 

Its humble plight and look forlorn, 

Soon caught a neighbouring nettle's eyes, 

That lately, on the light breeze borne, 
Midst Flora's favourites dar'd to rise. 

There fixed its root the worthless seed, . 

And, by the florist long unseen, 
Thriving it grew ; for evil weed 

Full quick and strongly springs I ween* 

* Avaunt!* th' ungenerous upstait cried, 
< Nor taint with sighs the balmy air, 

' That fans the garden's flowery pride, 

* Where I am fairest of the fair. 

* In vain, of destiny severe, 

' Or, envying me» offiite complain; 

* Justly it arm*d and placed me here» 

' And justly thus bids me remain.' 

Thus spoke the nettle, proud and sour. 

While zephyr sigh'd along the beds ; 
A tear stood bright on every flow'r. 

And pity bow'd their lovely heads. 

< Proud weed,* the gentle sufferer said, 

' That look*st on humble worth with scorn, 

< Thy malice shall behold me dead, 
' Ere joyful dawns another mom. 

' Yet know, though thus I early fall, 

* No hiddeh crimes have worked my fate : 
^ *Tis fortune, blind alike to all, 

' That rums me, and makes thee great. * 



284 HON. H« £Q6KrN£. 

' Canst thou behold yon ruin'd mound^ 
^ Where all thy noxious kindred grow, 

' Yet dare the gentle heart to wound. 
' And proudly scoff at honest woe. 

* While I, whose worth let others tell, 

* My feeling form who fondly rear, 
* My rising rage with pity quell, 

' Foresee th^ end, and drop a tear. 

' The glorious orb, whose genial ray 
^ Call'd into life thy boasted form, 
< Low in the dust thy pride can lay, 

* And save my weakness from the stonn.' 

He spoke : The sun was gliding low, 

And damps hung heavy in the air, 
The florist *gan his rounds to go, 

To guard from harm his flowery care. 

With scorn^ the nettle's worthless root. 
From its warm seat, he instant tore, 

And in its place the sufferer put. 
Ne'er to know pain or sorrow more." . 

The following jeu d'esprit, was written exactly thirty years 
after, on perusing the first production of the author ofLalla 
Bookh : 

Impromptu on reading Moore^s Anacr^on, 

<* Oh ! mourn not for Anacreon dead — • 
. Oh ! weep not for Anacreon fled — - 
■ The lyre still breathes he touched before, . 
For wc have one Anacreon Moore.'* 

The (period had now arrived when Mr. Ersklne thought 
proper to become a married man ; but' this he did not attempt 
until he deemed his independence secured. BQs first wife was 
Christinfi, the only daughter of George Fullarton, Esq., Col- 



HON.'tr* ERSKINE. 285 

lector of the Customs at Leith ; and by this lady he had three 
daughters, Elizabeth-Frances, who died young ; Elixabeth- 
Crompton, afterwards Mrs, Callender; and Henrietta, now 
Mrs, Smith ; together with two sons, Henry * and George. — 
Although the lady, who was an heiress* brought him a hand- 
some fortune ; yet this circumstance did not tend to relax his 
industry ; but, on the contrary, the sight of an increasing fii- 
mily contributed not a little to increase his assiduity, and ren- 
der him more careful and attentive than before. 

We have already contemplated Mr. Erskine in the character 
of a lawyer, and a poet ; but it still remains for us to consider 
him as a politician. George Buchanan, the preceptor of 
James VI. in his famous tract, " De Jure regni apud Scotos," 
affects to consider his native country as a republic ! and he 
lays down rules, in the first place, for checking any small de- 
viation on the side of arbitrary power ; and in the next, for pu- 
nishing any gross assumption on the part of the executive. — 
Notwithstanding this, it is evident from history, that tlie kings 
of Scotland, in the ordinary exercise of the prerogative, were 
for many ages omnipotent, both in Parliament and the in- 
ferior courts. In the reign of Charles II., however, the op- 
pressions of the Duke of Lauderdale, and others, were so noto- 
rious^ even in matters of conscience, that a sullen and settled 
opposition took place, and a love of religious and civil liberty, 
which had first evinced itself in the time of Mary, and was 
fostered by the masculine and audacious spirit of the great 
Scotch reformer, burst out at the Revolution, in the southern 
counties, when William III. assumed the throne of both king- 
doms. It has even been said that the word whig fwhigganj 
is indebted for its origin to the covenanters in the west of Scot- 
land ; but the principle made but little progress in the northern 
parts of the United Kingdom, until the battle of Culloden in 
1745, ^ut an end to all the hopes and pretensions of the house 
of Stewart. 

* Mr. Henry Erskine, the presumptive heir to the Earldom of BachaD> in 1811, 
married the eldest daughter of the late Sir Charles Shipley. 



286 HON. H« EB8KINE. 

Mr. Henry Erskine, like his elder brother, was a whig, and 
that too at a period, when it was scarcely possible to avow it 
with impunity, " in the gude auld toune of Edinborough !"— 
The members of this distinguished family, however, boldly as- 
serted their right to a freedom of thought and of discussion ; ani 
openly stigmatised the American war, as hostile ^both in its 
origin and progress, to the constitution. At the conduuoo 
of that contest, the merits of the subject of this memoir were 
not forgotten ; indeed it would have been impossible to have 
overlooked them : for he was now, if not the very first, y^ 
in the foremost rank at the Scotch bar ; and in short, almost 
the only constitutional lawyer of any distinguished talents tberfr 
Accordingly, when Lord North, (afterwards Earl of Guilfbrd,) 
was reluctantly driven from power, and the Rockingliam ad- 
ministration came into place, the office of Lord- Advocate of 
Scotland, a post far more important than that of Attomej- 
General in England, was conferred on Mr. Henry Erskine— 
This occurred in 1802, after which he was immediately nomi- 
nated a -member of Parliament. But his opportunities to sup- 
port the new administration were few, on account of its 
ephemeral existence. On its retreat he was immediately strip- 
ped of his official dignity, without any manner of ceremony 
whatsoever, and his place instantly supplied, by a new candi- 
date for office, whose principles were doubtless more pliant, as 
well as more conformable to the wishes of the minister* Twehe 
years pertinacious retention of power on the part of Mr. Pitt, 
who has been deemed by some, an eloquent rather than dther 
a great or a successful minister, precluded all hope of rein- 
statement, or advancement, on the part of a man, who al- 
ways exhibited an unvarying uniformity to his principles. — 
One honourable and independent station, however, became the 
object of a laudable ambition ; it was indeed unaccompanied by 
any emoluments whatsoever, but on the other hand, it had 
been occupied and adorned by the greatest and most distin- 
guished practitioners at the Scottish bar. This was the oflBce 



HON. H. ERSKINE. 287 

of Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, to which all the members 
are entitled to elect, and which was now obtained in a manner 
honourable to both parties. 

Yet even this distinction was at length envied the possessory 
and, as if to mortify both himself and hi& party, an active can- 
vas took place, a new candidate presented* himself; and a 
majority of this great juridical corporation, influenced by the 
open smiles of power, seemed to be as eager to depoise, as they 
had been before, anxious to ^point him. 

In 1806, when Mr. Fox again returned to (rffice, over- 
whelmed by disease rather than by years, Mr. Thomas 
Erskine was nominated Lord Chancellor, and his brother 
Henry once more became Lord Advocate. On this occasion 
he was returned member f6r a district of Burghs*, in the last 
session of the second Imperial Parliament, which met Jan. 21, 
1806, in the room of Major Dalrymple, who accepted of the 
Chiltem Hundreds to make way for him. On the dissolution, 
which soon after ensued, he was re-elected without opposition* 
This, however, like the former Whig administration, at the 
close of the American war, was not suffered to continue long 
in power ; and on its dismission, Mr. H. Erskine, found his 
seat in Parliament supplied at the next dissolution by Sir J.H. 
Maxwell, Bart. 

It was thus» that although twice Lord Advocate, he did not 
remain in of&ce above two years and a half, during the course 
of a long life ; and accordingly had a glimpse rather than a 
full possession of power. It can never be said, however, that 
he abused his high station by any undue exertion of power ; 
or disgraced himself by an equivocal assumption of prerogative. 
The claims of this great oflicer of state have now become 
happily obsolete ; in remote times, he exercised a degree, of 
authority utterly incompatible with a free government; and 
even in our own days, a parliamentary enquiry disclosed such 
a flagrant act of injustice, in a remote county, that even the 

* Dumfries, Kircudbright^. Sanquhar, Anan, and Lochmabeo. 



288 HON. H. ERSKINE. 

shield of power could not shelter the perpetrator from well- 
merited reproach. 

At length, IVIr. Erskine's constitution bc^aii to give way to 
ijie pressure of disease; and his good sense wisely indnoed 
him, on this occasion, to withdraw from the bar. This o^ 
curred in 1812, and the five remaining years of his life were 
chequered, or rather consumed by maladies of various k 
On this occasion, he occasionally had recourse to tra* 
and came to England, where he resided for some time. At 
other periods he frequented the watering and sea-bathing pi 
but witliout finding relief. Medical aid having also i 
unavailing, at length his amiable and unhappy wife * and j 
were reluctantly forced to despair of his recovery. T r 
proved but too true, for he died at his country seat, in Wot 
Lothian, on the 8th of October, 1817, when he had nesify 
completed the 71st year' of his age. 

In his person, Mr. Henry Erskine was tall and gented; in 
point of height, he surpassed both his brothers ; and in die 
first bloom of youth was considered handsome in no «"»«>«» 
degree. Although a man of great gaiety, his habits were fiir* 
tunatcly, both for himself and family, of a domestic nature 
Even in the early part of his life he was temperate ; and in the 
latter part abstemious. It has been observed of men of wit in 
general, that they dcUght and fescinate every, where but at 
home ; — yet ai homey he was ever most pleasant ; and althov^ 
he denied himself the enjoyment of all expensive pleasniOi 
yet, so far as his means extended, he was ever indulgent to 
those around him. 

Mr. Erskine was always addicted to a country life. He 
talked of cultivating his lands at Ammondellf, with delight; 
and when in London, we have heard him indulge in the rap> 
turous hope of returning to gather in his harvest ! When he 

* His furmer lady having died^ in 1804, lie afterwards married Mn. TurnbuU, for- 
merly Miss Munro. 

f Tliis originally formed |iart of the patrimonial estate, and was tnniferred to hb 
second brother, hy die present Earl, about the year 1793, to serve w a recrcM from the 
fatigues of busineu, during the vacation. 



HON. H. ERSKmS. 889 

withdrew from practice, he accordingly spent the grefttet' pdrt 
of his life in this rural mreat Mc^ had^donstrdcted a bc^ati« 
ful little villA and created tte soetiery ar^nd it, in strict con* * 
fortuity to hi« own taste; And in emptoynmts Mch bb these 
passed idie remainder of las lifei This ww amoat forttmate 
circnnMrtance; for a great mstn m retirement iir ^merally the 
ynhappiest animal in the cn^tion. 

He "vhu fond of wit, and eigoyed a good joke better than 
any man; nay, he wonM not dhdaste evot' a punj either im 
'verse* or in prose. No one exhibtted^^dther in his person «q«' 
prac^ce, a greater portion of the sodal affections; and'suidi'^ 
was the happy textore of his temper^ -and tfa^ indeseribaUe' 
buoyancy of his spirits, that disease its^eonld neither stAJTue 
the constancy of his mind, nor entirdy deprive him of tiiat jplity- 
ful gaiety for which he was so eminently distinguished. 

It is no small proof of the general respect prevalent at this 
mmnent, for tlie memory of this amidUe gentl^naii,' thtft llis 
virtues and talents have already been cOitafflMHtmiled by thfie 
distingtusUed persofis* The Earl of Buchan, onable to affi>Fd 
vent for the extremity of his fraternal grie^ in his own lan- 
guage^ has had recourse to that of Cicely r 

'^ 3Ski quidem fraier meus^ quanqutm nun^ ereptus^ vivety 
toTnefij smperque vivet : virtutem enim arfupffi ittiusfrtUfis^ quit 
eoptincta nan e^. Nee miki soli versatur ante octdos^ qui illam 
semper in manibus habeo^ sid eiUm p6iieris erit tiara et in^ 
signis! ' ' „ 

^^ Equidem ex omnibus rebus% quas miki autjbrtuna aut naiura 
tribuity nihil habui^ quad cum OiiwiltHa fiatris niH pblishn car^ 
parare^ 

The following observations have been attributed to Mr* 
Jefferies, an advocate, and a man df letters, of no small dis- 
tinction: 

♦ EPIGRAM. 

" On that high beach where Kciijon hoTds liis leat, 
England may boast that Truth and Justice meet: 
But in a northern court, where ^ndt commands the chair, 
Op pfu Mia u Koldt the acalesj cod Judgment't lost in Ayr /*/ 

VOL. lU ' ^ U \ '^ 



S90 HON. H. ERSKINE. 

<^ In his long and splendid career at the bar, Mr. Erskine 
was distinguished, not only by the peculiar brilliancy of his 
wit, and the gracefulness, ease, and vivacity of his eloquence^ 
but by the still rarer power of keeping those seductive qualitio 
in perfect subordination to his judgment. By their assistance, 
he t^ould not only make the most repulsive subjects agreeaUe, 
but the most abstruse, easy and intelligible. In his profiessioiH 
indeed, all his wit was argument, and each of his delightfiil 
illustrations, a material step in his reasoning. To himself it 
seemed always as if they were recommended rather for their 
use than *their beauty. And unquestionably they often enabled 
him to state a fine argument or a nice distinction.'* 
The following tribute is from the pen of a friend : 
^^ The character of Mr. Erskine's eloquence bore a itnog 
resemblance to that of his noble brother, (Lord ELrskine) bot 
being much less diffusive^ it was better calculated to leafe i 
forcible impression : he had the art of concentrating his ideas, 
and presenting them at once in so luminous and irresistible i 
form, as to render his hearers masters of the view he took of 
his subject; which, however dry or complex in its natoie, 
never failed to become entertaining and instructive in Us 
hands ; for, to professional knowledge of the highest order, he 
united a most extensive acquaintance with history, literature^ 
and science; and a thorough conversancy with human life and 
moral and political philosophy. The writer of this article hss 
witnessed, with pleasure and astonishment, the widely diflferait 
emotions excited by the amazing powers of his oratory ; fervid 
and affecting in the extremest degree, when the occasion called 
for it ; and no less powerful, in opposite circumstances, by the 
potency of wit and the brilliancy of comic humour, which 
constantly excited shouts of laughter throughout the precincts 
of the court, — the mirthful glee even extending itself to the 
ermined sages, who found too much amusement in the scene 
to check the fascinating actor of it. He assisted the great 
powers of his understanding by an indefatigable industiy, 
not commonly annexed to extraordinary genius; anil he 
kept his mind open for the admission of knowledge by the 
most unafiected modtisty of deportment The hanumy ^hb 



HON. H. ERSKINE. S91 

periods, and the accuracy of his expressions, in his most un- 
premeditated speeches, were not among the least of his ora- 
torical accomplishments. 

" In the most rapid of his flights, when his tongue could 
scarce keep pace with his thoughts, he never failed to seize 
the choicest words in the treasury of our language. The apt, 
beautiful, and varied images which constantly decorated his 
judicial addresses, suggested themselves instantaneously, and 
appeared, like the soldiers of Cadmus, in complete armour 
and array to support the cause of their creator, the most re- 
markable feature of whose eloquence was, that it never 
made him swerve by one hair-breadth from the minuter de- 
tails most befitting his purpose ; for, with matchless skill, he 
rendered the most dazzling oratory subservient to the uses of 
consummate special pleadings so that his prudence and sl^acity 
as an advocate, were as decisive as his speeches were splendid. 
^^ Mr. Erskine's attainments, as we have before observed^ 
were not confined to a mere acquaintance with his professional 
duties; he was an elegant classical scholar, and an able 
mathematician ; and he also possessed many minor accomplish- 
mentSvin great perfection. His knowledge of music was cor- 
rect, and his execution on the violoncello most pleasing. In all 
the various relations of private life, Mr. Erskine's character was 
truly estimable, and the just appreciation of his virtues ex- 
tended far beyond the circle of his own family and friends ; 
and it is a well authenticated fact, that a writer (or, as we 
should say, attorney) in a distant part of Scotland, represent- 
ing to an oppressed and needy tacksman, who had iqpplied to 
him for advice, the futility of entering into a lawsuit with a 
wealthy neighbour, having himself no means of defending his 
cause, received for answer, " Ye dinna ken what ye say, 
Maister, there's nae a puir man in Scotland need to ix>ant a 
friend or fear an enemy while Harry Erskine lives !" How 
much honour does that simple sentence convey to the gener- 
ous and benevolent object of it I He had, indeed, a claim to 
the affection and respect of all who were within the knowledge 
of his extraordinary talents, and more uiiGoimnoii virtues. 

u 8 ' 



292 HON. H. ERSKINE. 

" With d mind that was superior to fear and incapable of 
corruption, regulated by undeviating principles of integntr 
and uniformity, elevated in adversity as in prosperity, ndtber 
subdued by pleasure into effeminacy, nor sunk into dgectioE 
by distress ; — in no situation of his life was he ashamed or 
afraid of discharging his duty, but constant to the God whoc 
he worshipped, he evinced his confidence in tiie faith pro- 
fessed, by his actions ; to his friends he was faithf , to hit 
enemies generous^ ever ready to sacrifice his little pri 
terests and pleasures to what he conceived to be the pu 
welfare, or to the domestic felicity of those around him. b 
the words of an eloquent writer he was ^ a man to chooM fa 
a superior^ to trust as b. friend^ and to love as a broiher :* tk 
ardency of his efibrts to promote the happiness of his fiOoir- 
creature^ was a prominent feature in his character ; his vm 
faults had their origin in the excessive confidence of toolibml 
a spirit, the uncircumscribed beneficence of too warm a b . 
It has been remarked of a distinguished actor, that he ^ Iw 
to be envied whilst receiving the meed of universal i 
Uum at the head of his own table: the obser i 

justly be applied to Mr. Erskine. In no* spl i s the 
lustre of his talents more conspicuous, while the u 
grace and suavity of his mannen^ the benevolent die t 
illumined his intelligent countenance in the exercdae of 
hospitalities of the social board, rendered indeed a meeti 
his house * a feast of reason, and a flow of soul.* In 
Mr.Erskme was above the middle size, well proporti J 
but slender; his features were all character and most strikinidy 
expressive of the rare qualities of his mt?id. In early life his 
carriage was remarkably graceful — dignified and impresare 
as occasion required it ; in manner he was gentle, playful, and 
unassuming, and so persuasive was his address, that he never 
failed to attract attention, and by the spell of irresistible fis- 
cination to fix, and enchain it. His voice was powerfiil and 
melodious, his enunciation uncommonly accurate and distinct, 
and there was a peculiar grace in his utterance which enhanced 
the value of a^ he said, and engraved the remembrance of it 



HON. H. ERSKINE. 293 

indelibly on the minds of his hearers. For many years of his 
life, Mr. Erskine bad been the victim of ill health, but the 
native sweetness of his temper remained unclouded, and during 
the painfully protracted sufferings of his last illness, the lan- 
guage of complaint was never heard to escape his lips, nor 
the shadow of discontent seen to cloud his coimtenance ! 
* Nothing in his life became him, like the leaving it,' he 
looked patiently forward to the termination of his painful ex- 
istence, and received with mild complacency the intelligence 
of his danger, while the ease and happiness of those, whose 
felicity through life had been his primary consideration, were 
never absent from his thoughts. It is said, that Swift, after 
having written that celebrated satire on mankind, Gulliver's 
Travels, exclaimed whilst meditating on the rare virtues of his 
friend Arbuthnot. " Oh ! were there ten Arbuthnots in the 
world, I would burn my book." — It is difficult to contem- 
plate such a character as Mr. Erskine^s without a umilar sen- 
timent, Mrithout feeling, that were there many Erskines, one 
should learn to think better of mankind. The general voice 
placed him, while living, high among the illustrious characters 
of the present age ; may the humble memorial the author is 
giving to the public, preserve his name unblemished by xtid*- 
representation, till some more equal pen shall hand it down 
to posterity, as a bright example of what great useftilneis ex« 
traordinary talefits may prove to society, when under the 
direction of sound judgment, incorruptible integrity, and en- 
larged philanthropy." 

It is not a little lingular, that it is doubtftd at thi» moment 
whether a good portrait of Mr. Henry Erskine actually Exists ; 
but the chisel of Tumerelli has happily supplied this oitiission^ 
and it is to be hoped, that as the noble library of the Faculty of 
Advocates at Edinburgh is to be graced with a bu^ of Mr« 
Homer, that a due tribute to the memory of their worthy and 
lamented dean will not be forgotten. 



u 3 



( 294 ) 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



No. XV. 

■ 

The Right Honourable 
GEORGE WILLIAM EVELYN, Earl of ROTHES 



ONE OF THE SIXTEEN REPRESENTATIVE PEERS OF 8COTUUIIH 
AND COLONEL OV THE SURREY YEOMANRY. 



1 HE Leslies, now nearly at the head of the Earlt in tlie 
Scottish Peerage, are of a very ancient family and high 
descent. They were of foreign origin, and the first of that 
name in Great Britain, was Bartholdus Lesley, one of tbe 
Hungarian Magnates^ who in the year 1086, attended Margaret 
Atheling, the wife of King Malcolm Canmore, into Soodand. 
There his merits, in addition to his services to that prinoessi 
were deemed so considerable, that King Malcolm gave him his 
own sister in marriage : and besides many large poasessions, 
made him Governor of Edinburgh Castle, a place which, 
under his management, became of the highest consequence to 
the reigning family ; for he is said to have fortified it, fiar the 
first time, according to the rules of art which he had learned 
abroad. 

From him descended George Leslie, created Lord Leslie^ 
Earl of Rothes, by James II. in 1457. 



CARL OF ROTHES. 39^ 

• 

We learn from another source, that Bartholomew de Leslyn*, 
possessed the barony of Leslyn, in Aberdeenshire, so early 
as 1165 ; and that his descendant George, was honoured with 
the earldom alluded to above ; but that the precise date is un- 
certain, being between the years 1455 and 1459. William the 
third Earl lost his life at the fatal battle of Flodden field ; and 
his eldest son George appears to have been one of those 
zealous reformers, who, in 1546, seized on the castle of Car- 
dinal B^ton at St. Andrew's, " and," says Robertson, " de- 
livered their country, though, by a most unjustifiable action, 
from an ambitious man, whose pride was insupportable to the 
nobles, as his cruelty and cunning were the ^eal: checks to 
the Reformation." 

The fourth Earl of Rothes attended Queen Mary to 
France, in order to be espoused by the Dauphin; Johuj 
the sixth Earl, joined the Covenanters; but being one of 
the deputies from Scotland to Charles I^, then in capti- 
vi^, was gained over, according to Burnet, ^by the h(q>es 
of marrjdng the ^^ Countess of Devonshire,, a rich, and mag- 
nificent lady." 

His son John fought for Charles IL at Worcester, and 
returned with the King after his exile. His favour now 
became preponderant at court, for he was Lord High Trea- 
surer, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Lord Chancellor, 
&c. Dr. Burnet says, *^ the King loved him, though it 
was a very extravagant thing to see one man possess so 
many of the chief places of so poor a kingdpm." In 
1680, he was created Duke of Rothes; Marquis of Ballin- 
briech and Cuskieberrie ; but as his Grace died without male 
issue, the patent, in consequence of the limitations, expired 
with himself. 

Margaret, the eldest daughter, having married Charles 
Hamilton, the fifth Earl of Haddington, their son John be- 
came the eighth Earl of Rothes. On the accession of George L 
he was appointed Lord High Admiral of Scotland, and died 
in 1722. John, the ninth Earl, was a Lieutenant-General, 
and had a regiment of guards, and his only scm John, dying, 

u 4 



S96 EAHL OF ROTHES* 

in 17739 without male issue, was succeeded by liui eldest 
sister. 

George William Evelyn Leslie, the eleventh Earl of Rothes 
was the son of George Raymond Evelyn, Esq,, by Jane Eliz»> 
beth Countess of Rothes. He was born March 88, 1 76;^ and 
after receiving the usual education, settled in Engilandj where 
be married twice. His first wife was Lady Henrietta Amt 
Pelham, eldest daughter of Thomas Earl of Chichester ; with 
this lady, to whom he became united May 24, 17899 h«l 
no male issue; there were, however, three daughters^ tns. E 
rictta-Anne, Amelia*, and Mary. The Countesa i 
December 5th, 1797, in August 1798, his lordship 
. Charlotte-Julia, daughter of Colonel John Camp of 

Dunoon, and here again there were no male childreiiy 
two females, Elizabeth-Jane, and Georgiana, the lat ' 
whom is since dead. 

In 1810, the Earl of Rothes succeeded to the titlei^ and 
some estates btill vested in the family, among which is the 
. Seignory of Rothes, a lordship on the banks of the Spey, s 
few miles distant from Elgin in the county of Moray. Hi» 
lordship, however, never lived in Scotland, having resided for 
many years in the county of Surrey. 

As he possessed but a small patrimony, the Earl was assisted 
by means of a pension from the crown, which ceased at his 
demise. He was ektremely loyal, and was the first to move 
addresses of congratulation, &c His lordship also cooimanded 
the yeomanry cavalry in the vicinity of Wimbledon, Wands- 
worth, &C., for many years. 

His eldest daughter. Lady Henrietta, now Countess of Rothes, 
married a person of the name of Jenkins, who afterwards kept 
a botanical garden in the New Road, near Paddington, by 
whom she has several children, and with whom she appears to 
be happy. Her conduct has been strictly modest, prudent, and 
exemfdary. 

* Lidy Amelia LetUe died at Long-DitUMiy sooo after the «leMiit •£ hu fnhtr 
the late £arl. 



EARL OF KOTHES. 297 

The death of her &ther, the late Earl, was sudden if not sin- 
gular: having beeft taken ill wliile on horseback, not on a 
journey, but while enjoying a ride, and carried to the house of 
H. Peters, Esq., of Betchworth Castle, where he expired Fe- 
bruary 10th, 1817. 

As a legislator, the Earl of Rothes was not prominent ; he, 
however, in his character of one of the sixteen peers of Scot- 
land, seconded the dutiful and respectful address which was 
moved at the opening of the present parliament, and acquitted 
himself with a considerable share of ability, on diat occasion. 
His demise is supposed to have arisen from the bursting of a 
blood vesseL 



( 298 ) 



No. XVI. 
CHARLES COMBE, M. D. F. R. S. and A. S. 

X HIS gentleman was a native of London, having be xx 
in that great city on the 23d of September 17^3. His ', 

an eminent and wealthy apothecary in Southampton re 
Bloomsbury, determined to give him a good education, i 
doubtless had the profession of medicine in his view, from 
very first. He was accordingly sent to Harrow sdhooli of 
which Dr. Thackeray was then head master. There his con- 
temporaries were of no vulgar kind ; for besides several otbm 
of some nojbe, he reckoned among his friends and plajrfeUow^ 
the present Dr. Parr, who afterwards became one of the in- 
structors in that seminary, of which he has been always con- 
sidered both as the ornament and the pride. With the late 
Sir William Jones, who went to India in the obscure situatioo 
of a puisne JudgCf a post utterly unworthy of his great talents 
and acquirements, he was particularly intimate ; he admired his 
rare and singular merits ; he cultivated his valuable and lasting 
friendship ; he was privy to all his plans, and he preserved t 
continued and uninterrupted intercourse with him, until his 
departure for Bengal, where he expired, a prey to one of ths 
many diseases of that climate. 

Meanwhile, on leaving Harrow, Mr. Combe returned to 
his father's house, and under the paternal roof, applied him- 
self both to the study and practice of the healing art. His 
knowledge of the learned languages furnished a key to the 
theory ; the lectures of professional men, conveyed an idea of 
the present state of medicine ; while the hospitals afforded an 
insight into new and uncommon cases. In 1768, when be 
was only twenty-five years of age, in consequence of the H^mi^i^ 



DR. COMBE. 299 

of his father, John, he succeeded to his practice, and confined 
himself for a considerable time, exactly to the same line. 

In the course of the next year, he married Miss Taylor, 
by whom he has two surviving children, out of four, who were 
bom in consequence of this union, which lasted during the long 
period of thirty years ; that lady died in 1 799. 

As Mr. Combe was known to be a man, who to an excel- 
lent education superadded considerable talents, and an un- 
blemished character, his company and conversation were 
greatly courted. Nor was he averse to such distinctions as 
men of learning usually aspire to; for so early as 1771, he 
became a member of the Society of Antiquaries ; and in the 
course of five years more, was nominated a fellow of the 
Royal Society. 

It was not until the year 1783, however, that he attained to 
any professional eminence. As he had not been educated at 
an English University, he could not obtain a degree either at 
Oxford or Cambridge; his firiends therefore applied in his 
name to Glasgow ; and his certificate was so respectably signed, 
and his respectability so well established, that no difiiculty 
whatsoever was found in conferring the title of M. D. As this, 
however, did not entitle him to practise either in London, or 
seven miles around the metropolis, he applied to the College 
of Physicians, ofiered to submit to an examination, and was 
accordingly nominated a " licentiate," without any obstacle. 
His habits and practice pointed at the lucrative and respec- 
table station of an accoucheur^ which had procured such an 
immense accession of opulence to his iriend, the late Dr. 
William Hunter. This gentleman like himself, had advanced 
firom the very bottom of the profession, and obtained tlie 
doctorate at the University of Glasgow, after he had arrived at 
a mature age. The career of the former, however, although 
less brilliant, was respectable ; and he became, first, Physician 
in Ordinary, and then Physician Extraordinary to the British 
Lying-in-Hospital, in Brownlow Street. His private practice 
was also both considerable, and advantageous ; and had it not 
been for his literary, and scientific pursuits, which we are bow 



800 DtUCOMBE* 

about to ennineratCi there can be no doubt, but he would 
have obtained, perhaps the very first eminence in midwifery. 

While at Harrow, Dr. Coombe had exhibited a marked 
attachment for classical attainments, and classical investiga- 
tion : indeed, it was impossible for the school-fellow of a Jones, 
and a Parr, to remain devoid <^ a taste of this kind. The 
French, with less learning, perh^s, have cultivated medallic 
history, more than the English, and the fine bronzes struck 
during the reign of Louis XVI., notwithstanding the poverty 
of the subjects which they celebrate, and the bombastic nature 
' of their inscriptions, have not a little contributed to form, or 
at least, to encourage this pursuit, which is connected in no 
small degree with their national glory. 

Dr. Charles Combe, possessed a similar taste^ but it was 
of a &r more chaste and classical description. The study of 
ancient medals, as connected with apcient manners, and an- 
cient history, was a career then open, and indeed, new to the 
modem antiquary in this country. His early essays proved 
successful to a certain d^ree, for they in the first place tended 
not a little to difiiise his rq>utation, iCnd in the next, intro- 
duced him to the notice of the late Dr. William Hunter, with 
whom he was connected by the ties of an uninterrupted fi-iend- 
ship, during the long space of twenty-five years ; and which 
was at last only dissolved by the death of one of the parties. 

This great anatomist, and man-midwife, without being, 
perhaps, a very learned many in the strict sense of that term, 
possessed a noble passion for at once distinguishing himself 
and creadi^ an unrivalled museum for the service of posterior. 

. As he had not any children, and possessed an immense 
amiual revenue, the Dr. first formed a splendid anatomical col- 
lection, at his house in Windmill Street, which was commenced, 
perhaps with a view to the accommodation of the numerous 
students from all countries, who crowded to his lectures. His 
views were next extended to natural history, including the 
finest spedmens of sheUs, minerals, crystals, corals, &c 
As his fortune encreased, so did his plans enlai^; for his * 
aittrtoMi^ were soon after lined with a magnificent dis{riay of 



DR. COMBE. SOI 

books, which actually formed a literary desideratum^ as they 
contained a treasure of Greek and Roman learning* But 
his assemblage of Greek and Roman coins, in the acquisition 
of which, both at home and abroad, no exp^ice was spared, 
soon bid defiance to competition in this island ; and at length 
rivalled the best cabinets of certain continental sovereigns, 
the entire revenues of whose subjects, are at their sole dfsposal. 
So princely a collection of medals, had never before, been 
purchased by any single collector, however rich or ambitious, 
as by this one English physician, during a period of about 
twenty-six years; and his cabinet eminently excelled in its 
rare series of the coins of the Grecian Kings. 

It was in this cabinet, that X)r: Combe immtired himsd^ 
almost daily, during many hours; but it was towards the 
Roman history, in which he was doubtless a considerably^ pro- 
ficient, that he now directed his views. The Caesars in par- 
ticular, designated on large brassj had long attracted his at- 
tention, and he was ambitious to write dissertations on all 
theto medals ; but his labours, which commenced with the 
usurper Julius, extended no further than the t}nrant Domitian. 
The title of this work, as well as its date^ will be found in the 
subjoined catalogue; it was dedicated to the Marquis of 
Rockingham, then in the height of his reputation : *^ mag* 
numj et venerabile nomen gentibusJ* 

After an interval of eight or nine years. Dr. Combe J)ub- 
iished the medallic history of the free cities of Greece; and 
so rare and so rich was the collection whence he derived his 
materials, that on this occasion, there appeared no fewer than 
sixty-five plates of inedited coins. 

These two works served merely as specimens of this cde^ 
brated cabinet ; and foreigners now, for the first time^ began 
to turn their eyes to Britain, as a country peculiarly favoured 
in respect to numismatic riches. Eckhel, who then super- 
intended the fine cabinet of medals at Vienna, cc^ected during 
a series of years by such fortunate members of the House of 
Austria, as had attained to the imperial purple, paid many well 
merited compliments to the subject of this memoir on the 



( 298 ) 



No. XVI. 
CHARLES COMBE, M. D. F. R. S. and A. S. 

X HIS gentleman was a native of London, having be bo; 
in that great city on the 23d of September ITi-S. K v 

an eminent and wealthy apothecary in Southampton Stroel, 
Bloomsbury, determined to give him a good education, and 
doubtless had the profession of medicine in his view, from the 
very first. He was accordingly sent to Harrow school, of 
which Dr. Thackeray was then head master. There his con> 
temporaries were of no vulgar kind ; for besides several olhen 
of some note, he reckoned among his friends and playfeilovi, 
the present Dr. Parr, who afterwards became one of the in- 
structors in that seminary, of which he has been alwajrs ooih 
sidered both as the ornament and the pride. With the late 
Sir William Jones, who went to India in the obscure rituatioB 
o( A puisne Jixdgef a post utterly unworthy of his great talents 
and acquirements, he was particularly intimate ; he adnaired fait 
rare and singular merits ; he cultivated his valuable and lasting 
friendship ; he was privy to all his plans, and he preserved t 
continued and uninterrupted intercourse with him, until his 
departure for Bengal, where he expired, a prey to one of th« 
many diseases of that climate. 

Meanwhile, on leaving Harrow, Mr. Combe returned to 
his father's house, and under the paternal roof, applied him- 
self both to the study and practice of the healing art. His 
knowledge of the learned languages furnished a key to the 
theory ; the lectures of professional men, conveyed an idea of 
the present state of medicine ; while the hospitals afibrded an 
insight into new and uncommon cases. In 1768, when he 
was only twenty-five years of age, in conseqn^noe rfthe *lgmMi» 



DR, COMBE. SQQ. 

of his father, John, he succeeded to his practice, and confined 
himself for a considerable time, exactly to the same line. 

In the course of the next year, he married Miss Taylor, 
by whom he has two surviving children, out of four, who were 
bom in consequence of this union, which lasted during the long 
period of thirty years ; that lady died in 1799. 

As Mr. Combe was known to be a man, who to an. excel- 
lent education superadded considerable talents, and' an un- 
blemished character, his company and conversation were 
greatly courted. Nor was he averse to such distinctions, as 
men of learning usually aspire to; for so early as 1771, he 
became a member of the Society of Antiquaries ; and in the 
course of five years more, was nominated a fellow of the 
Royal Society. 

It was not until tlieyear 1783, however, that he attained to 
any professional eminence. As he had not been educated at 
an English University, he could not obtain a degree either at 
Oxford or Cambridge; his friends therefore applied in his 
name to Glasgow ; and his certificate was so respectably signed, 
and his respectability so well established, that no difiiculty 
whatsoever was found in conferring the title of M. D. As this, 
however, did not entitle him to practise either in London, or 
seven miles around the metropolis, he applied to the College 
of Physicians, ojfFered to submit to an examination, and was 
accordingly nominated a " licentiate," without any obstacle. 
His habits and practice pointed at the lucrative and respec- 
table station of an accoucheur^ which had procured such an 
immense accession of opulence to his friend, the late Dr. 
William Hunter. This gentleman like himself, had advanced 
from the very bottom of the profession, and obtained tlic 
doctorate at the University of Glasgow, after he had arrived at 
a mature age. The career of the former, however, althou^ 
less brilliant, was respectable ; and he became, first. Physician 
in Ordinary, and then Physician Extraordinary to the BritiA 
Lying-in-Hospital, in Brownlow Street. His private practice 
was also both considerable, and advantageous ; and had it not 
been for his literary, and scientific pursuits, which we are bow 



300 J^H. COMB£. 

about to enumerate, there can be no doubt, but he wouU 
have obtained, perhaps the very first eminence in midwifery. 

While at Harrow, Dr. Coombe had exhibited a marked 
attachment for classical attainments, and classical inveftiga- 
tion : indeed, it was impossible for the school-fellow of a Jones, 
and a Parr, to remain devoid of a taste of this kind. The 
French, with less learning, perhaps, have cultivated medallic 
history, more than the English, and the fine bronzes Btnick 
during the reign of Louis XVI., notwithstanding the poveitj 
of the subjects which they celebrate, and the bombastic natimc 
of their inscriptions, have not a little contributed to form, or 
at least, to encourage this pursuit, which is connected in no 
small degree with their national glory. 

Dr. Charles Combe, possessed a similar tastCy but it wu 
erf* a fiu: more chaste and classical description. The study of 
ancient medals, as connected with apcient manners, and an- 
cient history, was a career then open, and indeed, new to the 
modem antiquary in this country. His early essays proved 
successfiil to a certain d^ree, for they in the first place tended 
not a little to difiuse his reputation, and in the next, intro- 
duced him to the notice of the late Dr. William Hunter, witb 
whom he was connected by the ties of an uninterrupted fiicnd- 
ship, during the long space of twenty-five years ; and which 
was at last only dissolved by the death of one of the parties. 

This great anatomist, and man-midwife, without beingi 
perliaps, a very learned many in the strict sense of that term, 
possessed a noble passion for at once distinguishing himself 
and creating an unrivalled museum for the service of posterity. 
As he had not any children, and possessed an itp mfifMg 
annual revenue, the Dr. first formed a splendid anatomical col- 
lection, at his house in Windmill Street, which was commenced, 
perhaps with a view to the accommodation of the numerous 
students irom all countries, who crowded to his lectures. His 
views were next extended to natural history, including the 
finest specimens of shells, minerals, crystals, corals, &c. 
As his fortune encreased, so did his plans enlai^; Stxr his 
M'artments were socm after liaed with a magnificent dispbiy of 



Vn. COMBE. SOI 

books, which actually formed a literary desidef^atum^ as they 
contained a treasure of Greek and Roman learning. But 
his assemblage of Greek and Roman coins, in the acquisition 
of which, both at home and abroad, no exp^ice was spared, 
soon bid defiance to competition in this island ; and at length 
rivalled the best cabinets of certain continental sovereigns, 
the entire revenues of whose subjects, are at their sole dfsposaL 
So princely a collection of medals, had never before been 
purchased by any single collector, however rich or ambitious, 
as by this one English physician, during a period of about 
twenty-six years; and his cabinet eminently excelled in its 
rare series of the coins of the Grecian Kings. 

It was in this cabinet, that Dr; Combe immtired hinueiQ 
almost daily, during many hours; but it was towards the 
Roman history, in which lie was doubtless a considerable pro- 
ficient, that he now directed his views. The Caesars in par«» 
iicular, designated on large brassj had long attracted his at- 
tention, and he was ambitious to write dissertations on all 
these inedals ; but his labours, which commenced with the 
usurper Julius, extended no further than the tyrant Domitian* 
The title of this work, as well as its date^ will be found in the 
subjoined catalogue; it was dedicated to the Marquis of 
Rockingham, then in the height of his reputation : ^^ mag^ 
num^ et venerabile namen gentibusJ* 

After an interval of eight or nine years. Dr. Combe jpub- 
lished the medallic history of the free cities of Greece; and 
so rare and sO rich was the collection whence he derived his 
materials, that on this occasion, there appeared no fewer than 
sixty-five plates of inedited coins. 

These two works served merely as specimens of this cde^ 
brated cabinet ; and foreigners now, for the first time^ began 
to turn their eyes to Britain, as a country peculiarly favoured 
in respect to numismatic riches. Eckhel, who then super- 
intended the fine cabinet of medals at Vienna, collected during 
a series of years by such fortunate members of the House of 
Austria, as had attained to the imperial purple, paid many well 
merited compliments to the subject of this memoir on the 



802 DR. COUBE. 

present occasion , and he terms this a great and illustrious 
undertaking, in his work on ancient coins."* 

It was the intention of Dr. Combe, to have extended his 
description to the whole of the precious contents of this rare 
asisemblage ; but the death of Dr. Hunter, in the course of 
the succeeding year f , after the publication of Part II, pre- 
cluded his further labours. At his demise, however, he found 
himself named in conjunction with Dr. David Pitcaim, and 
Dr. George Fordyce, his executors, and to these gentlemen, 
together with his nephew Dr. Bailie, whose name was as 
yet hardly known, were left the sole use and enjoyment of his 
whole cabinet, during the space of thirty years. It is no less 
wonderfiil than true, that all these gentlemen either lived 
nearly to, or have survived that remote period, distant as it 
then appeared ! According to the will of the Doctor, it was 
then by a special clause, bequeathed in* perpetuity to the 
University of Glasgow, which had conferred on him the 
degree of M. D. 

After a long interval, Dr. Combe resumed his classical 
labours, which had now taken a different direction. Having 
formed a literary association, with his old school-fellow Dr. 
Parr, and the Rev. Henry Homer, M . A. of Emanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, it was determined to publish an ele^gant 
edition of Horace cum notis variorum. The Text of Gesner, 
the Index of Treter, and the best notes of the best Commen- 
tators, were all to be adopted; while the seven valuable ma- 
nuscripts in the British Museum, were at the same time to 

* " Illustre hoc opus continet ]>artem thesauri numisoMtici quein Honteilis wtU 
anatomicae xvo suo facile princept coeioptis iiigenti sumptu plurlmis muaeis, qns in 
prooeniiu receiisentur, ad prodigium auxit. 

** Nammorum catalogus a Cmibio erudite, iniidfr,et adcurate contextus est, tuhjectis a3 
calcem rariorum aut aneciotorum copiosia tabulis aeneis. Ut thesauri hujus incredibiWa 
copias et praestantiam non possumus satis adroirari, ita dolemus, una cum Huntero ex> 
spirasse quoque spera nobis in eodem prooemio osteotatam, fore ut, quo coeptum est, 
more luccra etiam videant classes alie, videlicet numi pnegrina'Jingua inscripti, oummi 
regum, nummi imperatoruxn in coloniis ct Gneds urbibus cusi, numnii Romanorum 
inediii, nummi Saxonici et AngUci. Sed haec credo nostra vota pridem abstalere venti> 
piis tantura desideriis nobis relictis.'* Doct. Num. Vet. p. dxx. 

t On March 30, 1783. * 



DR. COMBE. 303 

be recurred to, both for the vanom readings^ as well as 
illustration. 

But Dr. Parr, the At1a& of this great undertaking, is said 
to have declined, in consequence of which the labour at first 
chiefly devolved on Mr. Homer, who is said to have been a 
most accurate editor of editions of the prose classics, but less 
fitted for an undertaking like tlie present. Yet, such was the 
conscientious diligence exerted by this gentleman to fulfil his 
engagements with the public ; and such the vexation and dis« 
appointment incurred by him in the course of his efforts, that 
hiss health yielded beneath the pressure, and even life itself is 
said to have been actually shortened on this very account. 

On the demise of his coadjutor, the remainder of the first 
volume, and the whole of the second, were prepared for and 
conducted through the press solely by Dr. Combe, who on 
this occasion unluckily invoked no other aid or assistance. It 
was published in 1793, and.dedicated to the venerable Earl of 
Mansfield, an engraving of whose portrait is prefixed. 

It is greatly to be lamented, that Dr.^ Parr . was unable to 
fulfil his original engagement : for many obvious blunders in 
the Greek quotations in the notes, would have been instantly 
rectified. These soon caught his eagle eye, and in an able 
review, which appeared in the British Critic, experienced all 
the severity of his animadversion. His pen, like the spear of 
Abdiel, readily pointed them out; and thus the conjoint 
labours of a Homer and a Combe were scattered in the dust. 
It must be allowed, however, that the work in question dis- 
played a most magnificent specimen of British typography; 
while the Index is allowed by all to be the best, most copious, 
and most correct extant. 

Dr. Combe instantly replied to the Critic, in a pamphlet ; 
which was answered by another : thus a paper war com- 
menced, and was carried on for some time between two old 
friends and school-fellows, to the entire gratification of the 
enemies, and the sincere sorrow of the friends of both parties. 
After this, Dr. Combe once more engaged himself in me- 

10 



304 DIUCOMBJC 

dallic pursuits*; and the fine collection of numismatic trea* 
sure at the British Museum, famished ample opportunity to 
indulge his ruling passion. He had lived for some time in 
Bloomsbury-square, whence he removed to Vernon-place, 
where he died on March 18, 181 7} in the 74th year of hit age. 

* When the celebrated Mr. ffoward, had endeared hinueir to all the world, by the 
generoua sacrifice of but h life and fortune for the benefit of mankind, the proprietj of 
erecting a autue to him, during hit life-time, wat tugscated by tome af>irited individnab* 
He, however, abtoluteiy refuted to accept of such a tettimony of the public esteem. 
On this, a medal' was thought of; and Dr. John Coakley Lettiom, who htd dit- 
tingttitbed hioteelf by hit seal and liberality, on a tabjeet whidi pfetentad not a lew 
^fficultiet, contulted Dr. Combe, at will be teen by the foUowing letter, in itply : {Fide 
Ldfe and Conetpondence of Dr. L. vol. i. p. 587*) 

'* To DR^LrmoM. 

** Bloomsbmy-tqixare, Oct. 33, 1787- 
*' In rvgarito the Howardiaii Medal, I tnbmit the .following lo your eontidera. 
tion : — - A medal, unlets appropriated to some pertoa, or recording tone fact, or series 
of facts, well defined, that is, clearly pointed out, becomes nugatory. Mr* Howard 
having refused to let either his head or name be placed on the medal, h^ rendered it 
▼wy difficult to do him honour, or inform poalerity, or even fo t d g ne n of the preaent 
age, the occasion and intention of striking it> 

'* Under cireumstances . thus discouraging, I have attempted something. There 
seem to be two considersble objeptions against a Greek inscription, however apposite 
fod elegant ; one arisiii^ firom the smsllne»t of the number of people who are able to 
read it, and so for counteracting the design of a medal i the other fiom the artists not 
having Greek punches for the letters ; and to have them made for one medal only would 
be very expensive. 

" As the medal is intended for forajgnert as well as oar own conntrymcn, I think an 
English inscription u not suitable. Latin is a language generslly understood through- 
out Burope ; more can be compressed by it in a less space, and custom seems to have 
made it, (if I may be allowed the expression,) the medallie langoagfeul 

** On the obverse, a view of a prison, which by irons, ch^na, &c. may be deafly 
defined ; toward this a man walking, in the exergui: 

* INFIEMUS ERAM, ET TISITA8TIS ME, 

IN CARCERB ERAM, BT VENI8TBS AO MB. *- JlfaCT. HT. 36.' 

** And in the contour : 

* NEC MORBI NEC EQUORA TBRRBNX/ 

'* Alluding to the dangers he underwent of infections diseases, and in travelling, 
whan in pursuit of his very humane plan. 

. ** On the reverse, the figure of Britannia, the same as on a medal of Antoninus 
Pittt, holding out a civic crown, over a standing figure ; and underneath, 

* BRITANNIA, L. M. MISERORUM CONSOLATORIy 1787-' 

** Still something I think is wanting for the information of posterity, which must 
be supplied by gentlemen having the following engraved found the edge after they had 
received the medal. In Honoium Howardii Armig. 



DR. COMBE. 305 

Dr. Combe was a well known collector and purchaser of 
rare books. Like the late King of Wirtemburg, he possessed 
an immense number of the editions of the Bible, which were 
lately purchased by the trustees of the British Museum. 

List of the Works of the late Dr. Charles Combe, 

1. Index Nmnmorum omnium Imperatorum, Augustarum, 
et Cassarum, i, Julio Caesare usque ad Postumum, qui tamen 
RomI et Coloniis quam in Grasda, JEgyptOy et' alits lods ex 
sere magni moduli signabantur. Lond. 177S. 4to. 

2. Nummorum veterum Populorum, et Urbium in Musaeo 
GuUelmi Huiiter, Description 4to. 17S2. 

8. Quint Horatii Flacci opera cum variis lectionibus, notis 
variorum, et indice completissimo. Lond. 1792-3. 2 vols. 
4to. 

4. A Statement of Facts, relative to the behaviour of Dr. 
Samuel Parr, to the late Mr. H. Homer, and Dr. Combe, 
8vo. 1793. 



VOL. II. 



( 306 ) 



No. XVII. 
Sm ALEXANDER THOMPSON, Knt. 

LATE CHIBF BAROK OF THE COURT OF EXCHEQUER* 

OxR Alexander Thompson was a native of tlic North of 
England, where he was bom in 1 745. Havuig fafeen defftJUpd 
Sot the law, he was sent to the University ; and at a proper 
period entered at one of the Inns of Court* After due ptiMGlgr 
and application he was called to the bar, and entered ibId 
practice soon after, which encreased con^derably, on account 
of his extraordinaiy appliqadon and attention. These quali- 
ties, superadded to his intimate knowledge of the laws of lEog' 
land, recommended him to the notice of a former Duke of 
Bedford (the grand&ther of the present), and he conducted 
several suits for his Grace, with equal credit and ability. He 
was aft;erwards, if we are not misinformed, employed for many 
years as auditor of the various estates, both in town and coun- 
try ; and did not resign this situation until he was appointed, 
like his successor Mr. Baron Adam, to the bench. 

When Sir James Eyre became Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer, on January 26, 1787, M r. lliompson received the 
honour of J^nighthood, and was nominated a Baron in his 
place. In this situation he remained until 179S, )vhen, on 
the resignation of Sir Archibald McDonald, he became chief of 
that court in which he had before been a puisn^ or junior 
judge- 
In respect to legal knowledge his reputation was exceedingly 
high ; and for his perspicuity as well as integrity, he has been 
always praised. He sat for many years in the Exchequer, 
and having outlived the Judges Gold, Heath, Rooke^ Hotham, 
Eyre, Grose, Ashhurst, Loid Mansfield, &c he stood alone. 



BARON THOMPSON. 307 

like one of the sturdy oaks of the forest, and seoningly defied 
the attacks of time. He accordingly became the senior judge 
of the four courts in Westminster-hall, having sat on one bench 
near thirty years ! 

~ At length he retired in consequence of encreasing years and 
liifirmities, and died at Bath in April 1817, in the sevens- 
second year of his age. 

The late Chief Baron Thompson wis the intimate fiieiul and 
companion of the great Lord Thurlow, who, as Chancellor, 
had it in his power to be eminently serviceable talum 4u|Biig 
the early part of his legal career. His late prefermeoft look 
place after that nobleman's demise. They were botl|.gpo4 
lawyers^ and both fond of the pleasures of the table^ bein^ 
never averse to a chjeerful and exhilarating glass of wine^ after 
the business and &tigues of the day had been terminated. 



X 2 






( 808 ) 



No. XVIII. 



I 
I 



WILLIAM SAUNDERS, M.D. F.R.S. and V.S.A. 

Ihis venerable practitioner was bom in 1743, and might 
doubtless, have been considered the father of the College of Phy- 
sicians of London, of which he was a feDotv^ durilig 
Jrears. Having recdved a liberal education^ and < d cod- 

«iderable eminence by his town practice, he be ne, in 
time Fhysician extraordinary to His Royal H the 

Prince of Wales, and also senior Physician to Guy's H 
He at length retired from Russel-Square, and died at Ei i, 
June 4th, 1 81 7, at the age of 74. 

Dr. William Saunders was a distinguished i nber of 
of the medical and scientific institutions in the i trapo ami 
contributed not a little to attract the attention of t die to 

the virtues of the red Peruvian bark. 

Ust of the Worki of the late Dr. WilUam Samden. 

1. Treatise on Mercury, in Venereal Cases, 8vo. 1767. 

2. An Answer to Geach and Alcock, on the Devonshire 
Colic, 8vo. 1 768. 

8« Observationes de Antimonis, 8vo. 1773. 

4. Treatise on the Mophitic Acid, 8vo. 1 779. 

5. A Treatise on the Red Peruvian Bark, 8vo. 1782. 

6. Dissertation on the Structure, Economy, and Diseases of 
the Liirer, 8vo. 1793. (4 editions.) 

7. Oratio Herveii, 8lc. 1797. 

8. On the Chemical History of the medical powers of some 
of the most celebrated Mineral Waters, 1 800- (2 editions.) 

0. On the Hepatitis of India, 8vo. 1809. 



I 



( S09 ) 



No. XIX. 

Count ALVISE P. ZENOBIO, 

VyOUNT Zenobio, bom at Venice about 1 757) was the repre^ 
sentativse of an ancient and noble family. His late unde, the 
Cavalier d'Emo, was for many years in the sendee of the Re* 
public, and employed frequently with a squadron, to repress 
the fncursions of the Barbary powers. But he was not merely 
an Admiral, but a kind of Lord High Admiral ; for the 
arsenal, as well as navy, were entirely under his management; 
nay, he not only commanded, but actually fitted out the 
galleys ; and die Doge could not wed the Adriatic by means 
of his golden ring, until the Bucaitaur had been provided, and 
aU the ceremony arranged, under the auspices of this nobler 
man. On his demise, he bequeathed the noble palace of Emo, 
and a large patrimony, to his nephew. 

Alvise Zenobio, at an early period, came to England, and 
invested a considerable portion of his wealth, to the amount 
of at least 60,000/. sterling, in the English funds. It was the 
policy of the Slate Inquisition, — a horrible engine of oppression, 
that prevented the fate of Venice, from being r^etted either 
by natives or foreigners — to lessen the fortunes of great and 
opulent &milies, under pretext of conferring the honour of 
expensive foreign embassies upon them. The subject of this 
memoir, saw and resolved to avoid tl^e snare that was spread 
for him, and this young and wealthy patrician deemed no mode 
of prevention so efficacious as a journey to England. 

Th<B boasted constitution of this free country, even while 
a resident at, and subject of Venice, was always the object of his 
warmest admiration n^road ; and while here^ he endeavoured 

X 3 



S J COUNT ZEKOBIO. 

to study its principles, and examine its foundations and super- 
structure. He is indeed, one of the few foreigners who ever 
occupied themselves about the preservation of British freedom, 
for he became a member of the society " for promoting con- 
stitutional information," and was formerly present at all pub- 
lic meetings for the attainment of any popular object* 

As he frequently visited the Continent, the Count was sub- 
ject to a variety of difficulties during the late war with France. 
In 1§06, having repaired to Portugal, he immediately be- 
came an object of suspicion to the police of a government 
equally weak and arbitrary; his birth, his titles, his con- 
Qeauons in London and Venice, his wealth, the circum- 
strace of .his travelling during troublesome times, — all these, 
and perhaps the half of them were more than- sufficient to 
awaken the Argus eyes of a bigotted and timorous administra- 
tioii. . He was accordingly seized and imprisoned in a dun- 
geon, which, in due time^ opened its iron portal for the pur- 
pose of tranferring the poor Count to the coast of Africa ! At 
Tangiers, he claimed and obtained the protection of the late 
Mr« Magra, the English Consul, of whose kindness he was 
always accustomed to speak with gratitude. While there he 
was a free man ; he was neither watched, nor imprisoned, nor 
plundered, and he constantly affirmed, ^^that he had been far 
better treated by the Infidels than the Christians," 

He next repaired to France, but his long residence in Eng- 
land, had rendered him suspected there, and he was imme- 
diately sent out of that country. On this he travdkd into 
Germany, and obtained an asylum at the court of that Duke 
of Brunswick, who was a general in the service of Prussia, 
and father of the Princess of Wales. With his Highness he 
resided until a short time before the fieital battle of Jena. Hav- 
ing been formerly a frequent visitor at Wimbledon, during this 
period, he kept up a close correspondence with the celebrated 
John Home Tooke, and was epabled, in consequence of the 
iavoor shown to him at the court of Brunswick, to obtain and 
commenicate intelligence of singular novel^ and imptntance. 

In 1807» he obtained leave from our gpwragi^iai to return 



COUNT ZEfTOBIO. 311 

once more to England ; but his political opinions now seemed 
to be greatly altered ; and the sequestration and spoliation of 
iiis paternal estates by the orders of Buonaparte, contributed 
not a little, perhaps, to this change. He accordingly wrote 
several violent pamphlets, in which he accused him of tyranny, 
avarice, and injustice, and actually contrived to attack the then 
Emperor of France, in pretty tolerable English. 

From this period, he declined visiting the Ex-M. P. for Old 
Sarum, of whom, however, he always spoke with high respect ; 
but he assigned very honourable, as well as very powerful 
reasons for his conduct ; as he was influenced solely by the 
strange idea, that his attentions to this singular man, might 
not only hurt him with the English governmait, but also with 
the allies. 

Count Zenobio, appeared to be about sixty years of age; he* 
was good natured, inoffensive in his manners, and always 
willing to do a kindness, when in his power. He died at his 
apartments, in Duke Street, Westminster, December 1817^ 



X 4 



( 312 ) 



No. XX. 

Right Hon. Sir JOHN M^MAHON, Bart. 

A MKMBBR OF HIS MAJESTY'S MOST HONOURABLE THB PRITT OOmC- 
CIL ; LATE PRIVATE SECRETARY, SECRETARY-BXTRAOmDIVARTf 
AMD KEEPER OF THE PRIVY PURSE, TO HIS ROYAL BIGHKESS 
THE PRINCE URGENT, 6CC. &C. &C. 

1 BE &te and fortune of the subject of this memoir hai been 
not a little extraordinary ; for without the p oMCw i iM of anr 
flUniiig talents, or extraordinary accomplishments, either of 
mind or body ; and although unaided by birthi allianoest and 
fiunily connexions, he i^tained not only a high rank in the 
state, but died possessed of no inconsiderable share of weslth, 
favour, and honours. 

iSir John M^Mahon was a native of Ireland ; being the 
eldest son of Mr. John M^Mahon *, who was originally bred 
in the family of Robert Clements, Esq. of the county of 
Leitrim, a gentleman of considerable fortune and influence 
in the sister island. His mother resided for many years 
also, in the same house. Thus coming into the worlds white 
perhaps both his parents were in great obscurity, who could 
have contemplated the future fate of this boy? Who could 
have dreamed of his future rise? Who would have dared 
to prognosticate that he himself should have lived to confer 
places, and titles, and honours ? That he^ for many years, 
should have possessed the entire confidence of his Prince ; and 
ranked with privy counsellors, nobles, and grandees? But 
in a free country, birth is a secondary consideration. 

* Mr. M'Mahoo, Senior, afterwards married Mim Maiy StackpoU, the daughter of 
a respectable, merchant of Cork, by whom he liad two children, now baronets ; srkUa 
Kii eM«*st son was both a baronet and a privy counaeIk>r. The fiithtr dwd in 1789v 
ai which pcri^id he was Patentee Comptroller of the port of linerick. 



SIR JOHN M^MAHONy BAET. SIS 

Bom about the year 1754, young M^Mahon received such 
an education as seined befitting for his station in life. At a 
riper age, he repaired to Dublin, and we have been informed 
by one of his cofcemporariesi that he obtained, perhi^s through 
the interest of the family of Clements (who were afterwards 
ennobled, and became in succession, Barons, Viscounts, and 
Earls of Leitrim), some little post under government* We 
are ignorant of the cause, but certain it is, that Mr. M^Mahon 
emigrated soon after to America, and applied to a Scotch gen* 
tieman, who was then raising a provincial regiment, after- 
wards called the ^ Pennsylvania Rangers," for an ensigncy in 
that carps, Lieutenant-Colonel James Chalmers (the gentle- 
man alluded to) declined his services, but he, at the same 
time, pointed out *^ his countryman Lord Rawdon (since Earl 
of Moira and Marquis of Hastings) as a more proper person 
to apply to." This officer lived long enough to see him a great 
man, and was afterwards accustomed to tell this story at his 
table in Chelsea, always adding, *< my refiisal and mQr hint 
made this young fellow's fortune." 

Having solicited the nobleman mentioned above^ Mr. 
M^Mahon soon after obtained a stand of colours, and in 
the course of a few months became a great fevourite. He was 
present at all the actions and skirmishes in which Lord Rawt- 
don happened to be engaged in the Trans- Atlantic continent, 
most of which were fortunate and even successful. At one 
period, indeed, they penetrated into the southern states, and 
high hopes were entertained that some great changes might be 
eftected by their gallant achievements. But they did not succeed 
in any d^ee equal to their wishes, and, perhaps, to their merits; 
yet it must be allowed, that their operations werefer less disas- 
trous than the two armies under Burgoyne and Comwallis, both 
of whom were reduced to the necessity of piling their arms. 

Mr. M^Mahon returned to England, and by means of his 
gallant, kind, and courteous patron, now become Earl of 
Moira, in due time, attained the rank of a field officer. - He 
afterwards became a lieutenant-colonel in the army, by brevet^ 
and if we are not greatly mistaken, being then married, wa$ 



314 sift JOHN ]kl'MAHON, BART. 

permitted to sell his commission, at the same time, by war ol 
especial &vom*, retaining his rank in the army. But the good 
and amiable Earl did not stop here, for he projected somieChiDg 
far better for the officer who had been so many years under his 
protection. Colonel M^Mahon (for so he was now called) 
seemed to be formed bjr nature for a courtier. He made a 
most graceful and elegant bow, which he regulated in due 
proportion to the rank and influence of those he addressed. 
Hb voice was exactly modulated so as to sootlie and to please : 
for it exhibited those under-fones which never disturb the nerves 
of the great and powerful. He also wrote a letter in the 
politest style (lossible, and with all due observance of eft juetk: 
nor was he unacquainted with the art^ of rendering lunueb' 
useful on every possible occasion. 

With the full possession of these qualities, he was intro- 
duced to his Royal Highness the Prince of AVales, it s 
period when the royal residence of Carlton Houae^ was in i 
state of eclipse. But he remained long enough in the adjoin- 
ing mansion in Pall-Mail, to behold all its former splendoar 
revived and augmented; and the Kogency conferred on, and 
enjoyed in full plenitude, by his new protector. One of the 
first acts of the Prince, af^cr being placed at the bead of 
the executive government, was to reward his fidelity, and fm 
being private secretary, the Colonel accordingly becme 
keeper of the Privy Purse, a Privy-Counsellor, and SecreCair- 
Extraordinaxy. 

As His Royal Highness, in his capacity of Duke of Con- 
wall, had himself been for several years in opposition, Sir 
John had a delicate task to perform, when he beheld his 
patron dismiss the whigs, and take other men to his bosom, 
and his councils. The Earl'of Moira and he, were of coarse 
no longer of the same party ; and all the Right Honourable 
Secretary's quondam friends, seemed to have bid an etenul 
adieu to Carlton House. A feeble and inefficacious attempt, 
was, however, at one period made, to nominate the above-men- 
tioned nobleman, Premier : but, as it proved difficult, if not 
impossible, to arrange the subordinate characten^ this ap- 

9 



SIR JOHN M*MAHONr,^BART. 315 

pointment never took place. His lordship, notwithstanding 
this, was ofiered the Viceroyship of Ireland, ; but Lord Moira 
r^iisdl to return to his native country, unless he could carry 
the olive-branch thither to the Catholics. At length, he re- 
paired to India, as Oovemor^Gen^Bral, with a great salary, 
and an immense patronage; and has been lately advanced .in 
the peerage, to a marquisate. How far Sir John M*Mahon, 
may have contributed to the latter event, we know not ; but 
it is most likely, as he has never been accused of ingrati- 
tude, that he did all in his power to return the numerous 
good offices conferred dn himself, while a poor, tmknown, 
and unfiiended youth* For the patriots, with whom he 
had leagued in former times, he alwajrs had at command^- 
a handsome bow, an undeviating smile, and an uniform 
compliment. We have known him, not only disclaim any 
pretensions to influence himself, but jocularly to assert that 
*^ his Royal Highness possessed Uttle or none P' Another 
courtier, of still older date, carried this much further^ for 
reversing the noble saying of a King of France, ^^ that he 
forgot all the injuries done him as Duke of Orleans ;'' this bold 
statesman observed on one occasion, to a most meritorious, 
and much injured officer : '^ that George II., was not bound 
by the promises of the Prince of Wales !'^ We are sure that 
the Monarch himself would most heartily have disdained so 
base and so mean a sentiment, and we are conscious, that the 
subject of this memoir, always endeavoured to reflect honour 
on the Regent. 

Ac length, after the . lapse of many years. Sir John 
M^Mahon, began to feel the pressure of disease, if not of old 
age ; and the demise of his wiie^ a few months before^ was the 
forerunner of his own late. He had resigned his station about* 
the person of tlie Prince, some time previously to his demise but 
he appears still to have retained no inconsiderable share of 
influence, wJiich he exercised in behalf of several respectable 
branches of his family. In 1814, he procured for his half- 
brother, now the Right Honourable Sir William M*Mahori, 
a baronetcy, and also provided for him handsomdy, by means 



316 SIR JOHN M'MAHON, BART. 

of a negotiation with the late Right Honourable John P. Car. 
ran, who was prevailed upon to resign the Mastership of the 
Rolls, in consequence of obtaining a very lai^ peniian. 
Another half-brother, who had acquired considerable rank in 
the amiy, was honoured with the high and confidential 
station of Aide-de-Camp, to the Prince of Wales, with a re- 
version of his own title. 

Having retired to Bath, for the benefit of the air and 
waters. Sir John M^Mahon died there, September 12, 1817, 
leaving behind him a large fortune, which could never pos- 
sibly have been obtained from the income of his several pbocs, 
all of which did not exceed the sum of 3000/., or 4O00iL per 
annum. The assertion, however, is ridiculous, that at the 
time of his demise^ he had, '^ a floating balance at his banker's, 
of 70,000/.," for he was too well acquainted with the valne 
of money, to lose the interest of so large a sum. A little 
before his last illness, he built a beautiful little villa, in Kent, 
on an estate which he had purchased, within ten or twdve 
miles of town. In his person, he was small, and devoid d 
beauty. His face too, was seamed and scarred with the small- 
pox ; but as his conversation was pleasant, and he possessed 
all the graces, any impression arising from a transient view, 
soon wore o£P, and was obliterated. By his will, dated April 26, 
1816; the Right Honourable Sir William M«Mahon, Master 
of the Rolls in Ireland, is left his sole executor, and residuaiy 
legatee, with a bequest of 20,000/. The personal property, it 
sworn to be under 90,000/. ten thousand pounds are given to 
Colonel (now) Sir Thomas M^Mahon, Bart; to Susan- 
Elizabeth Wylde, otherwise Mitford, 5000/. ; <« to Thomas 
Marrable, Esq., a dear and esteemed iriend, 2000^ and with 
my last prayers," adds he, ^* for the glory and happiness of 
the best^hearted ipan in the world, the Prince R^^ent, I 
bequeath him, the said Thomaa Marrable, an invaluable 
servant" 

« To Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart., the preserver of my life 
for many years, 600 guineas ;" and to another medical at- 
tendant, «< 500/." 



SIR JOHN M'MAHON, BART. 317 

It might be doing injustice to the memory of Sir Joki, were 
we to withhold an eulogium, evidently penned by the hand of 
friendship, and perhaps of gratitude. 

^^ He was a gentleman, of most kind and courteous man« 
ners, steady and constant in his friendship, zeal, fidelity, and 
affection. With the best qualities of the heart, we may add, 
that he had a very cultivated understanding, and a sound 
judgment. 

^^ The clearest head, with the sincerest heart I 

^^ He was among the best letter-writers of his tim^ and in 
the performance of that duty, always did honour to the sen- 
tim^its of his Royal master; and rendered even a refusal of a 
request, palatable to the parties." 

Sir John M'Mahon was in the sixty-third or sixty-fburth 
year of his age, at the time of his decease. 



Sl6 SIR JOHN M'MAHON, BART. 

of a negotiation with the late Right Honourable John P. Cur« 
ran, who was prevailed upon to r^ign the Mastership oi the 
Rolls, in consequence of obtaining a very large pension. 
Another half-brother, who had acquired considerable rank in 
the army, was honoured with the high and confidential 
station of Aide-de-Camp, to the Prince of Wales, with a re- 
version of his own title. 

Having retired to Bath, for the . benefit of the air and 
waters. Sir John M^Mahon died there, September Id, 1817, 
leaving behind him a large fortune, which could never pot^ 
sibly have been obtained from the income of his several places, 
all of which did not exceed the sum of SOOO/., or 40002. per 
annum. The assertion, however, is ridiculous, that at the 
time of his demise, he had, *^ a floating balance at his banker's, 
of 70,000/.," for he was too well acquainted with the value 
of money, to lose the interest of so lalrge a sum. A little 
before his last illness, he built a beautiful httle villa, in Kent, 
on an estate which he had purchased, within ten or twdve 
miles of town. In his person, he was small, and devoid of 
beauty. His face too, was seamed and scarred with the small- 
pox ; but as his conversation was pleasant, and he possessed 
all the graces, any impression arising from a transient view, 
soon wore o£P, and was obliterated. By his will, dated April 26, 
1816; the Right Honourable Sir William M^Mahon, Master 
of the Rolls in Ireland, is left his sole executor, and residuary 
l^gatee^ with a bequest of 20,000/. The personal property, is 
sworn to be under 90,000/. ten thousand pounds are given to 
Colonel (now) Sir Thomas M'Mahon, Ba^; to Sman- 
Elizabeth Wylde, otherwise Mitford, 5000/.; <^to Thomaa 
Marrable, Esq., a dear and esteemed friend, 2000^ and with 
my last prayers," adds he, ^^ for the glory and bap^ness of 
the best-hearted ipan in the world, the Prince Regent, I 
bequeath him, the said Thomas Marrable, an invaluable 
servant" 

" To Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart., the preserver of my life 
for many years, 600 guineas ;" and to another medical at-> 
tendaqt, « 500/." 



( S21 ) 



No. XXIII. 
Right Hon. FRANCIS NORTH, Eabl or GUILFORD. 

1.0RD NORTH^ AND OUILJPORD, HSBKDITARY. HIGH STEWARD OF THB 
BOROUGH OF BANBURY, PATENT COMPTROLLER AND SEARCHER OF 
THE CUSTOMS, AND LL. D. 

AKIMO £T FIDE. Mot. 



JtvoGER North, who flourished during the reign of Edward 
IV., appears to be the conunon ancestor of this &mily. From 
liiin descended Edward, created a.peer by Maryfoii Feb. 17» 
1554f. . But for wealth, and oonsequencet we are to. lodL to 
Sir Francis North, Knight, a very able lawyer, who became 
first SMidtor, then Attomey-G^deral, next Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench, and was finally nominate4 Keeper of the 
Great Seal, during the reigns of Charles IL and James IL with 
the titb of Lord dhiil£>rd. He was educated at St John's 
Collie, Cambridge; and- idiile presiding in the Court of 
Chancery, is said to have been rather too &vourable to the 
interests of the crown, for a great, upright, and indep^ident 
judge. Happily for his memory, two events occurred, to 
shelter his reputation, and enhance his merits ; for be was sue* 
ceeded on the bench, by the infamous JeSeries, while his life 
was written, and his conduct displayed in the most &vourable 
colours, by a near relation. 

This nobleman, who was the author of a philosophical Essay 
jon Music ; is known to' have exhibited considerable skill on 
the Bass- Viol, an instrument now become obsolete. Accords 
ing to tradition, he employed a musician to lull him to sleep ; 
and if we iire to believe his enemies, he was accustom^ ^* to 
ride on a Rhinoceros." This accusation is seriously tenoi^ 

VOL. II. Y 



( 890 ) 



No. XXII. 
JOHN PADDEY, Esq. 

1 HIS gentleman deserves mention on account of his lineage* 
He was bom in 1738, and died at Kensington, near London. 
His mother, Lady Aime Paddey, was daughter oi Qiarles 
Duke of Cleves and Southampton, a son of Charles IL The 
deceased was, accordingly, the last surviving descendant in 
the third degree from King Charles, by the Lady Barbara 
Yilliers, daughter of Viscount Grandison, who was slain figfadng 
for King Charles I., against the Parliamentary army, in 164S. 

It ought to be remembered also, that his grandfiither wm 
brother to the celebrated George Villiers Duke of BucUngham, 
who was made cupbearer to James L on account of his &m 
person. That soverdgn, perceiving his education had been 
neglected, actually omdescended to become his schoolmaitar; 
he then i^ipanitod him a gentleman of His Majesty's bad- 
chamber and Knight of the Grarter, a dukedom next awaited 
his ambition ; and he had the disposal of all places both in 
church and state. 

In the next reign, he became also the favourite of Charles I. 
and thus enjoyed the rare good fortune of enjoying the 
unlimited confidence of two succeeding monarchs. Hswas 
stabbed by Felton, August 23, 1628, at the time when he 
was about to embark at Portsmouth, in a second cxpediticm 
against France. 

Mr. Paddey lived in great obscurity, at Kensington in the 
county of Middlesex, where he died in 1817' 



( 321 ) 



No. XXIII. 
Right Hon. FRANCIS NORTH, Eabl or GUILFORD. 

LORD NORTH AND OUILJPORD, HSBRDITARY, HIGH STEWARD OF THB 
BOROUGH OF BANBURY, PATENT COMPTROLLER AND SEARCHER OF 
THE CUSTOMS, AND LL. D. 

ANIMO £T FIDE. Mot. 



i\OGER North, who flourished during the reign of Edward 
IV., appears to be the common ancestor of this &mily. From 
turn dyccindfd Edward, created a. peer by Mary, on Feb. 17» 
1554f. . But for wealth, and oansequeDce, we are to. Uk^l to 
Sir Francis North, Knight, a very able lawyer, who became 
first SMidtor, then Attomey-Ooieral, next Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench, and was finally nominatec^ Keeper of the 
Grreat Sc^ during the reigns of Charles IL and James II. with 
the titb of Lord (stuilford. He was educated at St John's 
Collie, Cambridge; and' while presiding in the Court of 
Chancery, is said to have been rather too &vourable to the 
interests of the crown, for a great, upright, and indep^ident 
judge. Happily for his memory, two events occurred, -to 
ihelta* his reputation, and enhance his merits ; for be was sue* 
seeded on the bench, by the infamous JeSeries, while his life 

IS written, and his conduct displayed in the most &vourable 
:x>loars, by a near relation. 

This nobleman, who was the author of a philos(^hical Essay 
>n Music ; is known to' have exhibited considerable skill on 
he Bass- Viol, an instrument now become obsolete. Accord*- 
ing to tradition, he employed a musician to lull him to sleep ; 

1 if we ^re to believe his enemies, he was accustom^ ^^ to 
ri on a Rhinoceros." This accusation is seriously term^ 

VOL. II. V 



( dao ) 



No. XXII. 
JOHN PADDEY, Esg. 

1 HIS gentleman deserves mention on account of his lineage* 
He was bom in 1738, and died at Kensington, near London. 
His mother, Lady Anne Paddey, was daughter of Charles 
Duke of Cleves and Southampton, a son of Charles IL The 
deceased was, accordingly, the last surviving descendant in 
the third degree from King Charles, by the Lady Barbara 
Yilliers, daughter of Viscount Grandison, who was slain fighting 
fi>r King Charles I., against the Parliamentary army, in 1642. 

It ought to be remembered also, that his grandfiither was 
brother to the celebrated George Yilliers Duke of BucUngham, 
who was made cupbearer to James I. on aooount of his fine 
person. That sovereign, jierceiving his education had been 
neglected, actually condescaided to become his schoolmaster; 
he then appdniad him a gentleman of His Mqest/s bed- 
chamber and Knight of the Grarter, a dukedom next awaited 
his ambition ; and he had the disposal of all places both in 
church and state. 

In the next reign, he became also the fiivourite of Charles I. 
and thus enjoyed the rare good fortune of enjoying the 
unlimited confidence of two succeeding monarchs. Me was 
stabbed by Felton, August 23, 1628, at the time when he 
was about to embark at Portsmoudi, in a second expedition 
against France. 

Mr. Paddey lived in great obscurity, at Kensington in the 
county of Middlesex, where he died in 1817- 



J&XUL OF GUILFORD. $23 

army. He was soon piomoted to a M^oritf in the 84t1i regi-* 
ment o£ £oot, and in d«s time obtained Ae rank of a Lieu- 
tenantCiQldnel by famiKt. lie iroaabo Captain of Ded Castle, 
a post eonfierred by his father In early life^ in Tlitue of his 
office of Lord Warden 4)f the Cinque Port& 
. When a you^ man, be was particularly known by the ap« 
pellation of <^ iionest Frank North," amcmg all his acquaint- 
ances. Unlike bis &l^r, however, he ^mis no orator, and ^e 
bdiare ncHrer spoke in the Hottse of 9L«pds. He attafided 
occasionally, however, an'd voted in favout- of the Roman 
Catholic Bill, both in 1807, and in 1808. This 4|0Ueman^ 
jgresntly addicted himself to theatrical performante^Y and wte 
tfaemithor of a dratnatic work of some merit: the'^-Kenddli 
Bturons," a play published in 1791. He always^^ evinced a 
great esteem for, and attachment to Mr. Kemble, and when 
lai ftoyal Highness the Prince of Wflles, paid him a vitit at 
Wroxton Abbey, in Oxfordshire; the Earl got up the ode* 
brated tragedy of Richbtrd lIL, in lA&fAi liie iKftcAr juMt mimed, 
]M»ii^en^ed the diaracter of that monetrdht wi& his ustial skfll 
idid snccess. * . 

On Jidy 19, 1610, his lordiirtp married Maria, dxthi 
dMghter^f the late Thomas Sycott, of Rndge-Hiall, in the 
epuhty of Silop, f^., ' by whom he liad no issue. 

Me repaired sodietime since to the Continent, with his 
Countess, and died at Pisa, in January 1817. The Eart 
was succeeded in both titles and estates, by his sole surviving 
brother, Frederick, now Earl of Guilford. The following 
character has been transmitted by a friend : 

<^ His lordship was the second son of Frederick Earl of 
Guilford, and inherited from his father, the invariable bene- 
volence that formed the foundation of all his character ; a 
benevolence, not confined to the more ostensible exertions of 
generosity apd charity, but extending itself through all the 
unpretending kindnesses of social life. It was never over* 
looked in the exultation of wit and spirits ; and it will be well 
remembered by his acquaintance^ that he never could hear 

Y 2 



( sao ) 



No. XXII. 
JOHN PADDEY, Esg. 

1 HIS gentleman deserves mention on account of his lineage* 
He was bom in 1738, and died at Kensington, near London* 
His mother, Lady Anne Paddey, was daughter of Charles 
Duke of Cleves and Southampton, a son of Charles II. The 
deceased was, accordingly, the last surviving descendant in 
the third degree from King Charles, by the Lady Barbara 
Yilliers, daughter of Viscount Grandison, who was slain fighting 
for King Charles I., against the Parliamentary army, in 1642. 

It ought to be remembered also, that his grandfiither was 
brother to the celebrated George Villiers Duke of BueUnj^aam, 
who was made cupbearer to James L on aocount of his fine 
person. That sovereign, perceiving his education had been 
neglected, actually oondescaided to become his schoolmaster ; 
he then appdnied him a gentleman of His Majesty's bed- 
chamber and Knight of the Grarter, a dukedom nert awaited 
his ambition; and he had the disposal of all places both in 
church and state. 

In the next reign, he became also the fiivourite of Charles L 
and thus enjoyed the rare good fortune of enjoying the 
unlimited confidence of two succeeding monarchs. He was 
stabbed by Felton, August 23, 1628, at the time when he 
was about to embark at Portsmouth, in a second expedition 
against France. 

Mr. Paddey lived in great obscurity, at Kensington in the 
county of Middlesex, where he died in 1817- 



( S21 . ) 



No. XXIII. 
Right Hok. FRANCIS NORTH, Eabl of GUILFORD. 

JLORO NORTHLAND OUILJPORD, HSBKDITARY. HIGH STEWARD OF TI|B 
BOROUGH OF BANBURY, PATENT COMPTROLLER AND SIARCHSR OF 
THE CUSTOMS, AND LL. D. 

ANIMO £T FIDE. Mot. 



AGGER North, wfao flouriihed during the reign of Edwaid 
IV., appears to be die commcm ancestor of thJiB fiunily. From 
liim d^Mended Edward, created a peer by Mary, on Feb. 17, 
1554f. . But for wealth, and consequence, we are to. look to 
j^ Francis North, Knight, a very aUe lawyer, who became 
first SUicitor, then Attomey-Oeneral, next Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench, and was finally nominate4 Keeper of the 
GreatSc^ during the nngns of Charles IL and James IL with 
the titb of Lord dhiil£>rd He vi^ educated at St J(qhn> 
CoU^e, Cambridge; and while presiding in the Court of 
Chancery, is said to have been rather too &vouraMe to the 
interests of the crown, for a great, upright, and indep^ident 
judge. Happily for his memory, two events occurred, to 
shelter his rqputation, and enhance his merits ; for be was suc« 
ceeded on the bench, by the infamous Jefieries, while his life 
was written, and his conduct displayed in the most bvoucable 
colours, by a near relation. 

This nobleman, who was the author of a philosophical Essay 
jon Music; b known td have exhibited considerable skill on 
the Bass- Viol, an instrument now become obsolete. Accord*- 
ing to tradition, he employed a musician to lull him to sleep; 
and if we i^re to believe his enemies, he was accustom^ ^* to 
ride on a Rhinoceros*'* This apcusation is seriously teriDi^ 

VOL. II. Y 



326 MARclfioNfiiil^ oi sligo. 

Her ladyship, who is said to have possessed a fine taste for 
literature, and to have been an accomplished woman, was a 
younger sister of the Baroness Howe, and in the remainder of 
the Barony. 

Previously to her demise, the Marchioness had made many 
very valuable purchases for the spl^idid mansion of her son in 
Ireland, which have just reached the place of their destination. 



V 



( ««7 ) 



Ne. XXV^ 

Ths Right HbN. PATRICK Eaul of ROSCOMMON, 

BARON OF KILKENNT-WBST, &C. &C. &C. 

*. • "" 
f • . . 

w PUlom lutyci h^ loog^ ^^ed in Irelwd ,$^ ^^e a| 
me period owM^ei^ « very warlike £uimly, and at sMiiQl^^ 
d^stinguish^fer ^leoJbB of a very different kind. TsFfi^f^ 1^^?^ 
s^QesU}Ty f^coQipai^ed King John into the uster iilan^i am4 
^ne of bi9 de9cenda|)ts wan created a baron ip 16l9f a«d q]^ 
^ned an earldoin in 16£2. , . ^ 

Wentworth Dillon, Earl of ILpsconmon» bom in Irelan^ 
in 163B» and educated at his unde'a the ]Sarl of Stafford!^ in 
Yorkshire, was afterwarda sent tp Ca^ in Nonpandyy wfagpf 
he had the celebr^ed Bochart finr hi^ tutor* He b^canif 
Mas^r of the Horse to the Duchess of York, and haying ad- 
dicted himself to the Muses, b^;an to be considered one of th^ 
best poets of his di^. 

Robert, mntk Earl of Roscommon, rose to be a Marshal of 
France; in the service of which country he possessed a jiTrejpi^ 
taty r^ment, that bore his own name. 

Patrick Dillon, the eleventh Earl of Roscommon, was born 
^^cb 15| 1769. He succeeded his father, John, the formiBf 
Earl, and on July 10^ 1797, married Barbara, youngf)i( 
dau^ter of Ignatius Begg, of Belrea, in the county of Rqsr 
common* A^ his sole surviving issue is Maria, bom in 1798t 
his tides most probably may become a sul^eqt of dwt|te. 
Tbfey are now claimed by his cpu^in, Micha^ Janies. PiUppSf 
Es^ « Qiinor> son of Captain Michael DiUon^ lat^ qC thf 
county of Dublin Militia, who was killed at the battle of Ilo«)^ 
during the Rebellion. 

J^rd Roscommon died at his ^eat called Rarbara-viUi^ in 
the count; of ]3,ospommon^ Jan« 1| I3n« r 

' y **" " ' 



( 3«8-) 



No. XXVI. 
SAMUEL RUDGE, Ese- 

JVlR. Radge the eighth son of the Rev. Benjamin Rudg^ Rm* 
tor of Tbohihapgh, in the cotmty of Northampton, was bom 
in 1727/ His tmcle John was M. P. for the borough of Evef- 
ham, for many years; and he himsdf was originally bred to 
the profession of the law, having chambers in the Middk 
Temj^e, which be quitted 30 early as the year 1768. He 
afterwards resided at Elstree, in the county of Herts, where he 
lived dnring thirty-eight years, with his ehler brother. 

In consequence of his possessions in that cotmty, he served 
the office of High Sheriff of Northampton, in 1792, and afteiv 
wards removed to Watlington, in Oxfordshire. 

Having been a great sufferer from calculous complaints, he 
was accustomed, during 40 years of his life to recur constantly 
to a decoction, for the formation of which the following recipe^ 
by himself, conveys the most minute and particular direo- 
tions : 

' << Boil 36 raw coffee berries for one hour in a quait of' 
soft spring 6t river water: then bruise the berries, and boil 
them again another hour in the same water ; add thereto a 
quarter of a tea-spoonfid of the dulcified spirit of nitre, Imd 
take daily a half-pint cup of it at any hour that is convenient : 
its efficacy vnll be experienced after taking it for two mcmllis.'' 
' By means of this potent specific he was released from a quan- 
tity of gravel, according to his own calculation, equal to a 
half-pint measure, dnring the period he had recoorae to 
its aid. 

Mr. Rudge employed his knowledge of the law, not for the 
annojrance or destruction, but the benefit of his ndghboors. 
He was a very chaoitable man, and had additted lumad^ 



( m ) 



No. XXV^ 

The Rioht Hdn. PATRICK Eaul of ROSCOMMON, 

BARON OF KILKENNY- WEST, &C. 5CC. &C. 

opcf period QOiij44«^ « v«ry warlike &i|nily, and at a^ot^^ 
d^tingiiishfd for taleDj;iB pi a very different kind. ■■. Hfi^f^ ib(^ 
i^jpestor, ffxompai^ed King John into the ustqr i9lw4i ap| 
^ne of hi9 de^cendafits was created a baron ip IGl^^ ai4 qtj^ 
Ulned an earldom in 1622. . , i. 

Wentwarth Dillon, Earl of Rpsconunojri, bom in Iretan^ 
in 1638» and educated at his uncle's the £arl of Stafford^ in 
Yorkshire, was afterwards sent tp Ca^ in Normandy* wh^ 
he had the celebr^ed Bochart for his tutor. He b^can^ 
Ma^r of the Horse to the Duchess of York, and haying ad- 
dicted himself to the Muses, b^an to be considered one of th^ 
best poets qf his di^. 

Robert, ninth Earl of Roscommon, rose to be a Mardial^ 
France ; in the service of which country he possessed apropri^ 
tary raiment, that bore his own name. 

Patrick Dillon, the eleventh Earl of Roscominpn, was bora 
March 15| 1769. He succeeded his father, John, the form^p 
Earl, and on July 10, 1797, married Barbara, youj^gjfij^ 
daughter of Ignatius B^gg, qf Belrea,. in the count;^ of Rq«r 
common* As his sole surviving issue is Maria, born in 179^ 
his titles most probably may become a sul()e0 pit dj&pi|te. 
Tfafey ar^ no\^ <;laimed by his cpusin, Michad James, PJUpi?f 
Es^i A minorj^ son of Captain Michael DiUpn, lat^ q£ ihf 
county of Dublin Militia, who was killed at the battle of Hoi]^ 
during the Rebellion. 

I^<^ Rpscommon died at his seat called BarbararviUi^ in 
tl^e wmV^ of flpsppi^on^ Jf«u.J> JSH^ r 

Y 4" ' ' 



( 3«8 O 



No. XXVI. 
SAMUEL RUDGE, Esq. 

JVIr. Radge the eighth son of the Rev. Benjamin Rudge^ Ree- 
tor of Tbomhangh, in the county of Northampton, was bom 
in 1727/ His tmcle John was M. P. for the borough of Eves- 
ham, for many years ; and he himsdf was originally bred to 
the profession of the law, having chambers in- the Middle 
Teinj^^ which be quitted jfo early as the year 1768. He 
afterwards resided at Elstree, in the county of Herts, where he 
lived during thirty-eight yeans, with his ehler brother. 
' In consequence of his possessions in that cotnityv he served 
the office of High Sheriff of Northampton, in 1792, and after- 
wards removed to WatKngton, in Oxfordshfre. 

Having been a great sufierer from calculous complaints, he 
was accustomed, during 40 years of his life to recur constantly 
to a decoction, for the formation of which the following recipe^ 
by himself, conveys the most minute and particular direc- 
tions : 

' ^ Boil 36 raw co£fee berries for one hour in a quaxt of 
soft spring 6r river water: then bruise the berries, and boil 
them again another hour in the same water ; add thereto a 
quarter of a tea-spoonfid of the dulcified spirit of nitre, and 
take daily a half-pint cup of it at any hour that is convenient : 
its efficacy will be experienced after taking it for two months.** 
*' By means of this potent specific he was released from a quan- 
tity of gravel, according to his own calculation, equal to a 
hal&piht measure, during the period he had recourse to 
its aid. 

Mr. Rudge employed his knowledge of the law, not for the 
annoyance or destruction, but the benefit of his ncoghbours. 
He was a very chaoitable man, and had addicted himsdf. 



mt. MDHpar. SSI 

served with great credit dHring the late peninsular campaigns^ 
under the Duke of Wellington. 

Their father, the late Mr. Murphy, from his earliest years, 
seems to have cultivated the muses. He acted, indeed, as a 
kind of Poet^Laurcat to her Majesty, and although his annual 
Birth-day Ode, neither produced for him a salary, or even a 
butt of sack ; yet he appears to have obtained from the Courts 
£t provision for most of his children. 



) 



( 3«8-) 



No. XXVI. 
SAMUEL RUDGE, Esq. 

JVLr. Rudge the eighth son of the Rev. Benjamin Rndge^ Ree- 
tor of Tbomhaiigh, in the county of Northampton, was bom 
in 1727* His tmcle John was M. P. for the borough of Eves- 
hami for many years ; and he himsdf was originally bred to 
the profession of the law, having chambers in the Middle 
Temj^^ which be quitted ^ early as the year 1768. He 
afterwards resided at Elstree, in the county of Herts, where he 
lived during thirty-eight years, with his ekler brother. 
" -■ In consequence of his possessioiis in that county, he served 
the olBBce of High Sheriff of Northampton, in 1792, and after- 
wards removed to Watlington, in Oxfordshfre. 

Having been a great suflferer from calculous complaints, he 
was accustomed, during 40 years of his life to recur constantly 
to a decoction, for the formation of which the following recipe^ 
by himself conveys the most minute and particular direc- 
tions: 

' ** Boil 36 raw co£fee berries for one hour in a quaxt of 
soft spring dr river water: then bruise the berries, and boil 
them again another hour in the same water ; add thereto a 
quarter of a tea-spoonfid of the dulcified spirit of nitre, and 
take daily a half-pint cup of it at any hour that is convenient : 
its efficacy will be experienced after taking it for two months.'' 
* By means of this potent specific he was released from a quan- 
tity of gravel, according to his own calculation, equal to a 
half-pint measure, during the period he had recourse to 
its aid. 

Mr. Rudge employed his knowledge of the law, not for the 
annoyance or destruction, but the benefit of his ncoghbours. 
He was a very chaoitable man, and had addicted ^himsd^ 



IdR. HOLMAN. 858 

well as ease, and self-possession, which a novice can never' 
aspire to. He was for a time a successful^ although never a 
first-rate performer in England. 

Having soon quitted the Lcmdon stage, in consequence of 
his merits being under-rated, and his salary therefore inade- 
quate to his claims; he repaired first to Dublin, and after- 
wards to Edinburgh, in the latter of which cities, he acquired 
great popularity. After a short interval, Mr. Holman re- 
turned to Covent Garden ; then appeared on the boards of 
the Hay-Market ; afterwards repaired once more to Ireland^ 
and purchased a share in the theatre of that capital,' which 
was disposed of to great loss, in c^onsequence of the un- 
promising aspect of the times. In 1798, he married the 
youngest daughter of the Honourable and Reverend Frederick 
Hamilton, with whom he obtained some fortune; but this 
lady died in 1810. Meanwhile this disciple of Rosciui^ had 
determined to remove to the Trans- Atlantic continent This 
speculation at first proved productive both of fame and money ; 
for he performed there^ with an unusual d^ee of applause. 
Finding this a lucky adventure, he returned to London, in 
1812, for the express purpose of engaging performers for his 
new Theatre at Charles-town, in South Carolina, a gay, but' 
unhealthy provincial capital During his short stay in England, 
he appeared once more at the summer theatre of the Hay- 
Market, in the character of Jaffier, which he played to his 
own daughter's Belvidera; for he had actually brought up 
Miss Holman to the stage I 

On his return, this gentleman experienced the fate of most^ 
if not all managers; for he was thwarted behind the scenes; 
parties were made against him, among the inhabitants; a 
general disobedience ensued, and an appeal was made to the 
public, in opposition to his authority, which like every other 
ruler, he of course deemed sacred, and inviolable. To add to 
the miseries of a revolutionary theatrical atmosphere, he ac- 
tually caught an endemic autumnal contagion, with which the * 
scene of his short-lived dramatic monarchy is annually visited ! 
Stricken with the unrelenting hand of death, he endeavoured 



( 3«8-) 



No. XXVI. 
SAMUEL RUDGE, Esg. 

JVlR. Radge the eighth son of the Rev. Benjamin Rndge^ Ree- 
tor of Tboimhap^, in the cotmty of Northampton, was bom 
in 1727/ His tmcle John was M. P. for the borodgh of Eves- 
hami for many years; and he himsdf was originally bred to 
the profession of the law, having chambers in the Middle 
Temj^^ whieh be quitted fio early as the year 1768. He 
afterwards resided at Elstree, in the county of Herts, where he 
lived during thirty-eight years, with his elder brother. 
'" "- In consequence of his possessions in that comity, he served 
the office of High Sheriff of Northampton, in 1792, and after- 
wards removed to Watlington, in Oxfordshfre. 

Having been a great sufierer from calculous complaints, he 
was accustomed, during 40 years of his life to recur constantly 
to a decoction, for the formation of which the following recipe^ 
by himself conveys the most minute and particular direc- 
tions : 
' << Boil 36 raw coffee berries for one hour in a quait of 
soft spring 6r river water: then bruise the berries, and boil 
them again another hour in the same water ; add thereto a 
quarter of a tea-spoonfid of the dulcified spirit of nitre, and 
take daily a half-pint cup of it at any hour that is convenient : 
its efficacy will be experienced after taking it for two months.** 
*' By means of this potent specific he was released from a quan- 
tity of gravel, according to his own calculation, equal to a 
half-pint measure^ during the period he had recourse to 
its aid. 

Mr. Rudge employed his knowledge of the law, not for the 
annojrance or destruction, but the benefit of his ncoghbours. 
He was a very chacritablcf man, and had addicted ^himadf* 



( »«7 ) 



No. XXV^ 

The Right HbN. PATRICK Exig. of ROSCOMMON, 

...... , 

BARON OF KILK£Ninr*WK8T, 8CC. 5cC. &C. 

, - • - • ^ • 

rin 

oocf period QOOMdei^f^a v«vy wadike fimoily, and at a^otl^^ 
d^sUoguish^ for taleivt^ qf a very different kind. Vf^^Wlf th(^ 
i^joestor, f^cHpapai^ed King John ioto the uster iftUmd^ ap^ 
^ne of hi9 defcendants wa« create a baron ip 16l9f a«d <if 
t^ued an earldom in 1622. . : . 

Wentworth Dillon, Eajrl of BJ9scou»wsh bgm ip.Ire)aiifJ| 
in 1638^ and educated at his unde'a the £arl of Staffordif in 
Yorkshire, was afterwards sent to Ca^n^ in NoirnianQy, wi^^ 
he had the celebiii^ted Bochart for hi9 tutor. H^ b^cam^ 
Ma^r of the Horse to the Duchess of York, and having ad- 
dicted himself to the Muse^, began to be considered we of th^ 
best poets qf his di^. 

Robert, ninth Earl of Roscommon, rose to be a Mardial qf 
France; in the service of which country he possessed a jt^ropncw 
taty regiment^ that bore his own name. 

Patrick Dillon, the eleventh Earl of Roscominpn, was bora 
March 15| 1769. He succeeded his father, John,, the form^p 
Earl, and on July 10^ 1797, married Barbara, youf^g^ 
daughter of Ignatius B^, qf Belrea, in the county of Rq«r 
commqn« As his sole surviving is$ue is Maria, born in 1798i 
his titles most probably may become a sulyapt oit dispute. 
Tb^y are now claimed by his cqusin, Michad Jav^^ PiUpPH 
Es^i A minor, son of Captain Michael DiUpn, late q£ ihf 
county of Dublin Militia, who was killed at the batde of Hosf^ 
during the Rebellion. 

Lord Roscommon died at his seat called Barbara*vill% in 
the county of Rpspopimon^ Jan, 1, 1317. 

Y 4 " " ' 



i m > 



No. XXVII. 

ARTHUR CHARLES MURPHY, Ebq. 

xHis gentleman was a native of Ireland, but at an early 
period of life seems to have adopted England for his residence* 
Having come hither, like many of his countrymen, with the 
intention of studying the law as a profession, he entered him- 
self as a student in the registry of the Honourable Society of 
the Middle Temple ; but although he kept the r^ular number 
of terms, yet he never deemed it an object worthy of the ex- 
pense to be called to the bar. 

Having at length married, and bdiolding before him the 
prospect of a large and encreasing family, Mr. Murphy be- 
came a candidate for ministerial favour ; and at last obtained 
an appointment as Provost-Marshal of Senegambia, on the 
coast of Africa. This happened at a period when the late 
Governor Wall, so justly executed afterwkrds. Tor an atro- 
cious act of cruelty, combined with tyranny, presided over 
that remote and unhealthy settlement. 

On the restoration of Senegambia to the French, his place 
was of course abolished, and the subject of this short biogra- 
phical sketch applied for indemnification: but hs he had 
chosen to act by deputy, his claims were not at all attended to. 
At length, however, he was appointed to the place of receiver 
of certain taxes, in the north of England ; and the great 
fatigue incident to this office, which vms not accompanied with 
adequate compensation, is said to have shortened his life, having 
died in Lambeth-road, May 4, 1817. His daughter, who was 
educated by the queen, and afterwards kept a respectable semi- 
nary at Doncaster, still survives ; two of his sons were in the 
navy and marines; while a third, now a major in the army, 



MR. MDHpar. SSI 

served with great credit dHring the late peninsular campaigns^ 
under the Duke of Wellington. 

Their father, the late Mr. Murphy, from his earliest years, 
seems to have cultivated the muses. He acted, indeed, as a 
kind of Poet-Laurcat to her Majesty, and although his annual 
Birth-day Ode, neither produced for him a salary, or even a 
butt of sack ; yet he appears to have obtained from the Court, 
a provision for most of his children. 



. > 



( 3«8 ) 



No. XXVI. 
SAMUEL RUDGE, Esg. 

JVlR. Rudge the eighth son of the Rev. Benjamin Rudg^ Rw 
tor of Tbomhapgh, in the cotmty of Northampton, was bom 
in 1727* His tmcle John was M. P. for the borough of Eves- 
ham, for many years; and he himsdf was originally bred to 
the profession of the law, having chambers in the Middle 
Temj^^ which he quitted »o early as the year 1768. He 
afterwards resided at Elstree, in the county of Herts, where he 
lived during thirty-eight jreans, with his elder brother. 

In consequence of his possessions in that cotmty, he served 
the office of High Sheriff of Northampton, in 1792, and after- 
wards removed to Watlington, in Oxfordshire. 

Having been a great suflferer from calculous complaints, he 
was accustomed, during 40 years of his life to recur constantly 
to a decoction, for the formation of which the following redpe^ 
by himself, conveys the most minute and particular direc- 
tions : 

' << Boil 36 raw co£fee berries for one hour in a quait of' 
soft spring 6r river water: then bruise the berries, and boil 
them again another hour in the same water ; add thereto a 
quarter of a tea-spoonfid of the dulcified spirit of nitre, and 
take daily a half-pint cup of it at any hour that is convenient : 
its efficacy ^wUl be experienced after taking it for two months.'* 
' By means of this potent specific he was released from a quan- 
tity of gravel, according to his own calculation, equal to a 
half-pint measure, during the period he had recom-ae to 
its aid. 

Mr. Rudge employed his knowledge of the law, not for the 
annoyance or destruction, but the benefit of his neighboors. 
He was a very chacritable man, and had additted ^iiihief& 



IdR. HOLMAN. 858 

well as ease, and self-possession, which a novice can never* 
aspire to. He was for a time a successful^ although never a 
first-rate performer in England. 

Having soon quitted the Lcmdon stage, in consequence of 
his merits being under-rated, and his salary therefore inade- 
quate to his claims; he repaired first to Dublin, and after- 
wards to Edinbuigh, in the latter of which cities, he acqtured 
great popularity. After a short interval, Mr. Holman re- 
turned to Covent Garden ; then appeared on the boards of 
the Hay-Market ; afterwards repaired once more to Ireland^ 
and purcluised a share in the theatre of that capital, which 
was disposed of to great loss, in consequence of the un- 
promising aspect of the times. In 1798, he married the 
youngest daughter of the Honourable and Reverend Frederick 
Hamilton, with whom he obtained some fortune; but this 
lady died in 1810. Meanwhile this disciple of Roscius, had 
determined to remove to the Trans-Atlantic continent Tliis 
speculation at first proved productive both of fame and money ; 
for he performed there^ with an unusual d^ee of applause. 
Finding this a lucky adventure, he returned to London, in 
1812, for the express purpose of engaging performers for his 
new Theatre at Charles-town, in South Carolina, a gay, but' 
unhealthy provincial capital During his short stay in England^ 
he appeared once more at the summer theatre of the Hay- 
Market, in the character of Jaffier, which he played to his 
own daughter's Belvidera; for he had actually brought up 
Miss Holman to the stage ! 

On his return, this gentleman experienced the fate of most, 
if not all managers; for he was thwarted behind the scenes; 
parties were made against him, among the inhabitants; a 
general disobedience ensued, and an appeal was made to the 
public, in opposition to his authority, which like every other 
ruler, he of course deemed sacred, and inviolable. To add to 
the miseries of a revolutionary theatrical atmosphere, he ac- 
tually caught an endemic autumnal contagion, with which the 
scene of his short-lived dramatic monarchy is annually visited ! 
Stricken with the unrelenting hand of death, he endeavoured 



39i. MSt. HOLMAN. 

to avoid his fate byfyigbt to the healthier regkm of the slate 
qf New York; but he, and nearly all his Thespian oompanyi 
consisting of Mr. Saunders, Miss Moore, &c. &c. ftll a prey 
ta this unrelenting disoi?der. He is said to have married Miss 
Latimer^ a vocal performer, but two days before his death ; arid 
she appears in a short time to have experieooed a similar fiitel 
. Mr. Holman died at Rockaway, a small sea^ptyrt and badi- 
ii^ place in Long Island, on the 24th of Augast, 1817» in &e 
&34 year of his age. As an actor, he never occupied the 
^t|dacein England, a&he afterwards did in America ; but his 
I^fOd Townly, was deemed a good perfiormance, and, ind^ed^ 
it-fS^abled him to become the rival of Kemble, who played alt 
hip miusfier-^pieoes against this one conspicuous chavacterf idui*!!!]^ 
a wihole season, and that too, as has been said, widi eqaiV€X»l 
wKaoeas I He was esteemed both as a private gentleinaki and 
a^cholar; and also particulaity respected on account of his 
urbanity and gentle 



IJd of the DraimaUc Wwks if Ike laU Mr* H^ 

1. The Ck>mic Opera of ^ Abroad and at Home," 8vo. 1 796. 
^. The Red Cross Knights, a Phy, 8vo. 1799. 
S. Votary of Wealth, a Comedy, 8vo. 1799. 

4. What a Blunder 1 a Comic OperU, 1800. 

5. Love gives the Alarm, a Comedy, 1804. 

6. The Gazette Extraocduiaiy,^4 Comic Opera, 8vo. 1814. 



( 325 ) 



No. XXIV. 

The Most Noble LOUISA CATHARINE, 
Dowager Marchioness of SLIOO. 

JLiADT Louisa Catharine Howe, second surviving daughter 
and coheir of the gallant and celebrated Admiral Richard 
Earl Howe, by Mary, daughter of Chiverton Hartopp 
of Wellby in the county of Notts, Esq., was born Decem- 
ber 9, 1767. On the 21st of May, 1787, her ladyship was 
married to the most noble John Denis Browne, first Marquis 
of Sligo, Earl of Altamont, Viscounl Wes^rt, a governor of 
the county of Mayo, and Knight of the most illustrious order of 
' St Patrick. By this nobleman, tlie marchioness had issue^ 
Howe Peter Earl of Altamont, now second Marquis of Sligo, 
who was born May 18, 1788. 

Sometime after the demise of her late consort, and about 
five years since, a most unexpected and romantic marriage 
took place between Sir William Scott, the elder brother of the 
Lord Chancellor, and chief judge of the Court of Admiralty, 
and this titled dowager. During the latter part of the last 
summer, Sir William resolved on taking a journey to Switzer- 
land ; and he accordingly set out on his route thither. In 
October, the Marchioness repw^ to Holland, with a view of 
greeting him on his return, and also of accompanying him to 
England. But it was not their fiite to meet any more : for her 
ladyship was suddenly taken ill at Amsterdam, and died there 
in November 1817, after being confined for only a few days. 
Luckily on this, as on former occasions, she was attended by 
her niece, Miss Curzon, who administered all possible conso- 
lation and assistance on this trying occasion. 

y 3 



39i. MSt. HOLMAN. 

to avoid his fete byfUlgbt to the healthier region of the slate 
of New York; but he, and nearly all his Theqiian company^' 
consisting of Mr. Saunders, Miss Moore, Sec &c« fell a prey 
to this unrelenting disorder. He is said to have married Miss 
Latimer^ a vocal performer, but two days before his death ; antd 
she appears in a short time to have experienoed a similar fiitel 
; Mr. Holman died at Rockaway, a small sea^^ytnt and badi- 
ii^ place in Long Island, on the 24th of August, 1817, in &e 
5$d year of his age. As an actor, he never occupied the 
f^t {dacein England, a&he afterwards did in America ; but his 
I«4Etf d Townly, was deemed a good performance, and, ind^ed^ 
it-fS^abled him to become the rival of KemUe, who played alt 
hip mtofier-^pieces against this one conspicuous ehaxacstcar, durb^ 
a wlbole season, .and that too, as has been said, widi eqaiV€X»l 
wKaoeas ! He was esteemed both as a private gentlemaki and 
a^cholar; and also particulaityriespected on account of his 
uifbluiity and gentle 



lAst of the Dramatic Works of the late JM^* Holman. 

1. The Ck>mic Opera of ^ Abroad and at Home,'' 8vo. 1 796. 

2. The Red Cross Knights, a Phy, 8vo. 1799. 
S. Votary of Wealth, a Comedy, 8vo. 1799; 

4. Mliat a Blunder 1 a Comic Opern, 1800. 

5. Love gives the Alarm, a Comedy, 1804. 

6. The Gazette Extraocduiaiy,^a Comic Opera, 8vo. 1814. 



t 



( 9f7 ) 



No. XXV^ 

The Right Hon. PATRICK Earl of ROSCOMMON, 

I 

BARON OF KILKENNY-WEST, &C. &C. &C. 

rip 

Xhe pillow bayci 1)€W loog^ settled ip IreL9Pd>9^/'^ea$ 
one period con^ider^ft very warlike fiuimly, and at aiK^^ 
distinguishfdftir taleotp vi a very different kiod. . J^fi^f^ iJiwMt 
i^cestor, f^ompaQfed King John into the sister- ii|Uin40r <^ 
one of his descendants was created a baron ip I6I99 and ol)& 
twined an earldom in 1622. 

Wentworth Dillon, Earl of Rpsconunpn^ bom in Ireh^ 
in 1638» and educated at his unde'a tb« ]Sfixl qS, Qitfiffor^ in 
Yorkshire, was a&erwarda sent to Ca^ in Noinyia|idy» ^vRfa^ 
he had the celebr^ited Bochart &r his tutor. He becam^ 
Master of the Horse to the Duchess of York, mi having ad- 
dicted himself to the Muse% b^;an to be considered one of the 
best poets of his d^. 

Robert, ninth. Earl of Roscommon, rose to be a Marshal of 
France ; in the service of which country he possessed sl propria 
tary regiment, that bore his own name* 

Putrick DUlon^ the eleventh Earl of Roscomippnt was bonf 
March 15| 1 769. He succeeded his fiEither, John, the formsf 
Earl, and on July 10^ 1797, nuirried Barbara, you^g^ 
dauj^ter of Ignatius Begg, qf Belre% in the copnt;^ of Rgsr 
common^ . A3 his sole surviving issue is Mari^, \^m in 1798* 
his titles most probably may become a ^ul^ect of dispute. 
Tfa^y are now claimed by his cpusin, Michael James. Pjll^)^ 
Es^ A minor, son of Captain Michael Dillpn, lat^ vfi ^hf 
county of Dublin Militia, who was kiUed at the battle of |^)| 
during the Rebellion. 

L.<^d Roscoinmon died at his ^eat called Barbarii-vUI% in 

the coiPt; of ][losfx)nimon, Jan. 1| \f^n. 

•"*"■■'■ .-...• • • • • 

Y 4 



S94. MB. HOLMAN. 

to avoid his fate by fii^t to the healthier region of the state 
pf New York ; but he, and nearly all his Thespian company^' 
consisting of Mr. Saunders, Miss Moore, 8cc* &c* fell a prey 
to this unrelenting disorder. He is said to have married Miss 
Liatimer^ a vocal performer, but two days before his death ; and 
she appears in a short time to have experienced a similar fatel 
Mr. Holman died at Rockaway, a small sea^ptyrt and bath- 
ing place in Long Island, on the 24th of August, 1817, in Uie 
5Sd year of his age. As an actor, he never occupi^ the 
f|rat place in England, as he afterwards did in America ; but his 
J^ixtA Townly, was deemed a good perfi>rmance, and, indeed, 
it.-fxiabled him to become the rival of Kemble, who played aB 
hip mtoCer-^pieoes against this one conspicuous chai»eter, dufki^ 
a whdie season, and that too, as has been said, wilhi eqaitocaL 
aiMQess 1 He was esteemed both as a private gentleinA and 
a. scholar; and also particiilariy respected on account of his 
urbanity and gentle tausners. 

Ust of the Draimatic Works qfUie late JMr^Holman. 

1 . The Comic Opera of *< Abroihd and at Home,'' 8va 1 796. 
i. The Red Cross Knights, a Pky, 8vo. 1799. 

5. Votary of Wealth, a Comedy, 8vo. 1799. 
4. Mliat a Blunder ! a Comic Opera, 1800. 
.5. Love gives the Alarm, a Comedy, 1804. 

6. The Gazette Extraordinary, jtk Cmiic Opera, 8vo. 1814. 



MR. RUDGE. 



329 



during more than half a century, to the study of botany. 
He commenced his labours in natural history, about the year 
1750, with Ray and Toumefort, and continued them uninter- 
ruptedly until unable to read. 

He at length expired in the 90th year of his age; having 
died at his house at Watlington, in February 1817, after a 
short illness of ten days* 



336 MIL RAYMOND. 

prospects but limited, he resided for some time along with a 
blind gentleman, who possessed an estate in that neighbour- 
hood, and was cousin to the Earl of Fife. He is said^ how- 
ever, to have spent a session at King's College, Old Aberdeen^ 
with a view of qualifying him for the church, at the earnest 
entreaty of his widowed mother ; but he seems to have soon 
abandoned the pnrsuit of ecclesiastical stipends and employ- 
ments; for in Scotland, the office of clergyman, although 
respectable, is not seductive. There the '* ministers of the 
gospel," neither hunt, nor shoot, nor fish ; they preach, hem^ 
ever, twice a week, pray daily, and regultoly instruct th^ - 
flock in all Christian duties. 

From this period, Mr. Grant appears to have led a ram- 
bling life during many years. Having repaired to Engltknd 
about the age of nineteen or twenty, after a short residence 
here^ he afterwards visited Ireland, but in what capacity is 
not well known. It appears to have been there, however, that 
he imbibed a taste for the stagey in consequence of hearing the 
late Edmond Tighe, Esq., a distinguished scholar and man 
of fortune in the sister island, recite the tragedy pf Oroonoko. 
This gentleman, the friend and schoolfellow of D^vid Oarriclcy 
is said to have possessed much of his manner, genius, and 
animation. He declaimed, therefore, with equal qyirit and 
effect. From this moment, Mr. Grant, who is said to have 
been some time at sea as a midshipman, resolved finally to 
make the stage his profession. He accordingly oflered him- 
self as a candidate for fame and employment to the manager of 
the Dublin theatre, and having exhibited such a specimen of 
his talents as appeared to countenance his pretensions, he 
made his appearance as the ^^ sable Indian Prince^** a cha- 
racter which bad first inspired him with a taste, or rather a 
jMUSum, for the histrionic art. The representation was such as on 
one hand to excite applause, and on the other, to give all manner 
of oicouragement for him to pursue his career : his youth and 
ardour, on this occasion, contributed not a little to win the 
hearts of an Irish audience. Either at this time, or soon after^ 
he assumed the cognomen of JS^moik^ (a very nmianticname) 



MR. MURPfflr. 331 

served with great credit during the late peninsular campaigns^ 
under the Duke of Wellington. 

Their fiither, the late Mr. Murphy, from his earliest years, 
seems to have cultivated the muses. He acted, indeed, as a 
kind of Poet-Laurcat to her Majesty,^ and although his annual 
Birth-day Ode, neither produced for him a salary, or even a 
butt of sack ; yet he appears to have obtained from the Court, 
fit provision for most of his children. 



336 MIL RAYMOND. 

prospects but limited, he resided for some time along with a 
blind gentleman, who possessed an estate in that nei^bour- 
hood, and was cousin to the Earl of Fife. He is said, how- 
ever, to have spent a session at King's College, Old Aberdeen, 
with a view of qualifying hun for the church, at the earnest 
entreaty of his widowed mother ; but he seems to have soon 
abandoned the pursuit of ecclesiastical stipends and employ- 
m^its; for in Scotland, the office of clergyman, although 
respectable, is not seductive. There the '* ministers of the 
gospel," neither hunt, nor shoot, nor fish ; they preach, how- 
ever, twice a week, pray daily, and regul^ly instruct their 
flock in all Christian duties. 

From this period, Mr. Grant appears to have led a ram- 
bling life during many years. Having repaired to England 
about the age of nineteen or twenty, after a short residence 
here, he afterwards visited Ireland, but in what capacity is 
not well known. It appears to have been there^ however, that 
he imbibed a taste for the stagey in consequence (Shearing the 
late Edmond Tighe, Esq., a distinguished scholar and man 
of fortune in the sister island, recite the tragedy of Oroonoko. 
This gentleman, the friend and schoolfellow of D^vid Garrick^ 
is said to have possessed much of his manner, genius, and 
animation. He declaimed, therefore, with equal spirit and 
efiect. From this moment, Mr. Grant, who is said to have 
been some time at sea as a midshipman, resolved finally to 
make the stage his profession. He accordingly bfiered him- 
self as a candidate for fame and employment to the manager of 
the Dublin theatre, and having exhibited such a specimen of 
his talents as appeared to countenance his pretensions, he 
made his appearance as the ^^ sable Indian Prince," a cha- 
racter which bad first inspired him with a taste, or rather a 
passion^ for the histrionic art. The representation was such as on 
one hand to excite applause, and on the other, to give all manner 
of oicouragement for him to pursue his career : his youth and 
ardour, on this occasion, contributed not a little to win the 
hearts of an Irish audience. Either at this time, or soon after, 
he assumed the cognomen of Baymond^ (a very romantic name) 



im. HOLMAN. S53 

well as ease, and self-possession, which a novice can never 
aspire to. He was for a time a successfiil, although never a 
first-rate performer in England. 

Having soon qudtted the London stage, in consequence of 
his merits being under-rated, and his salary therefore inade- 
quate to his claims; he repaired first to Dublin, and after- 
wards to Edinburgh, in the latter of which cities, he acqtiired 
great popularity* After a short interval, Mr. Holman re- 
turned to Covent Crarden ; then appeared on the boards of 
the Hay-Market ; afterwards repaired once more to Ireland^ 
and purchased a share in the theatre of that coital, which 
was disposed of to great loss, in consequence of the ui-» 
promising aspect of the times. In 1798, he married the 
youngest daughter of the Honourable and Reverend Frederick 
Hamilton, with whom he obtained some fortune; but thiis 
lady died in 1810. Meanwhile this disciple of Roscius, had 
determined to remove to the Trana^Atlantic continent. THis 
speculation at first proved productive both ofJbme and monqr ; 
for he performed there^ with an unusual degree of applause. 
Finding this a lucky adventure^ he returned to London, in 
1812, for the express purpose of engaging performers for his 
new Theatre at Charles-town, in South Carolina, a gay, but' 
unhealthy provincial capital. During his short stay in England, 
he appeared once more at the summer theatre of the Hay- 
Market, in the character of Jaffier, which he played to his 
own daughter's Belvidera; for he had actually brought up 
Miss Holman to the stage ! 

On his return, this gentleman experienced the fiite of most, 
if not all managers ; for he was thwarted behind the scenes ; 
parties were made against him, among the inhabitants; a 
general disobedience ensued, and an appeal was made to the 
public, in opposition to his authority, which like every other 
ruler, he of course deemed sacred, and inviolable. To add to 
the miseries of a revolutionary theatrical atmosphere^ he ac- 
tually caught an endemic autumnal contagion, with which the 
scene of his short-lived dramatic monarchy is annually visited ! 
Stricken with the unrelenting hand of death, he endeavoured 



396 MR. RATMONZI^ 

ordered, received, and paid lor a very handwiBie ffible^ by an- 
ticipation. 

But another &te awaited him, and he was now called upon 
to display a new talent; one, indeed, very difficult in every 
point of view. 

We have already noticed the annihilation of a splendid 
but ill-&ted dramatic edifice, in the space of ^^ one dread 
night." ^^ This event,'' says a fii^d, *^ seemed to doom a 
deserving class of men and their dependants to ruin ; but it 
ought not to be forgotten that the energies dT the man, at that 
moment, co-operating with the experience of the actor, in the 
person of James Grant Raymond, were principally instrumental 
in keeping together a respectable corps of performers, and pre- 
serving the very name of the Drury-Lane Company. The 
activity, zeal, and perseverance — the undaunted coun^ -— 
the quick perception — the inventive genius — the economical 
policy —• the conciliating manners, and the firm resolve, were 
then all needful ; and it is no exaggeration to say, that the 
mind of Mr. Raymond supplied them all. If, as we believe, 
the dauntless perseverance and commanding influence of a 
Whitbread alone could have raised the present splendid edifice 
firom the ashes of the former, so are we convinced that none 
but a Raymond could, during the period of its erection, have 
preserved the spiril of Old Drury in the humble tabernacle of 
the Lyceum. 

<< This service alone is a prouder epitaph than can be writ- 
ten on the tomb of most men. But there is another point 
in the character of Mr. Raymond, distinct firom any quality 
of the actor or the manager, and which it would be unjust to 
neglect or omit. As a man of letters, he did not certainly 
rank in the first class ; but, that he was a respectable author, 
and an excellent critic, his Life of the unfortunate Dermody 
is a striking proof; whilst the tale itself of that indiscreet and 
erring child of genius is a testimony to the generosity and the 
benevolence of the heart of Raymond, which surpasses in real 
glory all the other rays of his character. Besides this, Mr. 
Raymond edited two volumes of his poems. He has also left two 



( 335 ) 



No. XXIX- 
Mr. JAMES GRANT RAYMOND, 

LATE MANAGER OF^DRURY-LANE THEATRE. 

1 HE object of this short memoir rose from a humble station 
partly by his theatrical talents, and partly by a certain know- 
ledge of the world, which, in due time, developed to his 
searching eye, all the springs and movements that actuate the 
human heart. 

James Grant was born on the 29th March, 1 769, in that 
small find comparatively fertile valley, which is watered by an 
impetuous river, or rather torrent, the stream of which, in point 
of swiftness, fully answers the account of the Rhone^ in the 
bold and animated description of his wars in Gaul, left us by 
Julius Cassar. Hence it has been termed ^< Stratb-Spey," or the 
Glen of the Spey. This has been time immemorial the resi- 
dence of an ancient and powerful clan; the brother, of the 
chief of which resides at this present moment at Castle-Grant, 
so denominated from his own name aud that of his followers. 

All the Grants derive their origin from Ludowick Gr^nt, 
a celebrated Celtic warrior, whose descendants, after being 
created baronets, have, in the person of the present head of 
the family, become Earls of Seaford. Being consequently 
related to each other, James, like the rest, doubtless, traced 
his origin to this invader, who by means of his da^morej 
or broad sword, either acquired or defended his ample pos- 
sessions. His father was a hardy veteran, who fought and felt 
in America. 

At a proper age, young Grant was removed to the school of 
Inverkeithing, a parish in the shire of Banfi^ on the banks of 
the riyer Deveron ; and as his parents were not rich^ and his 

6 



336 MIL RAYMOND. 

prospects but limited, he resided for some time along with a 
blind gentleman, who possessed an estate in that neighbour- 
hood, and was cousin to the Earl of Fife. He is said, how- 
ever, to have spent a session at King's College, Old Aberdeen, 
with a view of qualifying him for the church, at the earnest 
entreaty of his widowed mother ; but he seems to have soon 
abandoned the pnrsuit of ecclesiastical stipends and employ- 
m^its; for in Scotland, the office of clergyman, although 
respectable, is not seductive. There the '* ministers of the 
gospel," ndther hunt, nor shoot, nor fish ; they preach, how- 
ever, twice a week, pray daily, and regul^ly instruct their 
flock in all Christian duties. 

From this period, Mr. Grant appears to have led a ram- 
bling life during many years. Having repaired to England 
about the age of nineteen or twenty, after a short residence 
her^ he afterwards visited Ireland, but in what capacity is 
not well known. It appears to have been there^ however, that 
he imbibed a taste for the stagey in consequence of hearing the 
late Edmond Tighe, Esq., a distinguished scholar and man 
of fortune in the sister island, recite the tragedy of Oroonoko. 
This gentleman, the friend and schoolfellow of D^vid Garrick^ 
is said to have possessed much of his manner, genius, and 
animation. He declaimed, tlierefore, with equal spirit and 
effect. From this moment, Mr. Grant, who is said to have 
been some time at sea as a midshipman, resolved finally to 
make the stage his profession. He accordingly oflered him- 
self as a candidate for fame and employment to the manager of 
the Dublin theatre, and having exhibited such a specimen of 
his talents as appeared to countenance his pretensions, he 
made his appearance as the ^^ sable Indian Prince^'* a cha- 
racter which bad first inspired him with a taste, or rather a 
jMission, for the histrionic art. The representation was such as on 
one hand to excite applause, and on the other, to give all manner 
of oicouragement for him to pursue his career : . his youth and 
ardour, on this occasion, contributed not a little to win the 
hearts of an Irish audience. Either at this time, or soon afler, 
he assumed the cognomen oiUaymond^ (a very romantic name) 



MR. RAYMOND. 887 

his own, or to confer a new interest on his 

n. Under the management of Mr. Daly, he 

of Jaffier and Castalio, with considcrabh) 

London, where rumour, if not fame, had pre- 
tliere sought and obtained a permanent dra- 
ent. His progress henceforth was both aus- 
tunate. Having married Miss Carmichael, a 
by whom he had two sons and four daughters, 
d the absolute necessity of labour, punctuality, 
In these particulars he was not wanting. Mr. 

.fied several of the most eminent and conspi- 

of the English drama in Dublin ; and he nbw 

witli more chasteness and many improvements 

1 audience. It is not unknown to his family and 

lopular sheriff of London was so much charmed 

t's performance * in the English capital, that 

with a handsome sum of money at the con- 

d act. 
period, however, he had trod the boards of 

atres, Lancaster and Manchester, and it was 
lace where he was engaged by Mr. Grubb, then 
Old Drury. He happened accidentally to see 

favourite characters, and employed the good 
len to bring about a negociation. Accordingly, 
bis debut in Osmond, he undertook a series of 
;h as Penruddock, Rolla, &c., which were well 
st of parts or mode of acting, 
flagration of Drury- Lane Theatre, Mr.Ray- 
biave fairly exclaimed, ^' Othello's occupation's 
s melancholy and distressful circumstance proved 
^rtunatc. At first, indeed, his ruin and that of 
ed inevitable, and he actually took a house in Pall 
express purpose of opening a bookseller's shop, 
then Miss Melon, by way of encouragement, 

Ai Oknund, In " the Gutlc Spectre/' in 1799. 

Z 



d96 MR. RATMOKD.^ 

ordered, received^ and paid lor a very handwiBie Bible^ by an* 
ticipation. 

But ano^er &te awaited him, and be was now called upon 
to display a new talent; one, indeed, very difficult in every 
point of view. 

We have already noticed the annihilation of a gpleodid 
but ill-&ted dramatic edifice, in the space of ^^ one dread 
night.'' ^^ This event,'' says a fii^d, <^ seemed to doom a 
deserving class of men and their dependant$ to ruin ; but it 
ought not to be forgotten that the energies of the man, at that 
moment, co-operating with the experi^oce of the actor, in the 
person of James Grant Raymond, were principally instrumental 
in keeping together a respectable corps of performers, and pre- 
serving the very name of the Drury-Lane Company* The 
activity, zeal, and perseverance — the undaunted courage -— 
the quick perception — the inventive genius — the economical 
policy —• the conciliating manners, and the firm resolve, were 
then all needful ; and it is no exaggeration to say, that the 
mind of Mr. Raymond supplied them all. If, as we believe, 
the dauntless perseverance and commanding influence of a 
Whitbread alone could have raised the present splendid edifice 
firom the ashes of the former, so are we convinced that none 
but a Raymond could, during the period of its erection, have 
preserved the spirit of Old Drury in the humble tabernacle of 
the Lyceum. 

«< This service alone is a prouder epitaph than can be writ- 
ten on the tomb of most men. But there is another point 
in the character of Mr. Raymond, distinct firom any quality 
of the actor or the manager, and which it would be unjust to 
neglect or omit. As a man of letters, he did not certainly 
rank in the first class ; but, that he was a respectable author, 
and an excellent critic, his Life of the unfortunate Dermody 
is a striking proof; whilst the tale itself of^ that indiscreet and 
erring child of genius is a testimony to the generosity and the 
benevolence of the heart of Raymond, which surpasses in real 
glory all the other rays of his character. Besides this, Mr. 
Raymond edited two volumes of his poems. He has also left two 



MR. RAYMOND. 887 

either to conceal his own, or to confer a new interest on his 
novel speculation. Under the management of Mr. Daly, he 
acted the parts of Jaffier and Castalio, with considerable 
success. 

Returning to London, where rumour, if not fame, had pre- 
ceded him, he there sought and obtained a permanent dra- 
matic engagement. His progress henceforth was both aus- 
picious and fortunate. Having married Miss Carinichael, a 
lady of Dublin, by whom he had tw6 sons and four daughters, 
he now perceived the absolute necessity of labotir, punctuality^ 
and attention. In these particulars he was not wanting. Mr. 
Grant had personified several of the most eminent and conspi- 
cuous characters of the English drama in Dublin ; and he hbw 
exhibited them with more chasteness and many improvements 
before a London audience. It is not unknown to his family and 
friends, that a popular sheriff of London was so much charmed 
with his first night's pcrfixrmance * ia the English capital,, that 
he presented him with a handsome sum of money at the con- 
clusion of the third act. - • 
:. Anterior to this period, however, he had trod the boards of 
two provincial theatres, Lancaster and Manchester, and it was 
at the former place where he was engaged by Mr. Grubb, then 
chief agent for Old Drury. He happened accidentally to see 
him in one of his favourite characters, and employed the good 
offices of Munden to bring about a negociation. Accordingly, 
after making his debut in Osmohd, he undertook a series of 
characters, such as Penruddock, Rolla, &c., which were' well 
suited to his cast of parts or mode of acting. 

On the conflagration of Drury- Lane Theatre, Mr. Ray- 
mond might have fairly exclaimed, ^' Othello's occupation's 
gone !" but this melancholy and distressfiil circumstance proved 
on the whole fortunate. At first, indeed, his ruin and that of 
his family seemedlnevitable, and he actually took a house in Pall 
Mall, for the express purpose of opening a bookseller's shop. 
Mrs. Coutts, then Miss Melon, by way of encouragement, 

^ A« Oimond, in" the GwUe Spectre," in 17 »9. 
VOL. II. Z 



340 MR. BATMOND. 

a very ihort period, occasioned by the management of Drury- 
Lane llieatre ! Soon after his demise, a play was performed 
for the benefit of his respectable widow and children, which we 
trust, has proved advantageous. 

List of the Works of the late Mr, Raymond. 

1 . The Life of Thomas Dermody^ 2 vols. 8 vo. 1 805. 

2. The Harp of Erin, or Poetical Works of Thomas Der- 
mody, 2 vols. 8vo. 1807. 

.3, Two unpublished Tragedies. 



MR. RAYMONDL 399 

tragedies ; one on the subject of the unfovtunate Lams XVK 
and the other called the ^^ Indian Captive." The latter was 
performed in Ireland^ but neither have yet been published* 
We learn, however, with much satisfrotifln^ lliat it is the in- 
tention of his family to sanction and assist the publication of 
an authentic Biography of this much respected and valuable 
man, and that these dramas will form part of the work. 

^^ At the commencement of the season, Mr. Raymond had 
just entered for the second time upon the arduous and invi- 
dious duties of manager of Drury-Lane Theatre r he wasalse 
a member of the sub-committee of management; and the most 
cheering prospect of success was just opening to the concern, 
when the hand of Death suddenly snatched away the man, of 
whom the performers and the proprietors may truly say, 
* Take him for all in all, we shall not look upon his like again !' 
"Mr. Raymond, in 1792, married Frances the daughter of 
Mr. Carmichael, of Dublin, who survives him, tc^ther with 
two sons and four daughters." 

He died after a very short illness, for he was seized with 
apoplexy, early in the morning, at his house in Chester Street, 
Grosvenor Place, Hyde-Paric Comer, and was a corpse at 
five in the afternoon. Mr. Grant was in the 51st year of his 
age. His agitation of mind is said to have contributed not a 
little to this melancholy event. He had before acted, indeed, 
as a stage-manager in Dublin, under Mr. Daly; but his 
labours now were on a grander scale, and with . a far more 
gigantic establishment A numerous body of actors and 
actresses were not only to be kept in good humour, but all 
those delicate shades of colouring incident to the Green-Room, 
were to be adjusted with the utmost scrupulosity. In addition 
to this the board of Managers was to be courted and attended 
to with the most punctilious observance. It has been said, 
indeed, tliat Mr. Raymond had actually penned a letter of 
twelve or fourteen pages to Peter Moore, Esq., tlie chairman, 
which, not a little, hurt both his nerves and his feelings, and 
is reported to have brought on the distemper that at length 
proved fieital. If this be correct, it is the second death within 

z 2 



* « 



34 1 LORD ABUNDEL. 

served under the Austrian banners in Hungary, and in conse- 
quence of his gallantry was created a Count of " the Sacred 
Roman Empire," by the Emperor Rodolphus II. the patent 
of which title is dated at Prague, Dec. 4, 1595, and the rank 
and honours are extended to him and his descendants for ever. 

Thomas, the second Lord, married the gallant * Blanche, 
sixth daughter of Edward eleventh Earl of Worcester, 
and seems to have led a quiet life, notwithstanding he ap- 
pears to have been a Roman Catholic ; but his son and suc- 
cessor Henry, was committed a close prisoner to the Tower of 
London, together with several other noblemen of the same 
persuasion, on the in&mous testimony of the profligate Titus 
Oates. He was afterwards however admitted to bail, and 
liberated when the arts and perjuries of that miscreant had 
been fully detected. 

Henry, the seventh Lord, in 1739, married Mary, daughter 
and heir of Richard Arundel B^aling, of Lanheme, in the 
county of Cornwall, Esq., by which match he re-united the 
two chief branches of this &mily, after a separation of 200 
years, and thus brought a considerable addition to the for- 
tune of the younger, which happened to be the ennobled 
branch. 

Henry, the late Lord, travelled for many years on the Con- 
tinent, and resided successively at the courts of Versailles, 
Vienna, and Berlin ; at the two former of which he was well 
received on account of his professing that very religion which 
disqualified him from any honourable or lucrative post in his 
own country. As his ancient seat of Wardour Castle was 
ruiped in the time of the civil wars, when his ancestors had 
taken part with Charles I. he erected a noble mansion in its 
vicinity, a circumstance which contributed not a little to em- 
barrass his fortune. 

On the demise of this nobleman, who had no male issue, 
Dec. 4, 1 808, he was succeeded by his first cousin. 

* This heroinei with a gaiTisoo of only aoo men, defended Arundel Cattle against 
a parliamenury army consUtingof 1300 troopt, during six days, at tlie end of which. 
period the obtained an honourable capitulation. Thii intrepid female died in 1649. 



( 3*1 ) 



No. XXX. 

SiK JOHN PALMER, Bart. 

1h£ Palmers of Carlton, in Northamptonshire, boast of 
an ancient lineage, having been seated at Stoni-Stanton, 
in the county of Leicester, so early as 14?08. The ba- 
ronetcy was obtained in 1660; and Sir Creoffery, the first 
who possessed that title, had a seat in parliament, and 
must have been a man of some consequence, as he was 
selected one of the managers for conducting the prosecu- 
tion of the famous Earl of Strafford* Having changed 
sides, and being bred to the bar, he was advanced to the 
rank of Attorney-General by Charles IL, soon after the 
Restoration. 

Sir Lewis, his eldest surviving son, seems to have both lived 
and died in great privacy ; but his grandson. Sir Geoffery, sat 
as Knight of the Shire for the county of Leicester in four 
successive parliaments. 

Sir John Palmer, the fifth and last Baronet, was the only 
surviving son of Sir Thomas, by Jemima daughter of Sir John 
Harpur, Bart., a grand-daughter of Thomas Lord Crew. He 
was born in 1735, succeeded his father. Sir Thomas, in 
1765; and three years after, married Charlotte d&ughter of 
Sir Harry Gough, a Warwickshire baronet,* and" grand- 
daughter of Thomas Lord Crew, by whom he had eight 
children, six sons and two daughters. He died at his seat in 
Northamptonshire in 1817, at the age of eighty-two, after 
having represented the county of Leicester in Parliament 
during fifteen years, from 1 765 to 1 780, at which period he 
retired to his patrimonial estate. He was a gentleman of pure 
and virtuous principles, steadily and zealously attached to the 

z 3 



» « 



34 1 LORD ABUNDEL. 

served under the Austrian banners in Hungary, and in conse- 
quence of liis gallantry was created a Count of " the Sacred 
Roman Empire," by the Emperor Rodolphus II. the patent 
of which title is dated at Prague, Dec. 4, 1595, and the rank 
and honours are extended to him and his descendants for ever. 

Thomas, the second Lord, married the gallant * Blanche, 
sixth daughter of Edward elev«ith Earl of Worcester, 
and seems to have led a quiet life, notwithstanding he ap- 
pears to have been a Roman Catholic ; but his son and suc- 
cessor Henry, was committed a close prisoner to the Tower of 
London, together with several other noblemen of the same 
persuasion, on the infamous testimony of the profligate Titus 
Oates. He was afterwards however admitted to bail, and 
liberated when the arts and perjuries of that miscreant had 
been fiilly detected. . ' 

Henry, the seventh Lord, in 1739, married Mary, daughter 
and heir of Richard Arundel B^aling, of Lanherne, in the 
county of Cornwall, Esq., by which match he re-united the 
two chief branches of this family, after a separation of 200 
years, and thus brought a considerable addition to the for- 
tune of the younger, which happened to be the ennobled 
branch. 

Henry, the late Lord, travelled for many years on the Con- 
tinent, and resided successively at the courts of Versailles, 
Vienna, and Berlin ; at the two former of which he was well 
received on account of his professing that very religion which 
disqualified him from any honourable or lucrative post in his 
ovm country. As his ancient seat of Wardour Castle was 
ruined in the time of the civil wars, when his ancestors had 
taken part with Charles I. he erected a noble mansion in its 
vicinity, a circumstance which contributed not a little to em- 
barrass his fortune. 

On the demise of this nobleman, who had no male issue, 
Dec. 4, 1 808, he was succeeded by his first cousin. 

* This heroinei with a gaitisoo of only aoo men, defended Arundel Cattle against 
a parliamentary army consUtingof 1300 troopi, during six days, at tlie end of which 
period the obuined an honourable capitulation. Thii intrepid fennle died in 1649. 



LORD ARUNDEL. 345 

James Everard Arundel, the 9th Lord, was bom March 4, 
i 176S; and on February 3, 1785, married his second cou- 
I sin, Mary Christiana, eldest daughter of Henry the preceding 
Baron, by whom he had seven children. This lady having 
! died in 1805, he afterwards selected for his wife, Mary, daugh- 
ter of Robert Burnet Jones, Esq. by whom he had two 
daughters. 

Being, like all his immediate progenitors, of the Roman 
CathoUc persuasion, he of course hesitated to subscribe the 
oaths prescribed to such as are allowed to take their seats in 
the House of Lords, and was thus excluded irom many of the 
benefits of peerage. The same reason that prohibited him 
from his seat in Parliament, also precluded him from any 
honourable employment in the service of his country ; but the 
rigour of our ancient statutes have been greatly softened since 
that period, in respect to those who serve either in the army 
or the fleet 

His lordship was accordingly obliged to lead a life erf* sedo- 
sion, but being a man of amiable manners, he was greatly be- 
loved. He died at Bath, July 14, 1817, in his 57th year, 
jand was succeeded in the family honours and estates by his 
eldest son Everard, the tenth Lord. 



* « 



34t LORD ARUNDEL. 

served under the Austrian banners in Hungary, and in conse- 
quence of his gallantry was created a Count of " the Sacred 
Roman Empire," by the Emperor Rodolphus II. the patent 
of which title is dated at Prague, Dec. 4, 1595, and the rank 
and honours are extended to him and his descendants for ever. 

Thomas, the second Lord, married the gallant * Blanche, 
sixth daughter of Edward eleventh Earl of Worcester, 
and seems to have led a quiet Ufe, notwithstanding he ap- 
pears to have been a Roman Catholic ; but his son and suc- 
cessor Henry, was committed a close prisoiler to the Tower of 
London, together with several other noblemen of the same 
persuasion, on the in&mous testimony of the profligate Titus 
Oates. He was afterwards however admitted to bail, and 
liberated when the arts and perjuries of that miscreant had 
been ftdly detected. . ' 

Henry, the seventh Lord, in 1739, married Mary, daughter 
and heir of Richard Arundel B^aling, of Lanheme, in the 
county of Cornwall, Esq., by which match he re-united the 
two chief branches of this family, after a separation of 200 
years, and thus brought a considerable addition to the for- 
tune of the younger, which happened to be the ennobled 
branch. 

Henry, the late Lord, travelled for many years on the Con- 
tinent, and resided successively at the courts of Versailles, 
Vienna, and Berlin ; at the two former of which he was well 
received on account of his professing that very religion which 
disqualified him from any honourable or lucrative post in his 
own country. As his ancient seat of Wardour Castle was 
ruined in the time of the civil wars, when his ancestors had 
taken part with Charles I. he erected a noble mansion in its 
vicinity, a circumstance which contributed not a little to em- 
barrass his fortune. 

On the demise of this nobleman, who had no male issue, 
Dec. 4, 1 808, he was succeeded by his first cousin. 

* Tills heroine, with a gaitisoo of only aoo men, defetxied Arundel Cattle against 
a parliamenury army consisting of 1300 troops, during six days, at tlie end.of which, 
period she obtained an honourable capitulatioii. This intrepid female died in 1649. 



JLT. COL. MELLISH. 347 

tioiDf for he attained mn early proficiency in the classics, al- 
^lioiij^ at the same time his masters fookid it extremely 
difficulty if not wholly impossible, to regulate his conduct by 
rthe rules prescribed for other bojrs of the same age. It is but 
Jittle wonder that the army should exhibit powerful attracticHis 
for such a character ; and he, of course, aspired to a com* 
mand in the cavalry. 

Mn Mellish accordingly became a comet in the 11th Re- 
nt of Light Dragoons, but this corps does not appear 
to have been either su£Giciently gay or expensive for one of his 
torn ot mind. He accordingly exchanged into the 10th 
Hussars, under the immediate command of His Royal Hig^ 
ness the Prince of Wales, before he was of age, and soon 
en 'ed into a brilliant, but short and dangerous career, 

uch, in progress of time, would have consumed the best 
1 une and strongest constitution in the kingdom* 

On attaining the term of twenty-one, which is not always the 
exact period of discretion, it was soon perceived that he was 
eminenlly deficient in point of experioice, and he accordingly 
became the prey of men older and &r more cunning than 
himself! 

Captain Mellish (for he had now attained a troop) was ac- 
tuated by that ambition which frequently inspires noble 
soitiments, and leads some men to the most glorious deeds of 
patriotism and of valour : but in him, it was ambition misdi- 
rected ; or rather it was a love of notoriety, which led him to 
three different pursuits; and although each had a di£ferent 
starting-post, yet all terminated at the same goal ! 

Our gay young officer of cavalry first appeared on the tur^ 
with no small degree both of qplendour and reputation. To qua- 
lify himself for this expensive and dangerous sport, he entirely 
dedicated that time and those talents which, if consecrated to 
better objects, might have made him an excellent legislatory 
an able statesman, and a bene&ctor to his country. Since 
the epoch when the Duke of Queensberry appeared at New- 
marketi no olie had attained a greater precision in the noble 
arts of fiaeding, currying) Ueeding, purging^ and training 



( 846 ) 



No. XXXII. 

LlEUTENAIIT-C0IX>NEI. MELLISH, 

I 

EQUERRY TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE REGENT* 

1 HE Mellishes of Yorkshire, partly by trade, and partly by 
advantageous contracts with, and situations under government, 
have attained consid^able fortunes. The gentleman who is 
the subject of this brief memoir, chose to depart from the 
plain and beaten track pursued by his forefathers; but how 
far this deviation proved advantageous to him, either on the 
score of health or, property, is no longer equivocal. Indeed, 
hk life, if written by an aUe biographer, minutely acquainted 
ynth the various particulars of it, would not only form a most 
interesting ^isode, but at the same time prove an useful 
Vade Mecum for every gay young man, either on the Tdwn or 
Turfy on his entering into life. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Mellish was bom in 1777. His &ther, 
— Mellish*, Esq. of Blythe near, Doncaster, in the county 
of York, was a man who possessed considerable landed estates 
in that shire. At an early age his son was sent to a public 
school, where he sood exhibited a very ardent temperament, 
utterly insusceptible, indeed, of controul, but not of instruc- 

* The father of the subject of tltis biognphical notice aat for tome time in ptrlia- 
ment for the borough of East Retford. He supported Lord North's adminbtratiou ; 
and afterwards obtained the lucrative office of ReceiTer-General of the Excise. Hit 
half-brother, Mr. Charles Mellish, was shot in his carriage a few years since bj a 
highwayman. 

William Mellish, Esq., knight of tlie shire for the county of Middlesex, is uncle 
to the late Lieutenant-Colonel Mellish. Another member of this family, long en- 
joyed a most extensive as well as lucrative contract for the supply of the victuaUmg 
department daring a large portion of the late contest with France. 

Hii ttswr-y ii/MiMf In AlbeiP*rlfe-«* rect is n**-* converted ^»**^ the ** ^aT«T ^nad*MtioD«'* 



LT. COL. MELLISH. 840- 

ystery, that he could drive four in hand rather better than 

the coachman of the York mail ; while he contrived to manage 

reins with greater facility than a Bond-street buck can 

ate his Dennett, But not contented with this, he dis- 

yed his superior excellence by the selection of shy, skittish, 

ing^ and unruly horses, in the management of which our hero 
appeared unequalled. 

At the same time, Captain Mellish was not insensible to^ 
another species of glory ! He became the patron, the pro- 
tector, and, what was far better, the treasurer of the most 
noted pugilists ! In' this capacity he not unfrequ^itly uiitiated 
tbe provincial novice in all the secrets of the art; while he^ at 
the same time, encouraged the veteran who had sometimes . 
bullied and bled, and been mauled, and not unfrequently 
fought shy, and proved recreant, as exactly suited the in- 
terests of himself and his employers. It was thus that he 
rescued the honour of the EngUsh nftme from disgrace, and. 
taught foreign nations to make a due estimate of the vigilance: 
of the magistrates, our obedience to the laws, our respect for 
sobriety, and our love of order ! 

But these various pursuits, however expensive in themselves, 
would have proved insufficient, perhaps, to have wasted the 
gains and the savings of his opulent ancestors, had not the 
dice-box been called in to quicken the operation. After this, 
the auctioneer and his hammer are matters of course, and they 
were accordingly resorted to at last. 

His friends, who had been always anxious to reclaim Mr. 
Mellish, now again kindly interposed, and, for the first time, 
with some degree of effect. He accordingly, at their instiga- 
tion, relinquished the pleasures of the gaming table, and all 
the fascinations of Tattersall's, and the pugilistic ring, for ex- 
ploits of a very different kind. The gallant General Sir 
Rowland Ferguson having been pleased to appoint him one of 
his Aides-de-camp^ he repaired in hfs suite to Spain and Por- 
tugal, and readily exposed himself to conflicts which, however 
dangerous they might appear, were assuredly far less hazard- 
ous than those he had formerly exposed himself to in St. 



348 LT. COL. HELLISH. 

horses. He actually studied the osteology of his favourite 
animal ; he made himself .accurately, and it may be termed 
^rfessumaUy^ acquainted with the powers, good qualities, 
strength, and capabilities of the race-horse; he attained an 
exact knowledge of weights and distances ; he knew the names, 
characters, habits, and peculiarities of all the noted riding and 
training grooms ; and, in short, to a Bunbury's eye, seemed to 
•have superadded a Foley's head. But did this wayward 
species of knowledge lead either to true fame, or honourable 
reputation? Did it enable him to retain, — or what, perhaps, 
would have been a merit of a very equivocal kind, — to en- 
crease his patrimonial fortune? The cool calculating head of 
the late Mr. Ogden, and the gains of all who betted against 
him, will best answer this question. Although he knew the 
jodds^ as wdl asjf he had been a disciple o( Demoivre, yet they 
contrived so to hedge themselves, and ditch him, (without re- 
curring to the remotest idea of aify foul play whatsoever,) that 
he was soon forced to retire with a fallen crest, an irritable set 
of nerves, and a diminished fortune I What can be expected 
Stoxa the man that stakes his all, or nearly his all, on the &ith, 
honesty, and chaste conduct of a beggarly boy, who, after 
being bred in the stables at Doncaster or Newmarket, among 
jockeys of the worst and lowest description,' are placed in the 
scale for the purpose of adjusting — not their consciences, but 
•their weights ? 

However, Mr. Mellish did not confine himself to one spe- 
cies of celebrity. While the turf was in an uproar at his spe- 
culations and achievements, Hyde-Park occasionally witnessed 
his skill and gentility as a rider. Here again he excelled. 
On the road, or in the field, he could urge either a hack or a 
hunter to greater exertions and higher feats than any of his 
contemporaries. What are a few ^^dirty acres*' in comparison 
to such an achievement? 

As a whip, too, it was his ambition to be without a superior; 
and he might have been fairly elected the leader of the Ba- 
rouche Ouby in opposition to all the great and singular pre- 
tensions of. Lord Onslow and Sir John Ladd. Captain Mel- 
lish at length attained such wonderful skill in this fashionable 



LT. COL. MBLUSH. 351 

Thus died, entirely worn out and exhausted, in the fortieth 
of his age, a period when some men only b^n to live in a 
>nal point of view, Lieutenant-Colonel Mellish. In his 
w>n he was handsome, in his manners agreeable, in his 
ing passion insatiable. When yire contemplate the mode in 
ch the greater part of his life was spent, we wonder, while 
5 [nit, that to a bad taste for horses, hounds, jockeyship, 
boxing, he united many companionable^ and some ex- 
dinary qualities. His inexhaustible flow of animal spirits 
d him sought after by all the young and the gay. His 
versation was full of facts and anecdotes ; he could at timet, 
grave, and even serious and didactic. Nor was he wkeQj 
3 to the graces always attendant on the fine arts. He 
cultivated, and understood music ; that hand, accustomed 
he vulgar labours of the coachman, could occasionally w^ld 
pencil, and a£Pord both delight and amusement : for he 
draw with skill, and paiot with a considerable degree df 
, in oil. 
It truly lamentable, that such qualities and accomplisk* 
nts, should have been perverted by a long series of errors, 
tion, and follies, which, as they led both to his ruin, and 
death, wiU, it is to be hoped, serve as so many beacons to 
i the gay, unthinking, and unwary. It may be sera, indeed, 
. the above details, that youth, beauty, and hereditary 
:h, are all of little or no avail, without early prudence 
1 decorum, coupled with a religious attachment to vittne^ 
;ood conduct, and good morals. 



854t MR. POTTEIU 

superiority to defiance. The warehouses of Sere, have indeed 
flourished by means of regal protection before and imperial 
patronage after the period here alluded to; but during the 
short-lived and disastrous epoch of the French oommonwealthy 
this elegant art was left to individual competition alone; and 
it was an Englishmdn who proved the most successful candi- 
date for fame. 

There is every reason to suppose that Mr. Potter, pre- 
viously to his death, which occurred in ISl?, had relinquished 
this, in order to engage in some other pursuit: for he was 
both speculative and eccentric, and with these qualities, which 
are sufficiently common, he united a gift that but rarely ac- 
companies them; for he could calculate by memory alone 
with a promptitude that astonished the beholder, and at the 
same time with a d^ree of precision, that could only be 
equalled by the slow and painful operations of the counting- 
house! 



Mm POTTER. 353 

the popular side. The immense expenses usually incurred, 
in bringing down the oui-voters, and influencing the resident 
electors was not dindnidhed on the prescmt occasion ; and ac- 
cordingly a very long and vigorous contest ensued. At the 
end of this protracted conflict, Mr. Potter appeared to have 
the majority on the poll; but a Committee of the House of 
Commons decided it otherwise; for at length it was resolved, 
March 4, 1782, " That Edmund AflBeck, Esq., was duly 
elected, and ought to have been returned !" The triumphant 
candidate was created a baronet a few weeks after.* 

The Ex-Member for Colchester, now disappeared from be^ 
fore the public eye^ for a long series of years ; and although 
his particular friends and connexions were well aware that he 
had emigrated to and settled in France, whither he had trans- 
ferred the residue of his capital, yet it was only from the pages 
of the Monitettr^ and a vote of the National Assembly f , that 
strangers learned of his having opened his aoens with no smaO 
Aepee of effect, on the other side of the channel. 

The French have doubtless carried the a^t of manufactur- 
ing porcelaine to a high, and perhaps an unrivalled degree of 
perfection, particularly in the article of gilding. To have 
gone thither therefore for the purpose of entering into compe- 
tition with> rival dealers, must have appeared to most men a 
very dangerous and unprofitable speculation. Certain it is, 
however, that the china produced under his inspection and 
superintendence, exhibited an extraordinary portion of beauty, 
taste, and elegance. To attain this, he applied himself with 
no common degree of attention and perseverance to chemical 
researches, for the purpose of improving the colours, while 
he had acquired a surprising skill in the mechanical part of his 
art. At length, by an union of both, not only particular 
ornaments, but long sets and services^ as well as rare, unique, and 
expensive articles, on issuing from his furnaces seemed instantly 
to acquire a certain degree of celebrity and renown that put 

« May 96, 1762. He wu afterwards promoteU a Rear* Admiral of the Bhw, pq 
February 10, 17 84. 

f « Citizen Potter hat deterred well of hit country." 

VOL. II. A A 



356 SIR JOSEPH MAWBEY, BART. 

This gentleman resided at Bottley's, near St. Anne's-hill, in 
Surrey, and once presented himself as a candidate for that 
comity. ^ 

The remains of Sir Joseph were interred at Chertsey : the 
attempt to render his obsequies simple and without pomp was 
frustrated by the numerous applications from persons desirous 
of showing their last testimony of regard. The poor in him 
have lost a friend, as he performed his duties as a magistrate 
with unbiassed rectitude, and by living on his estate conduced 
to the benefit of all around him. - 



No. XXXV. 

The Rev. WILLIAM BELOE, B.D. F.S.A. 

RECTOR OF ALL-HALLOWS9 LONDON-WALL ; PREBENDARY OF ST. PAN- 

CRA8, IN ST. Paul's cathedral ; and prebendary of Lincoln. 

JVliu Beloe, was bom in 1756-7, and died in 1817, at his 
house in Kensington Square. He was a man of very extensive 
erudition; he possessed great loyalty and zeal; and at one 
period, was laborious in the extreme. He first distinguished 
himself by his translation of Herodotus ; and acquired a certain 
degree of literary eminence, in consequence of his various 
publications. 

We have been promised a biographical memoir of this 
gentleman, and hope to be able to insert it, if not in the ap> 
pendix to the present, at least in our next volume. 



( 355 ) 



No. XXXIV. 
SiE JOSEPH MAWBEY, Babt. 

Xhe Mawbeys claim their descent from the village of 
Mawtby, in the county of Norfolk; but they owe their wealth 
and title to the manufactories of this great and opulent island. 
Mr. Joseph Mawbey, was for many years engaged in a large 
and profitable distillery at Vauxhall ; and by the conversion of 
malt into British spirits and vinegar, realised a considerable 
fortune ; which was encreased by a marriage in 1 760, with 
his cousin, Miss Pratt, who finally succeeded to the joint for- 
tunes of both her father and brother. As a multitude of hogs 
were fattened at his, like all other distilleries near town ; this 
afforded ample scope for jests and puns, when he became a 
^member of parliament. 

Both in 1761, and 1768, this gentleman served as a burgess 
for Southwark; in 1765, he was created a Baronet. On the 
death of Sir Francis Vincent he was elected knight of the shife 
for the county of Surrey, as well as in 17^0 and 1784 ; and 
on all these occasions his conduct was exemplary and corrects 
He was also distinguished as a chairman of the quarter 
sessions. 

The late Sir Joseph, was one of the nine children by 
the heiress just alluded to, who died in 1790. He was bom 
about the year 1763, and succeeded his father in 1798. Two 
years anterior to this (Aug. 9, 1796), he married Miss Char^. 
lotte Catherine Mary Henchman, daughter of Thomas Hench- 
man, Esq., of Littleton, in tho county of Middlesex, by whom 
he had issue two daughters ; so that the baronetcy is extinct 
for wont of a male heir. 

A A 2 



356 SIR JOSEPH MAWBEY, BART. 

This gentleman resided at Bottley's, near St. Anne's-hill, in 
Surrey, and once presented himself as a candidate for that 
county. V 

The remains of Sir Joseph were interred at Chertsey : the 
attempt to render his obsequies simple and without pomp was 
frustrated by the numerous amplications from persons desirous 
of showing their last testimony of regard. The poor in him 
have lost a friend, as he performed his duties as a magistrate 
with unbiassed rectitude, and by living on his estate conduced 
to the benefit of all around him. - 



No. XXXV. 

The Rev. WILLIAM BELOE, B.D. F.S.A. 

RECTOR OF ALL-HALLOWS9 LONDON-WALL ; PRUENDARY OF ST. PAN- 

CRASy IN ST. Paul's cathbdral ; and prebendary of Lincoln, 

JVlR. Beloe, was bom in 1756-7, and died in 1817, at his 
house in Kensington Square. He was a man of very extensive 
erudition; he possessed great loyalty and zeal; and at one 
period, was laborious in the extreme. He first distinguished 
himself by his translation of Herodotus ; and acquired a certain 
degree of literary eminence, in consequence of his various 
publications. 

We have been promised a biogri^hical memoir of this 
gentleman, and hope to be able to insert it, if not in the ap- 
pendix to the present, at least in our next volume. 



( 357 ) 



No. XXXVI. 

* 

The Right Hon. the COUNTESS of ALBEMARLE. . 

1 HIS much lamented lady was the fourth daughter of the late 
Edward Lord Southwell, Baron de Clifford, Westmorelandf 
and Ve8ci, by Sophia, third daughter of Samuel Campbell, of 
Mount Campbell, in the county of Leitrim, Esq. The Hon. Eli- 
zabeth Southwell was born June 11th, 1776, and educated in 
a manner suitable to her rank and pretensions, imder the 
immediate care of an accomplished and most exemplary mo- 
ther, who, indeed, afterwardB acquired so high and exalted a 
character in England, as to have a Princess, , at once the hope 
and ornament of the nation, committed to her charge. 

At a very early age, (on April the 9th, 1792,) this young 
lady became the wife of the Right Hon. William-Charles 
Keppel, seventh Earl of Albemarle, by whom she had no 
fewer than fifteen children. Of these, eleven, including Lord 
Bur}', her eldest son, still survive, to deplore the loss of a 
fond and affectionate parent I 

In consequence of the Dowager Lady de Clifford's official con- 
nection with, and, still more, her friendship and uninterruptjed 
attachment to the late Princess Charlotte of Wales, her daughf- 
ter, the Countess of Albemarle, had frequent opportunities of 
visiting at Warwick-House. This intercourse soon produced 
a reciprocal regard ; and Her Royal Highness, among many 
marks of her affection, a few years since presented Her 
Ladyship with a bust of Mr. Fox, cut by the chisel of 
Nollekens, which is preserved, with religious veneration, at 
Elvedon in Suffolk. It was accompanied with a letter, re^ 
plete with affection, regard, and esteem. Indeed, the demise 
of this estimable Countess, is supposed to have arisen purely 

A A 3 



358 COUNTESS OF ALBEMARLE. 

from sympathy, at the sudden, mournful, and unexpected 
fate of the amiable Princess, just alluded to. The account 
this event was disclosed t6 her, with every possible prepar- 
ation, that delicacy could suggest, or tenderness anticipate, 
more especially as Her Ladyship was then in the family *way. 
Happening to be at that period at Holkham-Hall, in Norfolk, 
the seat of Mr. Coke, with whom the Earl of Albemarle her 
husband has always lived in terms of the most unrestricted 
intimacy, preparations were made for their return to Suffolk, 
although the accouchement was not expected until the lapse of 
a few weeks: but on the 1 3th of November, exactly seven 
days after the demise of her illustrious friend; and but three 
or four after the communication of the fatal intelligence Her 
Ladyship was ^seized with the pains of premature labour ! 
On this, recurrence was instantly had to the best medical ad- 
vice that could be procured; but in seventeen hours after 
experiencing the first throes, this estimable woman was a 
corpse. ' • ^ 

The latter portion of this time was truly affecting: for, 
being ftilly conscious of her fate, the Countess called for the 
Earl to approach her bed, and pressing bis hand in her own, 
so long as life afforded the least muscular mergy, with her 
latest breath she invoked all the blessings of heaven on the 
head of her dear husband and children, and then immediatdy 
expired ! 

Thus died like a heroine^ in the 42d year of her age, Eli- 
zabeth Countess of Albemarle, who, as a daughter, a wife, a 
mother, and a friend, is fidly entitled to unmixed praise. It 
is to be hoped, that so bright an exemplar of all that is good, 
amiable, and estimable, will not pass away without producing a 
due effect on the age and country in which she lived and 
died. 



C S69 } 



No. XXXVII. 
Mk, THOMAS CORAM, 

r 

TH£ PRINT COLLECTOR. 

1 o the philanthropy of a former Thomas Coram, bom in 

the early part c^ the dghteenth century (1718), we are in- 
debted for the establishment of the Foundling Hospital, within 
the precincts of which he was buried ; and a new street in its 
vicinity, which now bears his name, and was built upon his 
estate, attests the well-merited gratitude of the present age. 

The gentleman of whom we now treat, was both his name^ 
sake and near relation; but his mind took a very difierent 
direction, for he became a lover of Vertu, and consequently 
a collector of every thing in his own peculiar line, so far as his 
scanty means extended. He not only admired, but possessed 
a good taste for the choicest productions of the graphic art. 
As he was a bachelor, and exceedingly temperate, frugal, and 
abstemious, while all his habits, at the same time, were simple 
and unexpensive, he contrived to indulge in his favourite pas- 
sion. Accordingly, with an exception of the late Mr. Chaun- 
cey, who actually hired chambers for his portfolios^ when his 
house could no longer contain them, Mr. Coram was allowed 
to possess a very rare, valuable, and almost unrivalled collec- 
tion in his apartments, in Oxendon-street ; but a conflagration 
in that quarter, during the course of one night, robbed him 
of the acquisitions of many years, and nearly reduced their 
late owner to despair. He afterwards removed, first to Lyon's 
Inn, and finally to Fountain-court, in the Strand, where he 
died in the autumn of 181 7, at a good old age. 

Although gready fascinated with,- and addicted to this 
branch of the fine arts, Mr. Coram never wielded the graver 

AA 4 



860 



MR. CORAM* 



himself, or employed his pencil, except in respect to one 
species of drawing; that of caricature portraits of remarkable 
looking men, whether poets, orators, or common beggars ; 
and these he was allowed to have executed with surprising 
ease, facility, and effects His humour also, like his crayon* 
was of a sarcastic kind ; but untempered and unblemished 
with either jealousy or envy. He took care, however, not- 
withstanding his expensive indulgence in prints, to reserve a 
sufficiency of wealth for himself; not choosing, Uke his more 
celebrated relative, to be dependent during his old age, on the 
bounty of others. However, being like him unincumbered 
with a family, he determined in the same manner to indulge his 
own taste in the disposition of his fortune ; and that we believe 
to a gentleman (Mr« James Caulfield) who possesses a kindred 
taste, and had always exhibited great kindness and attention 
to him, particularly in his last fiital illness. 

He was buried near his fsither, at Battersea, in the 'county 
of Surry, and was attended to his grave by the above gentle- 
man, accompanied by three^ other particular friends, viz. 
Messrs. Walker, Greaves, and Dyer. 



( 361 ) 



No. XXXVIII. 

Sir WILLIAM WOLSELEY, Bart. 

OiR William was the head of an old Staffordshire &mily ; 
and we have been told by a member of it, that the name was 
originally wAtten Wclfilay^ a fact fully justified and confirmed 
by the arms exhibited by himself on this occasion. 

We easily trace their descent to a Baron of the Exchequer in 
the reign of Edward IV. ; but the pedigree goes back to Robert, 
^ lord of a manor of the same name, in 1281. 

The honour of the Baronetcy was conferred on his de- 
scendant, Robert, November 28, 1682, who, perhaps, was a 
lawyer, for he exercised the office of " Clerk of the King's 
Patents." Sir Charles, his son and successor, represented the 
county of Stafford during the reign of Charles I., and having 
married a daughter of the Viscount Say, was, doubtless, on the 
side of the parliament during the civil wars. His son, Wil- 
liam, was created a Lord by Oliver Cromwell, and made 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Brussels, by Wil- 
liam III., with whom he appears to have been in great favour. 

Sir William, the third Baronet^was unfortunately drowned 
on his return from Lichfield in his chariot and four, A. D. 
1 728, while passing a little brook, in consequence of a sudden 
breach in a neighbouring mill-dam. 

Sir William Wolseley, the sixth and late Baronet, was 
bom August 24, 1 740, and succeeded his father Sir William, 
in 1779. On July 2d, 1795; he married Miss Chambers, of 
Wimbledon, in the county of Surrey, who died in 1811. By 
this lady he had two children, the youngest of whom, the 
Reverend Robert Wolseley, ceased to exist in 1815. 

3 



( 372 ) 



No. XLII. 
Right Hon. St. ANDREW Lord St. J0HN» 

OF BlET80£» D. C. L. &C. &c. &c 
*' DATA FATA 8ECUTA," — MoU 

1 HE St. Johns (commonly pronounced Sinjons) are de- 
scended from a family, originally settled at the town of St.. 
John in Normandy. They afterwards came to, and made 
many great alliances in England ; they also appear to have 
obtained considerable grants from the conqueror ; for we find 
John de St. John possessing lands of great extent in Oxford- 
shire, in the time of Henry I. This line, however, terminated 
in a female, who married William Pauiet, ancestor of the late 
Dnke of Bolton. Her husband was afterwards created 
Paron St John of Basing, and Earl of Wiltshire. 

From another branch of this family, sprung Oliver, the an- 
cestor of the St Johns, Viscounts Bolingbroke, who was con- 
sequently the progenitor of that celebrated noblemaDy whom 
pope thus invokes : 

'' Awake my St John ! leave all meaner things 
To low ambition, and the pride of kings ;" &c. 

The Honourable St. Andrew St John, the second surviving 
son of John the eleventh Lord St. John of Bletsoe, by Miss 
Simonds, the daughter of a London merchant, was born 
August 22, 1759, and being a younger brother, great fuid 
singular pains were taken with his education. He was ac- 
cordingly sent to Christ Church Oxford, to complete his studies. 
While there, he not only complied with all the rules of the 
University, but even aspired to its chief honours. These, were 
accordingly attained by him, for on May 12, 1795, he received 
the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. 

Being intended for the bar, he had before entered himself of 
Lincoln's Inn, and aft^r his admission, the term of which waa. 

12 



LORD ST. JOHN. 373 

^eatly shortened by his degree; he attended the court of 
King's Bench. We believe, that be was the first <^ late 
years, who wore a gown without a wig *, which encumbered 
his head, and prevented his hearing the elaborate decisions of 
William Earl of Mansfield. He obtained actual permiik 
sion, we understand, from the Bench, for this omission* 

But Mr. St John) soon abjured his forensic studies, in 
search of honours and employments of another kind. We 
accordingly find him a candidate for the representation of his 
native coimty, in the fifteenth parliament of Great Britain^ 
which met October 31, 1780; and he was retumedy in con- 
junction with the late Earl of Upper Ossory, a peer of 
Ireland. 

The opinions of the new Knight of the Shire, were decid- 
edly averse to the continuance of the American war; he 
therefore contributed all in his power, both by his votes and 
his speeches, to put a speedy termination to it. On its con- 
clusion, he formed part of the Rockingham administration^ 
with which he had acted while in opposition ; for in April 
1783, we find him nominated Under-Secretary to his friend 
ihe Right Honourable Charles-James Pox, who then became 
one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State. 

On the retreat of his patron bom office, which was accom- 
panied by his own resignation^ he once more becamie a can^ 
didate for the same county, in the sixteenth parliament of 
Great Britain, convoked in 1784 ; but a contest now ensued, 
•and he was obliged to petition the Houses A committee hav- 
ing declared him ^^ duly elected," in consequence of this 
decision, he replaced Lord Ongley, who had been returned by 
the Sherifi^, as the sitting member. In the new parliaments of 
1790, and 1796) we find him elected in conjunction with his 
opponent Mr. John Osborne, son of Sir George; and he was 
also returned with the same colleague^ during the two first Im- 
perial parliaments, in 1801, and 1802. Thus, Mr. St. John 
i^pears to have represented the county of Bedford, during the 

* The editor hai been iufunned by a King's coansel of considerable ituiding that 
Robert Burton, Etq., a Welch Jod^, was another exemption. 

BBS 



9^4 LOUD ST» J^lIKi 

long, imd libin)st tine)caihpled toBfi of twehty*five years. On 
the impeachmetit ot Mr. Hastihgis, this able and eloquent 
Comhiotidr, wAs deemed of sudh consequence, as to be ap- 
pointed otie of the managers *, aAd acquitted himself with 
singular iirnmess and decorum upon this occasion, f He was 
also a strenuous opposer of Mr. Pitt's R^eticy bill. 

On the demise of his elder brother, the Right Honourable 
Menry Beauchamp St. John, oh Decetaber IC, 1805, (who 
had ho issue by Miss Emma Whitbf ead, second dati^ter of 
the 6rst Samuel Whitbread, !Esq.) he succeeded to the 
honours and estates, as Baron St. John of Bletsoe. His Lord- 
ship supported the sam^ party as a peer, which had obtain^ 
his aid when a member of the House of Commons ; ahd he 
spoke several times with his Wonted talents and abilities. 

During the second administration of Mr. Pox, by t^oiA he 
was greatly esteemed, he obtained the office of Captain of the 
Band of drentlemen-'Pensioners; and at a period of consider- 
able alarm, he also accepted a commission in the Bddfo^hir^ 
volunteers. 

Lord St. John, was at one time an orator of soiAehote. His 
two best speeches, as a commoh^lr, were those delivered on 
opening one of the charges against ihfe Ex-GoverhOlr-general 
Warren Hastings, in 1787; and that iti 1789, when he 
seconded Mr. Baker's motion, oh ^ the Btate of the mttiOn." 
He also distinguished himself in the House of Lords, in 1808, 
against the "Orders in Council;" on which occasfbn, the 
resolutions moved by his lordship, were sU)^ited by forty- 
seven peers. 

On July 16, 1807, Lord St John married Louisa, i&ldest 
daughter of Sir Charles- William-Roftse Broiightoh, Btfrt., of 
Downton Hall, in the county of Norfolk, by whom lie had issue, 
several children. This noblemah, who had attaihx^ the age Of 
fifty-eight, died at his seat at Melcbbum, ih Bedfbtdshire, in 
1817, leaving his widow pregnant. He b Succeeded by his 
eldest son> a boy, only seven years old. 

* Dec, 5ih, 1907. 

t In 179 1> he opened the fourth trticle of the printed charges. 



( 373 ) 



No. XLllI. 
JOSIAH BOYDELL, Esg. 

LAT£ AN ALDERMAN OF LONDON, LIEUT. - COLONEL COMMANDANT 
OP THE HAMPSTEAD VOLUNTEERS, &C. &C. 

1 HE name of Boydell is connected with the history and pro- 
gress of the art of engraving in England. One of this family 
(the late Alderman John Boydell), first distinguished himseUT 
by his ** Sketches of Bridges," and when afterwards clad in 
the regalia of the city, one day pointing to these early works, 
which were bound together for sale, he observed, " This is 
the first book that ever made a Lord Mayor of London.* 

Josiah, the nephew, originally bred In his counting-house, 
afterwards became his partner ; and finally his successor in a 
business, which that firm not only rendered highly luerativcf 
for themselves, but also not a little advantageous to their 
country. When Mr. John Boydell first commenced business, 
French prints were imported annually, to the amount of many 
thousand pounds ; and yet he lived to behold the balance of 
trade, in respect to this elegant branch of the fine arts, more 
than tripled in our favour. 

' On his lamented demise, in 1 805, the subject of this brief 
memoir succeeded to his alderman's gown ; like him, in due 
time, he would have filled the civic chanr, had not his declining 
health obtigedf him to resign alt his pretensions, five years after. 

Having been the senior officer of the carps of volwUeei^ 
enrolled near his own house at West-End, Hampstead, he Wcas 
afterwards elected their Lieutenant-Colonel. He also served . 
the respectable office of Master to the Stationers' Company ; 
but both his spirits and strength failing, he retired to the 
pleasant village of Halliford, in the county of Middlesex, 
where he died March 27, 1817. 

Mr. Josiah Boydell was the author of a pamphlet pubKsbcd 
in 1 803, entitled <* Suggestions towards forming a Plan for 
the Improvement of the Arts and Sdrnces.** 

B B 4 



366 MR. T. SHERIDAN. 

going down with a couple of candles, ceremoniously lighted 
the astonished subaltern to his bed -chamber ! 

It was from the northern part of the island that Mr. Thomas 
Sheridan selected a wife ; a handsome, fine young lady, of a 
very ancient family, who survives him. Miss Callendar was 
descended originally from the stock of the Earls of Callendar, 
but more immediately from a baronet of the same name and 
family ; and by her he has had several children. 

His father, to whom this alliance was unknown, at length 
acceded, with some d^ee of reluctance, to the match, which^ 
with an exception in point of fortune alone, appears to have 
been highly eligible in every other respect. 

Soon after this, Mr. T. Sheridan became a candidate for a 
seat in parhament, but failed : so that although we are well 
acquainted with his wit, it remains to be conjectured whether 
his eloquence was also hereditary. The borough of Leskeard^ 
so famous in the annals of Cornish* electioneering, was (be 
place for which he stood in 1806, when the Whigs were again 
in pewer. On this occasion, the Hon. William Eliot, son of 
Lord Eliot, appeared first on the poll : but in respect to the 
two other candidates, viz. William Huskisson and Thomas 
Sheridan, Esqrs.,.as there was a keen contest, and a double re- 
turn, a reference was made to a committee of the House of 
Commons, and the question on this occasion chiefly turned 
on the nature of the franchises claimed by the votes for the 
respective parties. By the decision which finally took place, 
Mr. Huskisson was found to be " duly elected," and it was at 
the same time declared, ^^ that the right of election was in the 
mayor and burgesses." Thus was the subject of this notice 
finally discomfited, not only here, but afterwards at Stafford, 
which were the only attempts ever made by him to obtain a 
seat in parliament. 

Soon after this, Mr. Tliomas Sheridan found it necessary 
to repair to the island of Madeira, in consequence of a pul- 
monary affection, and thither he was accompanied by his wiffe. 
On that occasion, such was the res angusta domi, that two 

I 



MR. T. SHERIDAN. 36^ 

noble fiunilies (Northumberland and Devonshire) are said to 
have subscribed 1000/. each towards the equipm^it. * 

At length this branch of the Sheridans returned once more 
to England, where he acted for a short time as manager of 
Drury Lane: but it was found nol only convenient but 
highly desirable, on account of the climate, to accept the 
office of colonial paymaster at the Cape of Good Ho^ the 
salary of which has been estimated at 1200/. sterling. His 
health, however, continued to decline, and he fell a martjrr to 
disease at this settlement on September the 12th, 1817. His 
body has been since transferred to England. 

Thus perished at an early age, Mr. Thomas Sheridan, but 
a short time after the demise of his &ther, and a few monflid 
antecedent ^ to that of his mother-in-law ; in short, all three 
died within twdve months of each other. He has left a 
widow and several children wholly unprovided for, to deplore 
his premature fate ; for his wit, his humour, and his repartees 
produced nothing but barren applause; and as for his convivial 
talents, by attracting company, and producing late hours, al- 
though they served to embellish, they at the same time short* 
ened life. 

* It has been recmtly stated, in Vol. i. p. 492. of the " Memoirs of the Right Hon. 
R. B. Sheridan, that ^' a subscription, amounting to lO,6ool. was raised by aeveitl of 
the rojal fkmily, and principal nobility," for Mr. T. Sheridan, '* on account of his 
loss at the theatre, (by the conflagration of Drury lane,) and to enable him to Yisit a 
warmer climate for his health.*' 



t 
\ 



( 368 ) 



No. XLl. 
The Ret. Sie ADAM GORDON, Bart. M.A. 

PREBENDARY OF BRISTOL. &C. 

1 HE ancestors of this Baronet came originally from France^ 
and were first known by the appellation of De Gurdon, The 
eldest branch of the family, called ^^ the Muckle Gordons,'' 
seated themselves in the south of Scotland ; another attained 
ducal honours on the banks of the Spey, while a third, settling 
in Ireland, one of its members procured a Baronetcy in 1764>. 

Sir Adam Gordon was bom in 1745, a year not a little 
memorable both to England and Scotland. After receiving a 
liberal education, and attaining the degrees of B. A. and 
M. A., he closely addicted himself to the study of divinity, 
and became first a deacon, and then a priest of the Church of 
England, to which he was afterwards an ornament, by bis 
example, his talents, and his writings. 

If we mistake not, long after entering into holy orders, he 
officiated for some time as a curate to the populous and 
opulent parish of St. Mary-le-Bone, which now possestes a 
splendid chapel, in addition to the small place of worship 
which then only existed. Soon after this he married \ and 
retired into the country. In respect to benefices. Sir Adam 
obtained in succession, the rectory of Hinchworth in Hertford- 
shire, a prebendal stall in the cathedral of Durham, and the 
living of West Tilbury in the county of Essex. In these 
several capacities, he distinguished himself by an earnest and 
unvarying attention to his various duties : and, accordingly, we 
find him not only preaching to all, but also catechising and 

* Lady Gordon died but a short time before her husband, who enteruioitd to High a 
respect for her memory, that he left a very considerable legacy to a lady who lived with 
her as a friend and companion, and resided afterwards with himself, until hit deaiit. 
Notwithstanding his numerous and extensivt charities^ Sir Adam appetn to have difd 
rich. 



REV. H. TYRWHITT. 379 

Jesus Christ, is the only object of religious worship. On the 
resignation of his fellowship he was reduced to a very narrow 
income, on which he lived cheerfully and contentedly; but 
by the death of his "brother, derk to the House of Commons, 
he came into possession of a property which enabled him to 
act up to the dictates of a generous heart. 

" It will be incredible to the generaUty of readers how 
little he spent upon himself, and how much upon others. 
In every profession, divinity, law, physic, navy, army, are 
mtoy to lament his loss, and to remember the kindness of a most 
liberal benefactor. His benevolence was not confined to any 
sect or party. He looked upon all as children of one common 
parent, and himself as a steward merely, under Providence^ 
for what remained to him aftelr the gratification of his natuttd 
wants, and very moderate desires. 

" Notwithstanding his separation from the church, he lived . 
in College, highly respected by that society, and by the most 
distinguished members of the university. For the last eight 
or ten years he was confined by the gout chiefly to his rooms, 
and he had not slept out of College for twenty or thirty 
years. He was particularly well acquainted With the Statutes 
of the University, was associated with Jebb in his jflan for the 
improvement of education, was a friend of the late Bishops 
Law and Watson ; and a more strenuous advocate for liberty, 
civil and religious, as distinguished from anarchy and misrule, 
never existed. He published two sermons, preached before 
the University of Cambridge, the one on the Baptismal 
Form *, the other on the Creation of all things by Jesus 
Christ ; and whoever reads them will lament that the author 
has not expldned his sentiments more fully on many parts of 
Scripture.*' 

Mr. Tyrwhitt expired in so easy a manner, as almost to be 
imperceptible to his attendants, at his apartments in Jesus 
College, Cambridge, March 25th, 1817. 

* ** fiaptism^l F%uh expUUied/' aicrmoD, 4to. 1894. 



36« 



SIR WILLIAM WOLSELET, BARTi 



The death of this Baronet was both sudden and singular. 
On August 5th, 1817) being then in perfect health, and resid- 
ing at his seat called Wolseley-hali in the county of Stafford, 
he happened to take a walk in his extensive shrubberies. In 
the course of his usual exercise, however, he fell down and 
actually expired before he could be carried into his apartments. 
His only surviving son, now Sir Charles Wolseley, Bart, 
who married the daughter of the Honourable Thomas Clifibrd, 
happened to be resident, at this period, at Lyons in the south 
of France. 

The late Sir William Wolseley attained a very considerable 
agiB, for had he lived but three weeks longer, he would have 
completed his seventy-seventh year. 



REV. H. TYRWHITT. 379 

Jesus Christ, is the only object of religious worship. On the 
resignation of his fellowship he was reduced to a very narrow 
income, on which he lived cheerfully and contentedly; but 
by the death of his "brother, clerk to the House of Commons, 
he came into possession of a property which enabled him to 
act up to the dictates of a generous heart. 

" It will be incredible to the generality of readers how 
little he spent upon himself, and how much upon others. 
In every profession, divinity, law, physic, navy, army, are 
many to lament his loss, and to remember the kindness of a most 
liberal benefactor. His benevolence was not confined to any 
sect or party. He looked upon all as children of one common 
parent, and himself as a steward merely, under Providence^ 
for what remained to him attet the gratification of his natural 
Wants, and very moderate desires. 

" Notwithstanding his separation from the church, he lived . 

in College, highly respected by that society, and by the most 

distinguished members of the university. For the last eight 

or ten years he was confined by the gout chiefly to his rooms, 

and he had not slept out of College for twenty or thirty 

years. He was particularly well acquainted with the Statutes 

of the University, was associated with Jebb in his jflan for the 

improvement of education, was a friend of the late Bishops 

Law and Watson ; and a more strenuous advocate for liberty, 

civil and religious, as distinguished from anarchy and misrule, 

never existed. He published two sermons, preached bdfere 

the University of Cambridge, the one on the Baptismal 

Form *, the other on the Creation of all things by Jesus 

Christ ; and whoever reads them will lament that the author 

has not explained his sentiments more fully on many parts of 

Scripture." 

Mr. Tyrwhitt expired in so easy a manner, as almost to be 
imperceptible to his attendants, at his apartments in Jesus 
College, Cambridge, March 25th, 1817. 

* ** Baptismal Faiih expltined/' ticnaon, 4to. 1894. 



( 880 ) 



No. XLVIL 
^KE Rev. THOMAS COBB, M. A. 

I>REBENDARY OF CHICHESTER. 

1 HIS Clergyman was born in 1 773, and educated at Canter-* 
bury, in the public grammar-school of that city, foimded by 
Henry VIII. out of the spoils of the church and monasteries. 
While there, he acquired some credit by his early proficiency, 
and was sent hence to Oxford, with the express view of quali-* 
fying himself for the church. At Oriel College he first took 
the degree of B. A. and then proceeded M. A., soon after 
which he obtained Priest's Orders. 

In consequence of a marriage with Miss Wyatt *y a lady who 
brought him a large estate, by way of dower, he settled as an 
ecclesiastic. His first preferment was the vicarage of Sitting- 
borne, presented to him by Dr. Moore, late Archbishop of 
Canterbury, some time previously to the demise of that very 
learned and respectable prelate. He afterwards obtained a 
prebend at Chichester. 

On the presentation of the late Colonel James, of Ightham- 
Court-Lodge, in tlie county of Kent, he became Rector of 
Ightham, on the death of the incumbent, in 1791. On 
this occasion, Mr. Cobb determined to render the Parsonage- 
house, in which he was destined to reside, not only comfortable^^ 
but respectable. He accordingly laid out a large sum of 
money on alterations and additions ; after which he enclosed 
it within a paddock. This place afterwards became the scene 
of his hospitalities ; whil^ his large fortune^ at the same time, 
enabled him to administer liberally to the numerous poor 
around him, at whose sick beds he was a frequent visitor. 

« On thtdemUe of htr oncle^ Simotl Wyttt, Etq. %!» inherited his property, ti^hieh 
wu verj coBf i4f nblc. 



( 365 ) 



No. XL. 

THOMAS SHERIDAN, Esg. 

1 HIS gentleman was the only son of the l^te Right Hon* 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, by his first wife, the accomplished 
Eliza Linley, who died in 1792. Mr. Thomas Sheridan was; 
educated under the immediate inspection, for he resided in the 
family, of the celebrated Dr. Parr, and it is not a little re- 
markable, that this sole surviving member of the Grecian 
triumvirate* should have been the instructor of his father nearly 
half a century before, while under-masteir at Harrow-school. 
Young Sheridan next repaired to Cambridge, where he was 
entered a gentleman-commoner. Notwithstanding these initi- 
atory studies, and the example of the elder Mr. Sheridan, who 
had distinguished himself both by his writings and his eloquence^ 
young Sheridan's destination proved to be the army, by his 
own particular choice. He accordingly obtained a commis* 
sion, and Lord Moira, a friend of the family, happening to be 
then Commander-in-chief in Scotland, appointed him one of 
his Aides-de-camp* In this capacity he accordingly resided in 
the splendid mansion f of his patron : and as he was unluckily 
accustomed to keep bad hours, the noble Earl determined to 
expose the impropriety of such conduct in the gentlest, but 
most effectual way possible. Accordingly one evening he 
sent all the servants to bed, and sat up himself until four or 
five in the morning, when this, who happened to be the junior 
officer on his staflT, returned in high spirits from a ball. He 
was not permitted to knock long, for his illustrious commander 
obeyed the first summons with the utmost promptitude, and 

♦ Mr. Person, Dr. Buniey, and Dx. Parr. 

t The house of the Earl of Wemyss, at Edinburgh. 



366 MR. T. SHERIDAN. 

going down with a couple of candles, ceremoniously lighted 
the astonished subaltern to his bed-chamber ! 

It was from the northern part of the island that Mr. Thomas 
Sheridan selected a wife ; a handsome, fine young lady, of a 
very ancient family, who survives him. Miss Calleiidar was 
descended originally from the stock of the Earls of Callendar, 
but more immediately from a baronet of the same name and 
family ; and by her he has had several children. 

His father, to whom this alliance was unknown, at length 
acceded, with some degree of reluctance, to the match, which» 
with an exception in point of fortime alone, appears to have 
been highly eligible in every other respect. 

Soon aRer this, Mr. T. Sheridan became a candidate for a 
seat in parliament, but failed : so that although we are well 
acquainted with his wit, it remains to be conjectured whether 
his eloquence was also hereditary. The borough of Leskeard^ 
so famous in the annals of ComishT electioneering, was the 
place for which he stood in 1 806, when the Whigs were again 
in pewer. On this occasion, the Hon. William Eliot, son of 
Lord Eliot, appeared first on the poll : but in respect to the 
two other candidates, viz. William Huskisson and Thomas 
Sheridan, Esqrs.,.as there was a keen contest, and a double re- 
turn, a reference was made to a committee of the House of 
Commons, and the question on this occasion chiefly turned 
on the nature of the franchises claimed by the votes for the 
respective parties. By the decision which finally took place, 
Mr. Huskisson was found to be " duly elected," and it was at 
the same time declared, " that the right of election was in the 
mayor and burgesses." Thus was the subject of this notice 
finally discomfited, not only here, but afterwards at Stafford, 
which were the only attempts ever made by him to obtain a 
seat in parliament. 

Soon after this, Mr. Tliomas Sheridan found it necessary 
to repair to the island of Madeira, in consequence of a pul- 
monary affection, and thither he was accompanied by his wife. 
On that occasion, such was the res angusta domu that two 



( 8(i3 ) 



No. XXXIX. 

The Rev. WILLIAM HANBURY, B. A. 

BECTOR OF CHURCH-l,AN6TON, IN THB COUNTY OP LBICSSTJER. 

1 HIS clergyman, was the son of the late Rev. WiUiam Han- 
bury, M. A., a worthy and orthodox divine, of the Church of 
England, who is entitled to no common share of praise^ in a 
variety of ways. He not only distinguished himself by a 
superior method of planting and rearing forest-trees, both 
deciduous, and ever-greens, but also excited the gratitude 
of his country, by a celebrated work, on this very interesting 
as well as important subject. Nor was he less em^ient tar 
his taste, in respect to flowers and esculent plants. In 
addition to this, he employed a considerable portion of his 
fortune in establishing a fund, called after him, ^^ the Han- 
bury Charity," to " instruct the ignorant, assist the curious, 
adorn the parish *, and benefit Leicestershire, and the neigh- 
bouring county of Rutland." A 

According to Mr. Gough, the celebrated^ antiquary, the 
late Mr. Hanbury seems to have brought to the utmost 
degree of maturity, and stability human afibirs are capable o^ 
this singular undertaking, of raising firom a plantation of all the 
various trees, plants, &c. the world produces, a yearly fund 
of near 10,000/." for the purpose above specified, f 

* Church-Lan^on in the couuty of Leicester. , 

f The Rev. William Hanbury, Sen. died Feb. 28, 1778, in his 53d year, and in 
compliance with his own will, his remains were deposited in a mausoleum, lined with 
yellow stucco, and built by himself. The coffin is covered with black velvet, and omtp 
mentcd with silver furniture, which is never to be suffered to tarnish ; here also ii a 
bast of himself ; a cell is to be built for a poor woman, who is to open the door r^u- 
Isrly every day, for which she is to receive 3i. 6d a week. 



( 880 ) 



No. XLVIL 
The Rev. THOMAS COBB, M. A. 

I>REBENDARY OF CHICHESTER. 

1 HIS Clergyman was born in 1773, and educated at Canter-* 
bury, in the public grammar-school of that city, foimded by 
Henry VIII. out of the spoils of the church and monasteries. 
While there, he acquired some credit by his early proficiency, 
and was sent hence to Oxford, with the express view of quali-* 
fying himself for the church. At Oriel College he first took 
the degree of B. A. and then proceeded M. A., soon after 
which he obtained Priest's Orders. 

In consequence of a marriage with Miss Wyatt *f a lady who 
brought him a large estate, by way of dower, he settled as an 
ecclesiastic. His first preferment was the vicarage of Sitting- 
borne, presented to him by Dr. Moore, late Archbishop of 
Canterbury, some time previously to the demise of that very 
learned and respectable prelate. He afterwards obtained a 
prebend at Chichester. 

On the presentation of the late Colonel James, of Ightham- 
Court-Lodge, in the county of Kent, he became Hector of 
Ightham, on the death of the incumbent, in 1791. On 
this occasion, Mr. Cobb determined to render the Parsonage- 
house, in which he was destined to reside, not only comfortable; 
but respectable. He accordingly laid out a large sum of 
money on alterations and additions ; after which he enclosed 
it within a paddock. This place afterwards became the scene 
of his hospitalities ; whil^ his large fortune, at the same time^ 
enabled him to administer liberally to the numerous poor 
around him, at whose sick beds he was a frequent visitor. 

« On thtdem'iie of htr oncle^ Simotl Wyttt, Etq. the inherited hu property, irhieh 
wti Ntrj coBf i4f nblc. 



( 365 ) 



No. XL. 

THOMAS SHERIDAN, Esg. 

1 HIS gentleman was the only son of the l^te Right Hon. 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, by his first wife, the accomplished 
Eliza Linley, who died in 1792. Mr. Thomas Sheridan was 
educated under the immediate inspection, for he resided in the 
family, of the celebrated Dr. Parr, and it is not a little re- 
markable, that this sole surviving member of the Grecian 
triumvirate^ should have been the instructor of his father nearly 
half a century before, while under-master at Harrow-school. 
Young Sheridan next repaired to Cambridge, where he was 
entered a gentleman-commoner. Notwithstanding these initi- 
atory studies, and the example of the elder Mr. Sheridan, who 
had distinguished himself both by his writings and his eloquence, 
young Sheridan's destination proved to be the army, by his 
own particular choice. He accordingly obtained a commis-* 
sion, and Lord Moira, a friend of the family, happening to be 
then Commander-in-chief in Scotland, appointed him one of 
his Aides-de-camp* In this capacity he accordingly resided in 
the splendid mansion •{- of his patron : and as he was unluckily 
accustomed to keep bad hours, the noble Earl determined to 
expose the impropriety of such conduct in the gentlest, but 
most effectual way possible. Accordingly one evening he 
sent all the servants to bed, and sat up himself until four or 
five in the morning, when this, who happened to be the junior 
officer on his staflT, returned in high spirits from a ball. He 
was not permitted to knock long, for his illustrious commander 
obeyed the first summons with the utmost promptitude, and 

• Mr. Porson, Dr. Bumej, and Dr. Parr. 

t Th« house of the Earl of Wemyss, at Edinburgh. 



970 BIB A. OOOjyOVt BAST. 

u> every inbabitant tIkmc taste has not been vitiated by habits 
of profligacy. He vas cva- ready to render die temporal eoo> 
' didon or his parishioners more eomfort^Ie. This, homager, 
iras not the whole <^ his worth. He never forpaot the prin. 
ctp^ direct of his vocation, the eternal happincM of hk flaak. 
For this he took the utmost pains in the compaaitioii of hi* 
sermons; that ihey might forcibly inculcate Chriatian priu- 
dplfls, expose vic^ cherish bope^ and be intelligiUe to ererf 
manber of that humble peasantry committed to his care ; far 
to persons <^ this condition in life, it was hit lot to minister in 
sacred things, except in the short interrals of his reud^we at 
Bristol ; where to the last he was faonoored with b c rnrwdad 
auditory, whenever be ascended the cathedral pulpit. Bnt it 
was not to preaching that his pastoral labours were confintd. 
He was observant of the duty of catechising yoatfa. He paid 
out of his own pocket for the educaticm of poor children. He 
visited the sitk as an instructor. He endeavoured to re- 
Glrain the profligate ; and not only cmmtenancad the sober and 
iodustrioua, but endeavoured to help them fonrard in tbrir 
worldly concerns, as well as to further thetr religious Lttprovi^ 
ment. With all this, there was no sectarian mixture^ Of the 
necesNty of making his pariahicmers rightly ooderstaitd iIm 
present state of human nature, and the remedies wUcb infinite 
wisdom and mercy has provided for the evils to which it it ex- 
posed, he showed himself fully aware. But this ^id he pur- 
sued in such a manner, as never presented him to the wmld 
under any other aspect than that of a clergyman of the Churdi 
of En^and. As a husband, a master of a family, » frieadi 
he was not only respected, but beloved, by those who hod the 
greatest interest in his possessing the virtues which adorn these 
rdatiouR. Nor was it on these only that the benevolenea <af 
his nature flowed. His charities to the poor of his ndghbonr- 
hood were much beyond what his means of relieving tfHttr 
wania woiikl encourage us to expect. Id ■'Ed ition to theaf^ 
he generally had some case of foreign distresa ia band ; in the 
raonagemenl of wliidi, he was often laborioosly cmpJojae^ 
by writing a number of letters, and by applyit^ in lihei 
fbnm to the httBiane,iBb(li«lfofhifl client. Towhidie 



MR. T. SHERIDAN. SG) 

noble families (Northumberland and Devonshire) are said to 
have subscribed 1000/. each towards the equipment. * 

At length this branch of the Sheridans returned once more 
to England, where he acted for a short time as manager of 
Drury Lane: but it was found not only convenient but 
highly desirable, on account of the climate, to accept the 
office of colonial paymaster at the Cape of Good Ho]^ the 
salary of which has been estimated at 1200/. sterling. His 
health, however, continued to decline, and he fell a martyr to 
disease at this settlement on Septeniber the 12th, 1817. His 
body has been since transferred to England. 

Thus perished at an early age, Mr. Thomas Sheridani but 
a short time after the demise of his father, and a few months 
antecedent to that of his mother-in-law ; in short, all three 
died within twelve months of each other. He has left a 
widow and several children wholly unprovided for, to deplore 
his premature fate ; for his wit, his humour, and his repartees 
produced nothing but barren applause; and as for his convivial 
talents, by attracting company, and producing late hours, al- 
though they served to embellish, they at the same time short- 
ened life. 

* It has been recently stated, in Vol. i. p. 492. of the '< Memoin of the Right Hon. 
R. B. SheridaD, that *' a subscriptiony amounting to lo,OOOl. was raised bj several of 
the royal fkauly, and principal nobility," for Mr. T. Sheridan, "on account of his 
loss at the theatre, (by the conflagration of Drury lane,) and to enable him to visit a 
warmer climate for his health.*' 



( 368 ) 



No. XLI. 
The Rev. Sir ADAM GORDON, Bart. M.A, 

PREBENDARY OF BRISTOL. &C. 

The ancestors of this Baronet came originally from F; 
and were first known by the appellation of De Gnrdc \ 
eldest branch of the family, called " the Muckle Goi 
seated themselves in the south of Scotland ; another 
ducal honours on the banks of the Spey, while a third, \ ling 
in Ireland, one of its members procured a Baronetcy in ]7(^ 

Sir Adam Gordon was bom in 17455, a year not a littk 
memorable both to England and Scotland. After reoeiviiigi 
liberal education, and attaining the degrees of Bb A. ind 
M. A., he closely addicted himself to the study of diyin&ft 
and became first a deacon, and then a priest of the Church of 
England, to which he was afterwards an ornament^ bj Iw 
example, his talents, and his writings. 

If we mistake not, long after entering into holy ordei% k 
officiated for some time as a curate to the populoos tud 
opulent parish of St. Mary-le-Bone, which now poMOMS a 
splendid chapel, in addition to the small place erf* wonliip 
which then only existed. Soon after this he married *, and 
retired into the country. In respect to benefices. Sir Adsm 
obtained in succession, the rectory of Hinchworth in Hertford- 
shire, a prebendal stall in the cathedral of Durham, and the 
living of West Tilbury in the county of Essex. In these 
several capacities, he distinguished himself by an earnest and 
unvarying attention to his various duties : and, accordingly, we 
find him not only preaching to all, but also catechising and 

* L&dy Gordon died but a ihort time l>efore her husbaud, who entertaiiMd aolrifh • 
respect for her memory, that he left a very considerable legacy to a Ujy who lif«d wiA 
her as a friend and companion, and resided afterwards with himtelf, until hb douM* 
Notwithsuodiog his Qumerooa and extensive charities^ Sir Adam ippcm to km dW 
rich. 



SIR A. GORDON) BART. S69 



ucting after, the manner of the primitive Church of 
>oth the young and uninformed. 

This reverend Baronet endeavoured also, to dedicate his pen, 
s well as his pulpit, to ihe service of public morals, having, 

my years since, fairly and openly combated all the pernicious 

N ions laid down in a very seductive book, generally placed in 

he hands of our youth on entering the world, which shall be 

d hereafter. He was moreover a zealous and courageous 

ider of the Church of England, whose fiists and festivals 

elucidated, enforced, and explained, in his printed dis- 

rses. He also celebrated our triumphs during the late war, 

ticularly by a thanksgiving sermon on the victory over the 

n bined fleet, while he dedicated another to the praise .of 

b. present Majesty George III., on attaining the fiftieth 

juversary of his reign ; an occurrence seldom commemo- 
1, even by the sovereigns of Europe. 

It was thus that Sir Adam spent a long and useful Kfe^ 

lich was at last terminated, in what may be fairly termied) 
< actual professional service," for he was smote by the hand 
>f death, when in progress from his prebendal residence at 
Bristol, to his rectory at West Tilbury. This melancholy 
occurrence took places November 2d, 1817, at the Castle 
[nn, Salt-Hill, aftier a short illness, in the seventy-second year 
j( his age. 

The following eulogy was penned by the hand of friendditp: 
'< Of the character of this excellent man, little need be said 
Among those who personally knew him. But beypnd that 
circle it is necessary that a few particulars should be 
conveyed; that the benefit of eminent example may not be 
limited to the boundary of private friendship. Such of his 
professional labours as have been committed to the press, ex^ 
hibit him as one who was ever desirous of contributing to 
the welfare of his fellow-creatures. But the brightest view 
of his character was to be obtained, by observing- how he 
lived in the two parishes of which he was successively rector ; 
Hinchworth in Hertfordshire, and West Tilbury in Essex. 
In these retired situations, he filled up the measure of pastoral 
duties, with an exemplariness which must endear his memory 

VOL* Uf B B 



370 SI& A. OOWMH9 BART. 

to every inhabitant whose taste has not been TitiaCtfd by habki 
of profligacy. He was ever ready to render die temponl coo- 
' dition of his parJ»hioner6 more comfortable. Thic, hcmtver. 
was not the whole ot* hiB worth. He never forgot dieprii^ 
dpal object of his vocation, the eternal happiness of fak iodc 
For Uiis he took the utmost pains in the comfXMition ef b 
sermons ; that they might forcibly incnlcate Chrifltiu pra- 
ciples, expose vice, cherish hojx^, and be intelligible to cicrr 
member of that humble peasantry committed to kit care; fa 
to persons of this condition in life, it was hia lot to mimrter ■ 
sacred things, except in the short interrals of his reaideBa it 
Bristol ; where to the last he was honoured with a enmid 
auditory, whenever he ascended the cathedral pulpit. But it 
was not to preaching that bis pastoral labours were oonfiHi 
He was obsenrant of the duty of catechising youth. He pid 
out of his own pocket for the education of pcK)T childieDi He 
visited the sick as an instructor. He endeaToored lo re- 
strain the profligate; and not only countenanced the lober ari 
industrious, but endeavoured to help them forwaid bk their 
worldly concerns, as well as to further their religious ijaptm^ 
ment With all this, there was no sectarian mixtare Of dbe 
necessity of making his parishioners rightly uadentaad the 
present state of human nature, and the remedies which iafinite 
wisdom and mercy has provided for the evils to which it is a- 
posed, he showed himself fully aware. But this ^id he pur- 
sued in such a manner, as never presented him to the wrU 
under any othei- aspect than that of a clergyman of the Quirdi 
of fkigland. As a husband, a master of a family, a frioid, 
he was not only respected, but beloved, by those who had 4e 
greatest interest in his possessing the virtues which adorn thw 
rehitious. Nor was it on these only that the benevokaee «f 
his nature flowed. His charities to the poor of his neiflhbsBr- 
hood were much beyond what his means of rdievin^ ihtir 
wants would encourage us to expect. In adkUtion to iheH^ 
he general!; had some case of foreign distrete in hand; io the 
management of which, he was often laboriontly T H 'iiJ nj rf'i 
by writing a number of letters, and by spplyis^ iu aOc^ 
forms to the huenane, inbehaif of hie client. To which 



SIR A. GORDON, BART. 371 

of time must be added, what it cost him to set the example of 
that charity he solicited: an expense from which he never 
excused himself. In this bnef nficov^ the partiality of friend- 
ship has not produced a single exaggeration. It is a simple 
relation of fucts, to which many can bear witfiefs; aw} to the 
soothing recollection of which, amplifie4 t>y pumerous in- 
stances which have passed under their own observation, they 
often resort, now that the intercourse they had with one in 
whom so m^y endearing (qualities resided iq at an end " 

G^p Hfqg. 

f/ist of th£ Works of the Hep* Sir Adam Gortbn^ Baii* 

1. The Contrast, or an Antidote to the pernicious Prin- 
ciples disseminated in Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son, 
2 vols. 12mo. 1791. 

2. Affectionate Advice from a Mini^t^ of th^ flstablisbefl 
Church to his parishioners, l^mo. 1791. '9 

3. The plain Duties of Wise and Christian subj^ts, (preach- 
ed on the comm^iccment of the War with thel'renph Repub* 
Jlc) 8vo. 179S. 

4. Plain Sermons,on Practical Subjects, 2 vols. 8vo. 

5. Sermons on the Fasts and Festivals of the Church of 
England, 8 vo. 1 TM, 

6. Homities of the Chordi of England, modernized, 2 
vols. 8vo. 

7. Assistant for the Visitation of the Sick, \2mo. 

8. The Fear of God, a sure ground of Confidence and Hope^ 
two Fast-day Sernions, 8vo. 1803. 

9. A Sermon on the Victory over th^ combined Fleets of 
France and Spain, 8vq. 1806. 

10. The Righteousness of a King, the Blessedness of hin 
People, a Sermon on the 50th Annivcrsmy of His Majesty's 
Accessipn, 1809. 

Sir Adam Gordon has also left behind him a number of 
MS. sm^cmSi divinity traicts, fltc, some of which he had in- 
tended t9 pvbUfib* 

B B 2 



( 372 ) 



No. XLIL 

Right Hon. St. ANDREW Lord St. JOHN, 
OF Bletsoe, D. C. L. &c. &c. &C. 

« DATA FATA SECUTA," MoU 

1 HE St. Johns (commonly pronounced Sinfons) are de- 
scended from a family, originally settled at the town of SU 
John in Normandy. They afterwards came to^ and mie 
many great alliances in England ; they also appear to bm 
obtained considerable grants from the conqueror ; for we find 
John de St. John possessing lands of great extent in Qxfioid- 
shire^ in the time of Henry I. This line, however, terminital 
in a female, who married William Paulet, ancestor of theltfc 
Duke of Bolton. Her husband was aflerwards crated 
]3aron St. John of Basing, and Earl of Wiltshire. 

From another branch of this family, sprung Oliver, the an- 
cestor of the St. Johns, Viscounts Bolingbroke, who ww ooo- 
sequently the progenitor of that celebrated nohlenuuiy ivfaom 
pope thus invokes : 

** Awake my St. John ! leave all meaner things 
To low ambition, and the pride of kings ;" &c. 

The Honourable St. Andrew St John, the second surrifii^ 
son of John the eleventh Lord St. John of Bletsoe, by Mi« 
Simonds, the daughter of a London merchant, was bom 
August 22, 1759, and being a younger brother, great sod 
singular pains were taken with his education. He was ac- 
cordingly sent to Christ Church Oxford, to complete his studiei- 
While there, he not only complied with all the rules rf the 
University, but even aspired to its chief honours. These^ wae 
accordingly attained by him, for on May 12, 1795, he recaved 
the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. 

Being intended for the bar, he had before entered himself of 
Lincoln's Inn, and after his admission, the tenn of which wsi 

12 



LORD ST. JOHN. 373 

^eatly shortened by his degree; he attended the court of 
King's Bench. We believe, that he was the first of late 
years, who wore a gown mihout a w^ *, which encumbered 
his head, and prevented his hearing the elaborate decisions of 
William Earl of Mansfield. He obtained actual permift- 
aion, we understand, from the Bench, for this omission. 

But Mr. St. John, soon abjured his forensic studies, in 
search of honours and employments of another kind. We 
accordingly find him a candidate for the representation of hia 
native county, in the fifteenth parliament of Great Britain^ 
which met October 31, 1780; and he was returned^ in con- 
junction with the late Earl of Upper Ossory, a peer of 
Ireland. 

The opinions of the new Knight of the Shire, were decid- 
edly averse to the continuance of the American war; he 
therefore contributed all in his power, both by his votes and 
his speeches, to put a speedy termination to it. On its con- 
clusion, he formed part of the Rockingham administration^ 
with which he had acted while in opposition ; fi>r in April 
1783, we find him nominated Under-Secretary to his friend 
ihe Right Honourable Charles-James Fox, who then became 
one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State. 

On the retreat of his patron frcHU office, which was accom- 
panied by his own resignation, he once more became a can*> 
didate for the same coun^, in the sixteenth parliament of 
Great Britain, convoked in 1784 ; but a contest now ensued, 
^md he was obliged to petition the Houses A committee hav- 
ing declared him ^^ duly elected," in consequence of this 
decision, he replaced Lord Ongley, who had been returned by 
the Sheri£P, as the sitting member. In the new parliaments of 
1790, and 1796^ we find him elected in conjunction with his 
opponent Mr. John Osborne, son of Sir George; and he was 
also returned with the same colleague, during the two first Im- 
perial parliaments, in 1801, and 1802. Thus, Mr. St. John 
appears to have represented the county of Bedford, during the 

* The editor hat been iufurmed by a King's counsel of considenble itanding tbac 
Robert Bunon, Esq., a Welch Judge, was another exemption. 

BBS 



S74 LOAD STfc JOBK. 

long, and alnibst linexampled term of twenty^flve years. Oc 
the impeachment of Mr. Hastings, this able and eloqueis 
Commondr, was deemed of such consequence, as to be ^v 
pointed one of the managers *, and acquitted himself wiii) 
singular firmness and decorum upon this occasion, f He ws< 
also a strenuous opposer of Mr. Pitt's Regeticy bill. 

On the demise of his elder brother, the Right HononntKr 
Henry Beauchamp St. John, on December IG^ 1805, (irix 
bad ho issue by Miss Emma Whitbread, second daughter ti 
the first Sanmcl Whitbread, Esq.) he succeeded to tk 
honours and estates, as Baron St. John of Bletsoe. His Lont 
ship supported the same party ais a peer, wMch had olblUDri 
his aid when a member of the House of Commons; add k 
spoke several times with his wonted talents and aTiilities. 

During the second administration of Mr. Fo^ by wlkiin he 
was greatly esteemed, he obtained the office of Captmn of the 
Band of drentlemen-Pensioners ; and at a period of oonndo^ 
able alarm, he ako accepted a commission in the Bedfittdslmt 
volunteers. 

Lord St. John, was at one time an orator of some tiote. He 
two best speeches, as a commoner, were those deHvcrtd on 
opening one of the charges against the Ex-Go ve i n ot Hf Oierri 
Warren Hastings, in 1787; and that in 1*789, When be 
seconded Mr. Baker's motion, on ^^ the state of the ns&m." 
He also distinguished himself in the House of Lords, in IW^ 
against the "Orders in Council;'* on which ocoadto, the 
resoUitions moved by his lordship, ware supported by IbllT- 
scveii peers. 

On July 16, 1807, Lord St. John married Louisa, ridest 
daughter of Sir Charles- William- Rouse Broughton, Bfltt, of 
Downton Hall, in the county of Norfolk, by whom he had issitt» 
several children. This nobleman, who had attained the nee rif 
fifty-eight, died at his seat at Melchbum, in Bedfordshire^ in 
1817, leaving his widow pregnant. He is succeeded by Mb 
eldest son, a boy, only seven years old. 

• Dc«. 5tl», 1807- 

t In ] r Q] . liL- o|>rueJ ihe fourth irtide of die printed chtfgei. 



( 375 ) 



No. XLUI. 
JOSIAH BOYDELL, Esq. 

I.ATE AN ALDERMAN OF LONDON, LIEUT. - COLONEL COMMANDANT 
OF THE HAMPSTEAD VOLUNTEERS, &C. &C. 

1 HE name of Boydell is connected with the history and pro- 
gress of the art of engraving in England. One of this family 
(the late Alderman John Boydell), first distinguished himself 
by his " Sketches of Bridges," and when afterwards clad in 
the regalia of the city, one day pointing to these early works, 
^liich were botmd together for sale, he observed, " This is 
the first book that ever made a Lord Mayor of London.* 

Josiah, the nephew, originally bred In his counting-hoase, 
afterwards became his partner ; and finally his successor in a 
business, which that firm not only rendered highly lucrative 
for themselves, but also not a little advantageous' to Adr 
country. When Mr. John Boydell first commenced business, 
French prints were imported annually, to the amount of many 
thousand pounds ; and yet he lived to behold the balance of 
trade, in respect to this elegant branch of the fine arts, more 
than tripled in our favour. 

' On his lamented demise, in ] 805, the subject of (his brief 
memoir succeeded to his alderman's gown ; like him, in due 
time, he would have filled the civic chair, had not his declining 
health obliged him to resign all his pretensions, five years after. 

Having been the senior officer of the corps of volunteas 
enrolled near his own house at West-End, Hampstead, he was 
afterwards elected their Lieutenant-Colonel. He also served . 
the respectable office of Master to the Stationers' Company ; 
but both his spirits and strength failing, he retired to the 
pleasant village of Hallrford, in die coimty of MidcHesex, 
where he died March 27, 1 817. 

Mr. Josiah Boydell was the author of a pamphlet publfslied 
in 18OT, entitled *' Suggestions towards forming a Plan for 
the Improvement of the Arts and ScJencej." 

B B 4 



( 376 ) 



No. XLIV. 

SiE WILLIAM INNES, Bart*. 

09 BALVENIE, NORTH BRITAIN. 

J. HE family of Innes is supposed to have been origiDiDy 
of Flemish extraction, and, if we are not greatly misinfanned, 
first settled imder Beroaldus Flandrensis in that fertile tiKt 
of country situate between the Spey and the Losaie, in the 
county of Moray. Of this line the (now ducal) house of Inneii 
of Innes, near Elgin, was always considered as the dik£t in 
consequence both of tradition and records. TThe large pos- 
sessions attached to this stem, and also the title of Baronet 
of Nova Scotia, which was conferred in 1628, soon after the 
institution of that order, serves to confirm this statement 

Sir James Innes, of Balvenie, having died in 1782, wai 
succeeded by Robert his eldest son, who lived until HSS, 
when his younger brothers Charles and William, becisie 
Baronets in succession. 

Sir William Innes, of Balvenie, the last of tfaeie^ d 
whom we now treat, appears to have been the patnaxA (d 
baronets, as he was bom about the year 1718. Beag 
desirous of military fame, he served as a volunteer in the Life 
Guards, when they attended King George II. at the battk of 
Dettingen, in 174S. Mr. Innes afterwards obtained a oor- 
netcy of horse^ and rose through the successive steps 6[ Lien* 
tenant. Captain of a troop, and Major, until he at length 
attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of the 2d regiment of 
Dragoon Guards when he seems to have retired from the 
service. 

After this he settled at Ipswich, where he succeeded to hii 
fiunilylionaurs, and redded until his deaths which occmid 



SIR W. INNES, BART. 377 

March ISth, 1817. SiV William had then fully completed 
his 100th year; and the title was generally supposed to be ex- 
tinct : but a respectable gentleman of Bamffshire, where his 
ancestors had considerable possessions, lately laid claim to this 
title ; and presented such an uniform and authentic series of 
documents, that a jury, of which the Right Hon. James Earl 
of Fife was chancellor, to adopt the language of the Scottish 
law, << unanimously served him heir to the title/' 



No. XLV. 
WCHARD LOVELL EDGEWORTH, Esfi. 

OF EDOEWORTH TOWN, IN IRSLAND. 

Ihis gentleman greatly distinguished himself as a man of 
letters, and was fortunate in possessing a daughter worthy of 
himself. He died at his seat in the sister island, June 13, 1817, , 
at the age of serenty-four. 

[We intaid to give a detailed account of Mr. Edgeworth't 
life and labours, in our next volume, for which materials are 
now collecting.] 



( 386 ) 



No. LI. 

The Right Hon. CHARLOTTE 

Viscountess and Baroness NEWCOMEN, 

OF MOSSTOWK9 IN THE COUNTY OF LONGFORD9 IRELAND. 

JL HE family of Newcomen boasts of great antiquity^ and 
it has been asserted by some members of it, that they can 
trace their pedigree, during a space of seven hundred years, 
with tolerable eiiactness. At what precise period thtiy emi* 
grated from England to the sister Kic^dom, we know not, 
but it was most probably during the reign of Eliziabeth ; for 
we find them seated at Kenagh, in the coimty of Longford^ 
in the time of her immediate successor. Hiey were created 
baronets by Jaines I., in 1623. 

• In axnequenbe ci the faihire of hrars-male, in 1789, this 
title became extinct, but £he estates devolved on Charlotte 
Newcomen, only child and heir of Charles Newcomen, of Car- 
rickglass, Esq., grandson of Sir T. Newcomen, the si^th hart. 

This rich heiress, bom in or about the year 1755, in due 
time became the wife of the Right Honourable Sir William 
Gleadowe, of KiUester House in the county 6{ Dublin, Bart. 
In consequencie of this alliance, he assumed the name and 
arms of Newcomen ; was soon aftior elected a Knight of the 
Shire, in the Irish Parliament, for the county of Longford; 
became a privy-counsellor, &c &c. 

By this lady, he had four children, three sons and a daughter. 
Having died August 21, 1807, he was succeeded by his only 
son, Sir Thomas, both as a Baronet, and Knight of the Shire. 

Lady Gleadowe Newcomen, was promoted to the peerage, 
m her own right, during the life-time of her husband, as Baroness 
Newcomen, on July 30, 180Q; and fixrther advanced to be 
Viscountess Newcomen, December 4, 1802, with remainder to 
heirs male. Notwithstanding her large possessions in Ireland, 
this lady was accustomed to reside frequently in England ; and 
died at Bath, May 16, 1817, at the age of about sixty-two. 
Her only son, bom in 1776, is now Viscount Newcomen. 



REV. R. TYRWHITT. 379 

Jesus Christ, is the only object of religious worship. On the 
resignation of his fellowship he was reduced to a very narrow 
income, on which he lived cheerfully and contentedly; but 
by the death of his 'brother^ derk to the House of Commons, 
he came into possession of a property which enabled him to 
act up to the dictates of a generous heart. 

" It will be incredible to the generality of readers how 
little he spent upon himself, and how much upon others. 
In every profession, divinity, law, physic» navy, army, are 
many to lament his loss, and to remember the kindness of a ffioSt 
liberal benefactor. His benevolence was not confined to any 
sect or party. He looked upon all as children of one comfiton 
parent, and himself as a steward merely, under Providence, 
for what remained to him aftet* the gratification of his natural 
wants, and very moderate desires. 

** Notwithstanding his separation from the church, he lived . 

in College, highly respected by that society, and by the most 

distinguished members of the university. Tot the last eight 

or ten years he was confined by the gout chiefly to his rooHis, 

atid he liad not slept out of College for twenty or thirty 

years. He was particularly well acquainted with the Statutes 

of the University, was associated with Jebb in his jflan for the 

improvement of education, was a friend of the late Bishops 

Law and Watson ; and a more strenuous advocate for liberty, 

civil and religious, as distinguished from anarchy and misrule, 

never existed. He published two sermons, preached Ixfere 

the University of Cambridge, the one on the Baptismal 

Form *, the other on the Creation of all things by Jesus 

Christ ; and whoever reads them will lament that the author 

has not explained his sentiments more fuHy on many parts of 

Scripture.*' 

Mr. Tyrwhitt expired in so easy a manner, as almost to be 
imperceptible to his attendants, at his apartments in Jesus 
College, Cambridge, March 25th, 1817. 

* << Ba|Hi5mal Faiih explained/' tacnnon^ 4to. 1804. 



388 ' MB. SOLOMON. 

he was a conscientious member^ but to indulge in what he 
also conceived his duty, by relieving the wants of his Chris- 
tian neighbours, in such a manner as to insure the admi- 
ration and esteem of all who knew him. Exclusive of his 
private charities, he was one of the first founders of the 
Clerkenwell Philanthropic Society, to which himself and some 
of his family contributed ; he was therefore chosen, with several 
other persons, during the late distressing winter, to collect 
subscriptions for the poor, and afterwards to distribute the 
amount in coals, bread, potatoes, &c. Precluded by his 
religion, even from taking refreshments during this time, he 
was nevertheless, so ardent and cheerful in the performance 
of these duties, that the poor in his presence^ always seemed 
to forget their poverty; so that, like Job, the blessing of 
those that were * ready to perish,' oflen came upon him, and 
he has literally made ^ the widow's heart sing for joy.' 

<^ Next to his sudden demise, nothing seemed to exicite the 
regret of his Christian neighbours, more than the hasty in- 
terment of his remains, which, according to the Mosaical law, 
must take place before the sun can set twice upon them. Yet, 
though strictly Jewish in his belief and always averse to whiat 
he thought was mis-named " the Conversion of the Jews ;*' 
he had not the least objection to an attendance upon 
Christian worship for the sake of doing good ; and among his 
own weekly pensioners, he had several persons of both Aese 
persuasions. 

" Consistently with this liberality, the writer of this article 
has to acknowlege the many facilities cordially afibrded him 
by the deceased, in his humble attempts to remove the pre- 
judices excited against a long injured and aspersed people, 
whose rights, after all that has been said or done by other 
powers, England has been the first to appreciate and secure^ 
by an equitable administration of the asgis of its laws. And 
here it may be safely asserted, that no description of people 
whatever, out of the pale of our ecclesiastical establishment, 
feel the obligation more warmly, than the reflecting part of 
^Ke Hebrew nation, to their rulers. The remains of Mr. 



B£V. MR. COBB. 381 

As a magistrate for the county, he proved exemplary in 
point of attendance, as well as minute in investigation ; and he 
deserves great credit for the zeal with which he lately inter- 
posed on the breaking out of a typhus fever in the jail of 
Maidstone. The steps taken ox\ this occasion, prevented the 
spread of the contagion. 

Mr. Cobb is represented also to have beei^ exemplary in 
the various duties and relations of life, viz. as a son, brother, 
husband) and parent He died in Albemarle^street, whither 
he had repaired to try the skill of the London physicians, on 
November 26, 1 8 1 7, in the 4'4th year of his age. The disorder 
that proved fatal, was of so obscure and occult a nature as not 
only to bid defiance to the talents, but even the nomenclature of 
|:fae medical profession. 



( 390 ) 



No. LIII. 
Sm WILLIAM-PIERCE-ASHE A'COURT, Bart. 

LATE M.P. rOR HKYTESBDRY. 

Jl HE nune of A' Court, indicates a fordign eKtraction^ whUe 
the surnames of Pierce and Ashe, proceed bom fDtermaniageB 
with females of the same appellation. The family itself ap- 
pears to have been settled for many years at Roddon, a hamlet 
»tuat^ in the hundred of Frdme, in Somersetshire. # 

Mr. Pierce A'Court, married Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
Jifupa A^he of Heytesbury, in Wilts, md M-i B» for that 
bprough, in poQs^u^ice of which^ his d^cendants haxe he- 
fH>me joint lords of the manpr with the Diikes of Marlborough ; 
whence has ariseq.a certain degree of patronage of a very delir 
cate but Relent nature. 

General William Ashe A'Court, was the first to profit by 
this, and also to assume the name of his uncle, in pursuance of 
a clause in his will ; he also first exercised the influence just 
alluded to, having been returned one of the members for the 
borough mentioned above. 

Sir William Pierce Ashe, his only son, was born in 1747. 
He obtained a great accession to his patrimonial fortune, in 
right of his mother, Annabella, the heiress of Thomas Vernon, 
of r\N itkcnham Park, in the county of Middlesex, Esq. By 
his lir.st wife Catharine, daughter of Lieut.-Col. Bradford, 
there was no issue ; but by his second, Letitia, the daughter of 
Henry Wyndham, of Salisbury, Esq., he had seven children ; 
two sons and ^vq daughters. 

This gentleman, early in life, devoted himself to the military 
profession ; and soon after his first marriage obtained a com- 
mand in the Wiltshire militia, in one of the battalions of which 



MR. PHILLIPS. 383 

county of Leicester, in which his family had possessed very 
considerable estates for more than a century and a half. Their 
pedigree is to be found in Nichols* Leicestershire. 

Mr. Phillips not only lived to a good old age, but had the 
satisfaction to behold his sons honourably employed, at the bar, 
in the church, and in the navy ; while two of his daughters 
married, the one into a respectable, the other into a wble 
&xnily ; being the wife of the Hon. and Right Reverend Henry 
Ryder, D. D« Lord Bishop of Gbucester^ Dean of Welk» 
and Vicar of Lutterworth, in the County of Leicester. These 
events afforded some consolation amidst the afflictions inci-^ 
dental to age and disease. 

Having rainoved, some time »iaoCf to Bath, Mr. Thomas 
March Phillips died in Pulteney-street* in tb« 71st year 
ct his age, after encountering a long and painfol iUncsss, 
towards the middle of June, J b 1 7. 



( 392 ) 



No. LIV. 

The Countess Dowager of UXBRIDGE. 

i. HIS lady was born in 1 742, and, until her marriage^ was 
known by the appellation of Miss Jane Champigne, being the 
daughter of the Rev. Arthur Champigne *, Dean of Clonmao- 
noise, in the kingdom of Ireland. In consequence of being 
descended from the Earls of Granard, to one of whom she 
was grand-daughter, this lady was allied to the noble &milies 
of Moira, Momington, &c, and being very handsome, she 
was greatly admired by the late Earl of Uxbridge, to whom 
she was married April 11, 1767. 

The Countess-Dowager, who preserved the appearance of 
beauty, even amidst the ruins of old age^ hved to see her 
husband die, and her surviving children grown up ; she also 
beheld her eldest son created Marquis of Anglesea, on account 
of his gallantry at Waterloo, where he lost a leg. Her Lady- 
ship died at her house in Bolton-row, in 1817, in the 75th 
year of her age. 

* Dean Cliampigne wu the son of Major (Joeiu) Chimpigne of Port- Arlington » in 
Ireland, who married Jane, eldest daughter of the Right Hon. Arthur Forbes^ second 
Earl of Granard. 



( 385 ) 



No. L. 

Miss HENRIETTA RHODES, 

A POETESS, NOVEL WRITER) ScC. 

iHis lady, bom in the county of Salop, in the year 1756, 
was the daughter of Mr. Rhodes of Cann-Hall in the borough 
of Bridgnorth. At an early period of life, although never suc- 
cessfully wooed herself, yet she wooed the muses, and in die 
opinion of her fiiends, with no small d^ee of good fortune* 
Some of her neighbours, however, supposed that her verses 
did not rise above mediocrity ; although all concurred in ex- 
cepting her ballads, a taste for which she had cultivated by 
reading of the famous collection *, published by the late Dr* 
Percy, Bishop of Dromore. She also edited a work written 
by her nephew ; composed several short and fugitLve ailaclai 
for her friends; and printed a novel with a iQost romantic 
name, long after she had left off the style and appellation of a 
spinster ; having for some time back been called Mrs. Rhodes. 
This lady interposed at the election of members of parlia* 
4pent, for the place of her nativity, in 1 784, with a generous 
-warmth, in support pf a friend; and died at her house in 
East Castle Street, Bridgnorth, FebFu^rjr 28, 1817, in the 
^ixty-first year of her age, 

List of the Works of the late Miss Shades. 

1 • Various Poetical Compositions, in early life, sbme of 
which were afterwards published. 

2. Rosalia or the Castle of Montalabretti, 4 vols. 12mo* 
1811. 

S. An account of Stonehenge, Svo. 1814. 

4. Poems and Miscellaneous Essays, published by Subscrip- 
^on, Svo. 1814. 

* Reliquef of ancient £ogllsh Poetry* 3 vols. ISmo. 1765, 
VOL. II. . C C 



( 386 ) 



No. H. 
The Right Hon. CHARLOTTE 
Viscountess and Baroness NEWCOMEN, 

OF MOSSTOWNi IN THE COUNTY OF LONGFORD9 IRSLAND. 

X HE family of Newcomcn boasts of great antiquity, and 
it has been asserted by some members of it, that thcj on 
trace their pedigree, cluring a space of seven hundred jeuh 
with tolerable exactness. At what precise period thej emi- 
grated from England to the sister Kingdom, we Imow nti^ 
but it was most probably during the reign of Elizabeth ; kt 
wc find them seated at Kenagh, in the county of Longfailt 
in the time of her immediate successor. Thc^ were crated 
baronets by James I., in 1623. 

In consecjuence of the failure of heirs-male, in 1 789| tUi 
title became extinct, but the estates devolved on Ghtfkfftt 
Newcomen, only child and heir of Charles Newcomen, of Cl^ 
rickglass, Esq., grandson of Sir T. Newcomcn, the sixth ImtL 

This rich heiress, bom in or about the year 1 755^ in doe 
time became the wife of the Right Honourable Sir William 
Gieadowc, of Killester House in tlie county of ISttbliii) Bait 
In consequence of this alliance, he assumed the name ind 
arms of Newcomen ; was soon after elected a Knight of ilie 
Shire, in the Irish Parliament, for the county of Longferd: 
became a privy-counsellor, &c. &c. 

By this lady, he had four children, three sons and a dauditer. 
Having died August 21, 1807, he was succeeded by hisonh 
son. Sir Thomas, both as a Baronet, and Knight of the SUie 

Lady Glcadowe Newcomen, was promotecl to the peeiage. 
in her awn rights during the life-time of her husband, as Baioneu 
Newcomen, on July 30, 1800; and further advanced to be 
Viscountess Newcomen, December 4, 1802, with remainder to 
heirs male. Notwitlistanding her large {)ossessions in Irebnd, 
this lady was accustomed to reside frequently in England; and 
died at Bath, May 16, 1 SI 7, at the age of about aixty-tfva 
Her only son, bom in 1776, is now Viscount Newcxmen. 



( 387 ) 



No. LIL 
Mr. SIMON SOLOMON, a Jew. 

XT is with the sincerest pleasure, that we now have an oppor- 
tunity of giving some account of a son of Israel, who in every 
point of view, deserves commemoration and applause. 

Mr. Simon Solomon, although long settled in England, was 
not .a native of this country, having been bom in that portion 
of Poland, seized on by Frederic the Greal^ as the spoil of 
tibe Prussian eagle. He was born at Lissau, in 174*8, and 
appears to have acquired, either by means of others, or loam- 
adf, fi learned education. Indeed, in thiat ^portion of E^ope^ 
the Jews are not a despised race^ as both here and in France ; 
for they are settled in clusters, inhabit villages and towns, 
and are tireatcd by the government with lenity and respect. 

Among the descendants of Abraham, a proficiency in the 
Hebrew, accompanied with a taste for rabbinical learning, is 
considered as classkal ; to these, the subject of this meniqj^r 
superadded the German and French languages, doubtless, 
acquired by him, during the wanderings of his early youth. 

A taste for practical chemistry became the means of obtain* 
ing bread, not only for himself and his family, but also for such 
of the wretched of his own, and of every other nation, as 
appeared deserving of commiseration. His knowledge of the 
liature and composition of colours enabled him to become 
what is technically termed a paper'^aijier^ and he excelled, 
not in the common, but in the fancy line. 

The following account of him is drawn up, with great libe- 
rality, by a gentleman of a diiferent faith : 

" From persevering habits, added to a truly benevolent heart, 
he was not only able to provide for a large &mily, and to con- 
tribute to the necessities of the Jewish community, of which 

c c 2 



\ 



( S92 ) 



No. LIV. 

The Countess Dowager of UXBRIDGE. 

i. HIS lady was born in 1 742, and, until her marriage, was 
known by the appellation of Miss Jane Champigne, bdng the 
daughter of the Rev. Arthur Champigne *, Dean of Clonmac- 
noise, in the kingdom of Ireland. In consequence of being 
descended from the Earls of Granard, to one of whom she 
was grand-daughter, this lady was allied to the noble &milies 
of Moira, Momington, &c., and being very handsome, she 
was greatly admired by the late Earl of Uxbridge, to whom 
she was married April 11, 1767. 

The Countess-Dowager, who preserved the appearance of 
beauty, even amidst the ruins of old age^ hved to see her 
husband die, and her surviving children grown up ; she also 
beheld her eldest son created Marquis of Anglesea, on account 
of his gallantry at Waterloo, where he lost a leg. Her Lady- 
ship died at her house in Bolton-row, in 1817, in the 75th 
year of her age. 

* Dean Qiuiipigne wu the son of Major (Joeias) ChtQipigne of Port- Arlington, in 
Ireland, who married Jane, eldest daughter of the Right Hon. Artliur Forbea^ serond 
Earl of Granard. 



MR. SOLOMON. 389 

Solomon, attended by his family, the heads of his synagogue, 
the children educated in the Jewish hospital, and a number of 
Christians, were deposited in the burial-ground near Ducking- 
pond-row, on the 19th Sept., with peculiar marks of respect. 
Mr. Solomon was auditor to the synagogue of which he was a 
member, and an acting director of the hospital in Mile-End 
road. He has left four sons, and a daughter, whose anony- 
mous but sprightly effusions have contributed to enhance the 
interest of several of our periodical publications. She also 
published an animated letter to the Rev. Mr. C. Frey, on the 
subject of his conduct with respect to Jewish converts by 
the London Society, to which he promised a reply; but this, 
it seems, he wanted either time or ability to perform, before he 
was recently compelled to leave England." 

Mr. Solomon, died in the 69th year of his age, leaving be- 
hind him the character of a most ingenious artist; a most 
benevolent man; and a most excellent husband, &ther, and 
friend. In short, he would have reflected honour on any sect 
or nation: for he discharged all his duties with a degree of 
zeal, patience, and propriety, that could alone have originated 
in a sound judgment, and good heart. 



c c 3 



( 392 ) 



No. LIV. 

The Countess Dowager of UXBRIDGE. 

jL his lady was born in 1 742) and, until her marriage, was 
known by the appellation of Miss Jane Champigne, being the 
daughter of the Rev. Arthur Champigne*, Dean of Clonmac- 
noise, in the kingdom of Ireland. In consequence of being 
descended from the Earls of Granard, to one of whom she 
was grand-daughter, this lady was allied to the noble fiunilies 
of Moira, Momington, &c., and being very handsome^ she 
was greatly admired by the late Earl of Uxbridge, to whom 
she was married April 11, 1767. 

The Countess-Dowager, who preserved the appearance of 
beauty, even amidst the ruins of old age^ lived to see her 
husband die, and her surviving children grown up ; slie a|jSo 
beheld her eldest son created Marquis of Anglesea, on account 
of his gallantry at Waterloo, where he lost a leg. Her Lady- 
ship died at her house in Bolton-row, in 1817, in the 75th 
year of her age. 

* Dean Giampigne was the son of Major (Josias) Champigne of Port- Arlington, in 
Ireland, who married Jane, eldest daughter of the Right Hon. Arthur Forbes, second 
Earl of Granard. 



SIR W. P. A. a'cQURT, BART. • 391 

he afterwards rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. On the 
demise of his father, he also was nominated M. P. for Heytes- 
bury, and re-elected at three different dissolutions of parlia^ 
ment. On June 25, he obtained the Baronetcy for his fiunily ; 
and lived to see one of his sons enq>loyed in the diplomatic 
line ; while another obtained a company in the army. 

Sir William died at Heytcsbury-house, his usual place of 
abode, July 27, 1817, in his seventieth year. He is suc- 
ceeded in his title and a large portion of his extensive estates 
by WilUaiQ A'Coprt, {^q. (^pw Sir William) :wba, fpt some 
time, r^ded at Palermo, in Sicily, in the character of iSavoy 
Extraordinary. 



c c 4 



394t BR. HONRO. 

5. Three Treatises on the Brain, the Eye, and the Ear, 

1797, 4to. 

6. Observations on Crural Hernia, with a general account 

of the other varieties of that complaint, 1803, 8vo. 

7. The Morbid Anatomy, of the Gullet, the Stomach, and 
the Intestines, 1812, 8vo. 

8. Outlines of the Anatomy of the Human Body, 1813, 
4 vols. 8vo. 

9. Observations on the Thoracic Duct, 1814*, 4to. 

Dr. Monro, after outliving all his contemporaries, died 
Oct. 2, 1817, in the 85th year of his age. 



I i . 



# • 



( 393 ) 



/ 



No. LV. 
ALEXANDER MONRO, M. D. and F. R, S. 

OF EDINBURGH ; PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE IN THAT tJNIVERSITYy 
AND FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLBOE OF PHT8ICIAN8. 

1 HIS gentleman was the son of that great anatomist. Dr. 
Alexander Monro, bom in Scotland, in 1697. He studied, 
for some time, at Lieyden, and became the friend of Boer- 
haave; after which he returned to the capital of his native 
country, and delivered lectures there. His zeal, talents, and 
discoveries, soon rendered Edinburgh a school for * anatomy ; 
and slthonghmaterials for dissection are there less frequently ob- 
tained than in London, yet he attained no common d^ee of 
celebrity, in consequence of his scientific knowledge and 
pursuits. 

His son Alexander was bom in 1732, and lived to be con- 
sidered the Nestor of northern physicians. Treading in the 
footsteps of his fiEtther, who died in 1767, he also became an 
eminent professor, and in 1781 collected and published all his 
works. His own professional labours were not inconsiderable^ 
as may be seen from the following list : 

1. Observations on the Stmcture and Functions of the 
Nervous System, 1783, fol. 

2. The Structure and Physiology of Fishes, 1785, fol. 

3. A Description of all the Bursae Mucosae of the Human 
Bocly, 1788, 4to. 

4. Experiments on the Nervous System with Opium and 
Metalline substances, 1 793, 4to. 

* He penned the Anttomical Qtif , in the Univenitj of Edinburgh. 



996 MB. BUSSEJP. 

and lived to a patriarchal age. In consequence of this, he 
saw all his children happily settled in life; for of his two 
daughters, one is the lady of Lieut.-General Sir Gordon 
Drummond, G. C. B. and the other of Lieut.-Col. Bunbury, 
brother to Sir Charles Bunbury, Bart., while he beheld his only 
son, Matthew, represent Saltash several times in Parliament, 
and who, after -marrying Miss Tennison, settled at Hardwicke- 
house, near Durham, the estate around which he had pur- 
chased from the late Sir Henry Vane Tempest, Bart. 

Mr. Russel died at Brancepath-Castle, in the county of 
Durham, at the good old age of eighty-three, leaving behind 
him the character of a man, who to many amiable- qualities^ 
superadded a pure benevolence and truly disinterested public 
spirit) 



( 395 ) 



No. LVI. 
Mb. WILLIAM RUSSEL, 

OF BRANCEPATH-CASTLE, IN THE COtniTT-PAI.ATim OF D0RHAM. 

JLt is impossible to contemplate such a man as this was without 
a mixture of love and veneration. Bom in the county-pala- 
tine of Durham, in the year 1734-5, happily for the interests 
of humanity, he possessed a considerable fortune early in Ufe, 
and lived long enough to administer it, as if he had been the 
steward of the public rather than the owner. 

This gentleman, among many other acts of beneficence^ 
founded and endowed an hospital in his native county, for 
aged persons of both sexes ; to which he annexed a school for 
the education of the young. During the late distresses, arising 
out of a scanty harvest, as well as a variety of other concur- 
"^ ring causes, he actually gave orders for the construction of 
places of reception for the poor, needy, and forlorn. Being 
an owner of extensive colHeries below, as well as large estates 
above ground, he wisely contrived to excite the industry of 
the young and middle aged, by finding them constant em- 
ployment. 

Nor was he deficient in his duties as a patriot and citizen. 
In 1795, he contributed alike by his purse, his presence, and 
his influence, to the raising of a large body of infantry within 
the county-palatine, while at a more recent period, he actually 
collected and equipped a corps of sharp shooters, who in case 
of an invasion of the coal- district, would have proved essen- 
tially serviceable against the common enemy. 

This gentleman united his fate to that of Miss Millbanke, 
daughter to an Admiral of the same name, who survives him, 



398 . REV. J. LYON. 

however, on the leading doctrihes of the Franklinian system, 
and boldly maintained, by means of "proofs" and "further 
proofe," that glass is permeable to the electrical effluvia ; but he 
never asserted, like one of his cotemporaries, that <^ sharp con- 
ductors were dangerous," and " blunt ones," the only species 
that ought to be used. 

His long residence and numerous connections at Dover 
lifforded the best oj^rtunities for collecting materials foi* its 
history ; to which he annexed an account of the Cinque Ports, 
bat this, both on account of its size and price never became « 
popular work. 

^e French Revolution appeared to this divine, to be a new 

* 

Ftodora's box, stored with innumerable evils. He was, 
therefore^ a great enemy, not only to any alterations in die 
government of that country, but to all those that countenanced 
the idea of a reform in this. Accordingly, at a critical period, 
he composed, printed, and disseminated the folloiwing anonym 
inoUs hand-bill, which was sent, not only to every house in 
his own parish, but through all the adjoining ones. 

« To the People of England. 

" Is it not wonderful that any inhabitants of this land should 
mibmit to be so far directed by our old enemies the French, as 
to attempt to throw their own country into confusion, and give 
our ever restless and ambitious neighbours that opportunity 
of enslaving us which they have hitherto sought for in vain ? 

<^ For shame. Englishmen ! Be but true to yourselves ; sup- 
port your King and your Constituticfn, and ye will have the 
command of the world !" ' 

Mr. Lyon was a modest unassuming man^ in<rfl^isive in his 
ODianners, peculiar in his habits, and so addicted to local ar- 
rangements^ that he was accustomed to walk daily, while in 
health, on the same spot and at the same hour, during the last 
finrty years. On the wholes as he Uved like a reclus^ he might 
be said to have worn life gradually away, rather than to have 
enjoyed it. -fle died in the tiurd year after he had become an 



( 397 ) 



No. LVII. 
The Rev. JOHN LYON, B.A. F.L.S. and F.S.A. 

JN4iu Lyon was bom September 1, 1734 ; but the early part 
of his life is not exactly known, as he outlived all, or nearly 
all, his contemporaries, both at school and coU^e^ and be- 
held no fewer than three if not four generations of the bur- 
gesses of Dover. 

We are well aware, however, that he was educated at an Eng- 
lish University, and that he obtained a degree of Bachelor of 
Arts there, about the middle of the laagt century. In ITTSy Mr. 
Lyon was inducted into the living of St. Mary the Vii^gin^ at 
Dover, which he retained during a period but little distant 
from half a century. 

At an early epoch of his life, this clergyman appears to 
have imbibed and cultivated a taste for natural history. Of 
plants, die heights in the immediate vicinity of his own parish 
church, presented him with an ample store ; he also obtained 
a pretty good collection of insects, shells, and minerals, of all 
which he was very fond. But he still more prized his books : 
for being an author himself, these served, in some measure, not 
only as the tools and instruments of his occupation, but also 
for his recreation and instruction. 

When Dr. Franklin at once aroused and astonished the world 
by his electrical discoveries, Mr. Lyon was one of the first to 
apply the whole bent of his mind to this subject. He^himself 
accordingly obtained an apparatus^and engaged in a long course 
of experiments. On this occasion, the results do not appear 
to have been exactly the same with those deduced by the cele- 
brated American ; he accordingly broached certain heterodox 
c^nions on this subject. He made many pertinent remarks, 



398 . REV. J. LYON. 

however, on the leading doctrihes of the Franklinian system, 
and boldly maintained, by means of <^ proofs" and ^* further 
proofe," that glass is permeable to the electrical effluvia ; but he 
never asserted, like one of his cotemporaries, that ^^ sharp con- 
ductors were dangerous," and <' blunt ones," the only species 
that ought to be used. 

His long residence and numerous connections at Dover 
lifforded the best opportunities for collecting materials foi* its 
history ; to which he annexed an account of the Cinque Ports, 
but this, both on account of its size and price never became a 
popular work. 

^e French Revolution appeared to this divine, to be a new 
Pandora's box, stored with innumerable evils. He was, 
therefore, a great enemy, not only to any alterations in die 
government of that country, but to all those that countenanced 
the idea of a reform in this. Accordingly, at a critical period, 
he composed, printed, and disseminated the following anony- 
mous hand-bill, which was sent, not only to every house in 
his own parish, but through all the adjoining ones. 

« To the People of England. 

<< Is it not wonderful that any inhabitants of this land should 
imbmit to be so far directed by our old enemies the French, as 
to attempt to throw their own country into confusion, and give 
our ever restless and ambitious neighbours that opportunity 
of enslaving us which they have hitherto sought for in vain ? 

<^ For shame. Englishmen ! Be but true to yourselves ; sup- 
port your King and your G>ni^iuti(m, and ye will have the 
command of the world P* 

Mr. Lyon was a modest unassuming man, inoflfensive in his 
manners, peculiar in his habits, and so addicted to local ar<- 
rangements, that he was accustomed to walk daily, while in 
health, on the same spot and at the same hour, during the last 
finrty years. On the whole^ as he lived like a reclus^ he might 
be said to have worn life gradually away, rather than to have 
enjoyed it. He died in the tiurd year after he had become an 



REV. J. LYON. 399 

octogennarian, and was buried in the church-yard of St. Ni- 
cholas, in the Isle of Thanet. The following appropriate 
epitaph, written by one of his friends, has been since inscribed 
on an humble stone, over his grave: — 

Sacred to the memory of 
The Rev. John Lyon, B.A. F.L.S., &c. 
nearly forty-five years Minister of 
St. Mary the Virgin at Dover, 
in the County of Kent. 
He commenced hk pilgrimage throng 
this world in search of a better, Sept. 1. 173^, 
and closed it without reproach, 
June 30, 1817. 
Reader ! 
If distinguished by virtues or acquirements, 
go thou and learn 
to imitate his Humility. 



The fdlmt^ing is a List of the Works of the late Rev. John Lnfdn. 

1. Experiments and Observations on Electricity, 4to. 1780.. 

2. Farther Proofs that Glass is permeable by the Electric 
Effluvia, 4to. 1781. 

3. Remarks on the leading Proofs offered in favour of the 
Franklinian System of Electricity, 8vo. 1791. 

4. An Account of several new and miercstmg phenomena^ 
discoveries in examining the bodies of a man and four horses, 
killed by lightning near Dover, 8vo. 1 796. 

5. History of Dover, with a short Account of the Cinque 
Ports, 1 vol. 8vo. 1813. 



( 400 ) 



No* LVIII. 
The Bight Hon. HUGH Earl op EGLINTOUN, K, T. 

BAROX MpNTGOMKRYy ANDROSSAN9 8KELMORLTB9 AKD CORTA- 
FIELD, IK THE COUNTY OF AYR ; LORD-LIEUTENANT OF THE SAID 
COUNTY ; HEREDITARY SHERIFF OF RENFREW^ BAILIFF OF CUN- 
NINGHAM9 AND A COUNSELLOR OF STATE TO HIS ROYAL HIGH- 
NESS THE PRINCE OF WALES IN SCOTLAND. 

" GARDEZ BIEN." — Mot. 

1 HIS fiumly is undoubtedly of French, and most probably of 
Norman extraction. A Roger de Montgomerie^ being re- 
lated to Duke William, was placed in a hi^ and confidential 
post at the battle of Hastings, having commanded the first line 
of the Conqueror's army which engaged on that fatal day, 
which, for a time, annihilated Saxon Uberty, and introduced 
in its stead all the most rigorous provisions of the feudal 
system. The event just alluded to, of course entitled him and 
his followers to large possessions in England, which they seem, 
however, in the sequel, either to have abandoned or forfeited. 

Philip de Montgomerie, repairing to Scotland during the 
reign of Henry I., obtained a grant of lands in Renfrewshire^ 
and appears to have settled there. His gallant descendant, 
Sir John Montgomerie, or Montgomery, of Egglestone, dis- 
tinguishea himself greatly during the wars of the Borders^ 
It was he who, in 1388, at the battle of Otterbum, took pri- 
soner the valiant Percy, sumamed " Hotspur," with his own 
hand, afler he had killed the Earl of Douglas, and mortally 
wounded the Earl of Moray. For the ransom of this cele- 
brated warrior he exacted the building of the castle of Punn- 
vow, in the lordship of Eggleston. 

Another member of this family having married the daugh- 
ter «%nd heir of Sir Hui][h Eglintoun, by Giles, daughter of 



• ^ EARL OF EGLINTOUN. 401 

Walter, Lord Steward of Scotland, and sister to King Ro- 
bert II., the baronies of Eglintoun and Androssan were thus 
brought into the family as her portion. From this alliance 
proceeded Hugh, who was created Earl of Eglintoun by Queen 
Mary ; and one of his immediate descendants, who bore the 
same name * and title, was shot a few years since by Duncan 
Campbell, an exciseman, in consequence of a rash, illegal, 
Euid arbitrary act, against a man who stood on his defence, and 
would not be disarmed. 

Hugh Earl of Montgomery, of whom we are now to treat, 
was born about the year 1 748. On the demise of Archibald, 
the eleventh Earl, in 1796, he succeeded to all his titles, and 
most of the family estates. Before this period, he was known 
3lily as Mr. Montgc^aiery of Coylesfield; and he afterwards 
inherited the honours, &c., in consequence of his descent from 
the Hon. Colonel James Montgomery, fourth son of Alex- 
inder, sixth Earl of Eglintoun. 

Long before the title had devolved on bim, he married 
bis cousin Eleanora Hamilton, by M'hom he had Lord Mont- 
jomery, who became a Major-General in the army. 

In 1806, His Lordship was created a peer of the united 
ungdom, by the style and title of Baron Androssan. He ap- 
3ears to have been a friend to the claims of the Catholics, 
saving voted for going into a committee to consider of the 
uune. 

The Earl died at Eglintoun Castle, in Scotland, in the 
nonth of June, 1817) when he had attained about 70 years of 
ige."" His grandson, by an intermarriage between the late Lord 
Montgomery and Mary, daughter of Archibald, the eleventh 

irl, by his Countess, (formerly Miss Twisden,) succeeds to 
lis titles and estates* 

• Hugh y ihe tenth Earl. 



VOL. If. D I) 



( 402 ) 



No. LIX. 
R. a HOG AN, Esq., D-CL- 

LATE CHIBF JUSTICK OF THB COLONY OF SIERRA LEONE. 

jV1.r« Hogan was bom in the north of Ireland, in 1774, and 
not only received a liberal education, but obtwied the highest 
honours that an university can bestow. His fiumily had been 
long settled at Rathcormick in the county of Cork, and while 
his brother chose the profession of arms, he addicted himself to 
the more profitable career of the law. 

His character, conduct, and excellent talents soon obtained 
notice ; and if we are not greatly mistaken, he filled an inferior 
station in the colony of Sierra Leone, before he presided as 
Chief Justice. 

To Jdiai post, at the especial request of those who wish to 
vindicate^ not only England, but human nature itself, firom the 
indelible reproach annexed to the slave trade, was annexed an 
office of a very different kind ; but entirely compatible with the 
former. This was the Judge of the Vice- Admiralty court, in 
which capacity he was to decide^ in the first instance, as to the 
capture of vessels engaged in that nefarious traffic. 

No one better fitted for such a station could have been chosen 
at the pres^it mcxnent, for he was scrupulously and conscien- 
tiously hostile to the enormities accompluiying slavery of all 
kinds and degrees. 

On this occasion, he succeeded Robert Thorpe^ Esq. LL. D. 
in both situations, and notwithstanding the quarrd of the latter 
gentleman with the Afiican Institution*, there can be no doubt 
but that his decisions, during the time he presided in the 

* See a Ittter to W. WUbcfforet,^'£M|., 8vo. 1815> with the leplj and njoioder. 



MR. HOG AN. 403 

Vice- Admiralty Court, were highly friendly to the j^es^ inte- 
rests of humanity. ^ . . . 

While Mr. Hogan was fulfilling the duties of bb station with 
exemplary zeal, fortitude, and integrity ;. he was suddenly cut 
off by the diseases incident to a pestilential climate,, in the 
forty-second year of his age, after he had exercised his fupp? 
ttons but a few short months. 



No. LX. 

The Right Hon. 
JOHN PRENDERGAST, Viscount GOBT, 

OF THE KINODOM OF IRELAND ; RARON KILTARTON ; A GOVBRNOR 
OF THE COUNTY ; CHAMBERLAIN FOR THE CITT OF LIMERICK ; 
AND COLONEL OF THE MILITIA. 

"VINCIT VERITAS." MoL 

X HE Smyths are supposed to have settled in Ireland during 
the reign of Charles I., a period at which a number of respect-^ 
able English families were induced to repair thither, for the 
purpose of effecting a permanent establishment, both for them- 
selves and their posterity. They afterwards enriched their 
descendants, or at least, greatly added to their original fortunes 
by means of church leases. * 

Mr. Smyth was bom in 1741. In consequence of his pro- 
perty in the immediate vicinity, he possessed Influence suffir 
cient to represent the city of Limerick in Parliament, of 
which one of his ancestors had been bishop in 1695, and he 

* William Smyih was consecrated Bishop of Killala in 1681^ and died Bithop 
of Kilmore in 1699* Thomas another branch of this same fiimily, was Bishop of Lime- 
rick ; Edward was Bbhop of LX>wn> and Arthur, Archbishop of Dublin and Primate 
of Ireland. 

D D 2 



40* LORD VISCOUNT GORT. 

also became Chamberlain to the corporation. His * nephew 
and successor, at the same time, was nominated Colonel of the 
militid, raised there in 1797, at the head of which he distin- 
guished himself greatly during the unhappy disturbances after- 
wards prevalent in that country ; and finally became M. P. 
rdso for the same place. 

In 1810, Mr. John Prendergast Smyth was created Baron 
Kiltarton ; and during the regency was advanced to the dignhy 
of Viscount Gort. ^He possessed Lough-Cooter castle, and a 
considerable estate adjoining in Galway, but he died at Gort in 
the same county. May 22, 1817, in the seventy-sixth year of 
his age. 

In consequence of this event, his titles and estates devolve on 
the Right Honourable Charles Vereker, to whom they were 
granted in remainder. 

* Colonel Charles Vereker first sat in the Irish Honse of Commona in 1790» and 
hecame a Lord of the Treamiry, and then a Priry Cbomellor. In 1798^ he aslnbited 
great skill and bravery in an attack on the French troops, who had been joined by the 
insurgents; and the motto of *' Coloony** has been added to hif triDt by way of com* 
meipomting both the place and the exploit. 



PART II. 



H 



NEGLECTED BIOGRAPHY ; 



WITH 



ORIGINAL LETTERS, PAPERS, Sk. 



No. I. 

Sir JAMES MACDONALD, Bart. 

OF SLATE IN THE ISLE OF SKT9 
. COMMONLY CALLED ** TflK SCOTTISH MARCSLLUS." 

1 HE Maodonalds of Slate, one of whom has been ennobled in; 
the person of the late Lord Macdonald *, in consequence of a 
patent from his present Majesty, creating him an Irish Baron, 
are allowed to be a very ancient, and at one period, were a very 
powerful family. Douglas, and Walter Scott, have both given 
authentic testimony to this fact ; audit appears from them, that 
there existed many feuds, equally sanguinary and ridiculous, 

* Tlut was Sir Alexander Macdonald, who obtained a patent as a peer of Ireland, 
by the title of Lord Macdonald of Slate, Jnlj i7, 177<S; and died September la, 
1795. He was the second son of Sir James Macdonald of Ofonsay, tbe sixth btronct 
of this house; and succeeded to the title on the denaise of his eldest brother, the iiluS' 
trioui Sir Jsmes, who is the subject of this brief memoir. 

The Right Honourable Sir Archibald Macdonald, Bart. ; the third son, was a postp 
humous chUd, not being born until 1747* He is still alive, and after filling th« high 
offices of Solicitor, and Attorney- General, was appointed Lord Chief Barou of' the £^. 
chequer in 1793._ He has Uiely retired firom the bench. 

D D 3 



406 SIR JAMES MACDONALD, BART. 

about the delicate point of precedency^ amcmg the different 
branches of this warlike race. As usual, however, the weight 
of property finally preponderated, and the " lairds of Slate," 
having the largest share of territory, it of course followed, 
that they alone, in process of time, began to be considered as 
the legitimate chieftains. 

If we are to credit tradition, they are of Norwegian, not of 
Caledonian race^ being descended from Somerland Thane of 
ArgyUy who is* s^d to have acquired the Western Islands, 
by his marriage with Elirica, or Rachel, daughter of Olaus, 
the swarthy, king of Man. Certain it is, that this Toparch, 
bt roitelet, who afterwards assumed the pompous denomin- 
atioti of king of the Isles, invaded Scotland about the year 
1164; but being slain in the attempt, and bis descendants 
J>roving utterly incapable of even supporting their own inde- 
pendence, they were at last obliged to acknowledge themselves 
subjects to the monarch who then swayed the Scottish sceptre. 

It appears, that Angus, who modestly termed himself, only 
" Lord of the Isl^," afforded an hospitable asylum in his 
castle of Dunaverty, to the gallant Robert Bruce^ during kis 
adversity. A disputed succession having afterwards ensued, in 
consequence of attaint for treason, James V. refiised to grant 
possession to the head 6f isnch- a AameroQS^ warlike, and 
.<^ troublesome" clan; but Donald Gorme Macdonald, was 
reinstated by Queen Mary, in the landu of Slate; and one of 
h\t successors was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, by 
^Charles; I. This' circumstance doubtless contributed to attach 
thei fkmiiy t6 the 'FO^- cause; and it accordingly took part 
against the Eftgiish^ parliament. 

Sir Donald, the fourth baronet, having unadvisedly engaged 
in the rebellion of 1715, was attainted; but Sir Alexander 
Macdonald of Slate, refusing to join the grandson of James IL, 
in 1745, in consequence of the influence, and intervention of 
the Lord President Forbes, was thus prevented from sharing 
in the ruin, that attached to the devoted followers of the House 
of Stuart. It is of his immediate descendant we now propose 
*^ treat. 



SIR JAMES MACDONALD, BART. 407 

Sir James, the eldest son of Sir Alexander Macdonald, just 
^i mentioned, by Lady Margaret Montgomery, was bom in 
1741. From his infancy, he discovered a portion of genius 
and abilities, scarcely ever evinced before at the same early 
period of life. Like Marcellus, he was only produced, how- 
ever, for a moment to the eye of admiration ; and like Crich- 
ton, unhappily but few authentic traces are left of his progress 
and improvement. * 

After receiving the rudiments of education at home, ht 
exhibited an earnest desire to repair to England, for the pur- 
pose of completing his studies. 

The father of Sir James having died in 1 746, his mother, 

I Lady Margaret Macdonald, at length complied with his most 

i, earnest solicitations, and he was accordingly sent to Eton. So 

^ rapid had been his progress, and so precocious was his genius, 

that Dr. Barnard, in a very short time, actually placed him at 

the head of his class, f His ccmduct too, proved so exemplary, 

* '* He was/' Mys Mrt. Elizabeth Carter, <' one of tlie noat extraordinary yoang 
men I c%'er knew. He studied very hard, was a scholar and a mathemttician ; and yet 
at twenty I have heard him talk with a knowledge of the world, which one would not 
have expected to hear, hut from the experience of age. 

'< He had t^eat and nohle themes for the civilisation and improvement of his own 
country ; and appeared upon the whole to be one of those superior spirits whidi seemed 
formed to show how hr the powers of humanity can extend." See Pennmgton't Lift qf 
Mrs. Carter, vol. ii. p. 168. 

-f " I recollect one striking instance of the acuteness and spirit of Dr. Barnard. 
VSThen the late Sir James Macdonald arrived at Eton, he had no connexions to recom- 
mend him ; and he could not make a verse, that Sa, he wanted a point indispensible with 
us, to a certain rank in our system. But this wonderftd boy, having satisfied the maater 
that he was an admirable scholar and posaessed of genius, was at once placed at th« 
bead of a remove, or form ; and Barnard said, ' Boys, I am going to put over your 
heads a boy who cannot write a verse, and I do not care whether he ever will be a |K>et 
or no ; but I will trust him in your bands ; for I know my boys, and how generoiu they 
are to merit !* 

** Here by the way, to vindicate the singularity, it was not only in general sanctwoed 
by our implicit assent, but it was tenninated by a singular feature in tl*e character of this 
boy, himself. He scquired the niles of Larm verse ; tried his pnwers ; and perceiving 
that he could not rise above his rivals in Virgil, Ovid, or the Lyrics of Horace, he took 
lip the sermoni ftropriarm and there overshadowed all his competitors. To give you a fiuot 
conception of his powers in Uiat line, much above those of a boy, I will quote a pas- 
sage whieh dcacribcs the hammer of an auciionccr, with a mock sublimity which turns 
Horace into Virgil t 

D D 4 



408 SIR JAMES MACDONALD, BART. 

at the same time, that he is said never to have been^onoe 
punished, or even reprehended. A pane of glass belongmg to 
the window of one of the inhabitants, happening to be broken, 
when he was present, all the boys then on the spot were 
doomed to suffer ; but Mr. Combe, a writer of some celebrity, 
who is still alive, although absent and cbnsequently excluded 
from the proscription^ generously stepped forward and tode the 
guilt as well as the infliction, upon himself. 

Of his early proficiency the following is a specimen of what 
he was enabled to achieve, when only in the seventeenth year 
of his age. 

Ad Fredericum Secundum Prussia Regem, 

(a. D. 1758.) 



« 



Ergo insolenti sanguine nobilem 
Vindex subactis abdidit hostibus, 
Lssceque libertatis ultor 
Deposuit Fredericus ensem. 
At non inerti Principis otic 
Languescit ardor ; mox vebementior 
Erumpet, adversasque turmas 
Austriadum graviore casu 
Contundet Heros. Sic ubi murmura 
Cessant parumper, qu^ gemit horrid um 
^tniea rupcs, aut Vesevi 
Culmina flammivomi colonos 
Vicina terrent ; jam violentior 
Motus refectis viribus ingruit, 
Et pestis improvisa lat^ 

Depositum ingeminat furorem. 



•^m 



" Jam Jamque crnHif ceUri^ue recurm, 

ErigUvr UipsuMf retrahent, perpu^ acra nuUiL*' 

wu e?cr thiog any more pictUKiqne ? 

«• Ihis pfoiiigy, tlie young Marcelbu of his day, at the Unirfrtity and abn«l, 
the world aiauranet of pre-enincnt gifw and poirera when death took him ham m.*^ 

Lit. Airic. Vol. VOL 



SIR JAMES MACDONALD, BAUT/ 409 

Tu doctus' audis, nee tibi simplicem 
Nectit coronam Pallas; at impue 
Per bella quam sensere turraae, 
Et calami decuere dextram* 
Pubes quid acris, te duce, gesserity ' 
Quid ipse victor, tu spolia inclyta 
Digne, triumphatumque Galium, et 
Saxonidis data jura dices. 
Nee te moretur Pieridum cohors. 
Ad arma Mavors si vocet integrum ; 
I, Victor ingens, i, triumphis 

Perge novis decorare fastos." " 

Here follows a sample of what he accomplished at a little 
later period of his life : 

Virga Aurea, 
(a. D. 1765.) 



it 



Apta neci, vitaeque potens, somnique ministra 

Dicitur aligeri virga fuisse Dei : 
Nee mal^ (majestas ne desit regia) versu 

Sceptrigerum pinxit quisqiie poeta Jovem. 
Terrigenas sceptro victor fudisse Gigantas 

Fertur, et in Sieulis intumulasse jugis. 
A Jove nutriti gestant Jovis arma; tyrannis 

Imponunt facilem regia sceptra notam. 
^nean mirae fretum tutamine virgae 

Duxit ad Elysias casta Sibylla domes : 
Visa fronde Charon cymbam venientibus ofFerti 

Et fera tergemini concidit ira canis. 
Ferre pedum gestit pastor, quo claudit ovile, 

Gramineoque vagas monte coercet eves. 
Fulcit utrumque latus, teretique innixa bacillo 

Invalidum firmat tarda seneeta gradus. 
Utiliter baculum mutilates sustinet artus, 

Ne eareat facili debilis Irus ope. 
Fid